Low Body Mass (low + body_mass)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Low Body Mass

  • low body mass index

  • Selected Abstracts

    Low body mass not vitamin D receptor polymorphisms predict osteoporosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    C. L. NOBLE
    Summary Background, Osteoporosis is a recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim, To investigate the role of environmental factors and vitamin D receptor (VDR) variants on the prevalence of osteoporosis. Methods, DEXA scans and case note review were performed on 440 IBD patients from 1997 to 2006. All the IBD patients and 240 healthy controls were genotyped for VDR variants Taq -1 and Apa -1 using PCR-RFLP. Results, Osteoporosis and osteopenia rates were 15% and 18% for IBD, 16% and 18% for Crohn's disease (CD) and 13% and 19% for ulcerative colitis, respectively. On univariate analysis of the CD patients, low body mass index (BMI, <18.5) and smoking status (P = 0.008 and 0.005 respectively) were associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Low BMI was also associated with osteoporosis on multivariate analysis in CD (P = 0.021, OR 5.83, CI 1.31,25.94). No difference was observed between Taq -1 and Apa -1 VDR polymorphisms in IBD, CD, ulcerative colitis and healthy controls. However, CD males were more likely to carry the variant Taq -1 polymorphism than healthy controls males (P = 0.0018, OR 1.94, CI 1.28,2.92) and female CD patients (P = 0.0061, OR 1.60, CI 1.17,2.44). Conclusions, In this well-phenotyped cohort of IBD patients, a relatively low prevalence of osteoporosis was observed. Low BMI was the only independent risk factor identified to be associated with osteoporosis. [source]

    Restoration of body mass in King Penguins after egg abandonment at a critical energy depletion stage: early vs late breeders

    Jean-Patrice Robin
    In fasting-incubating seabirds, it has been proposed that egg abandonment and refeeding should be induced when a low body mass (BM) threshold is attained, thus ensuring adult survival at the expense of immediate breeding. In the context of life-history trade-offs in long-lived birds, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing short-term survival and restoration of BM in King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus that abandoned their egg to those that were relieved normally by their mate at the end of the first incubation shift. Since King Penguins have an extended laying period, the possible influence of seasonal factors was also examined by comparing early and late breeders. Forty incubating males were experimentally forced to fast until egg abandonment by preventing relief by the female. At egg abandonment of both early and late breeding males, BM was below the BM threshold, fasting duration was eight days (about 30%) longer than for relieved birds, and plasma uric acid level was elevated (signature of increased body protein catabolism, phase III of fasting). All abandoning birds survived and came back from sea at a BM similar to that of relieved penguins. The duration of the foraging trip of abandoning early breeders was the same as that of relieved birds, and some abandoning birds engaged in a new breeding attempt. Abandoning late breeders, however, made foraging trips twice as long as those of relieved males. This difference can be explained by time constraints rather than nutritional constraints, abandoning early breeders having enough time left in the breeding season to engage in a new breeding attempt in contrast to abandoning late breeders. These observations lend support to the suggestion that not only BM but also an internal clock intervene in the decision to engage in breeding or not. By preventing a lethal energy depletion ashore and by acting at a fasting stage where the capacity to restore BM at sea is unaffected, abandonment at a low body condition threshold plays a major role in the trade-off between adult penguin survival and reproduction. [source]

    Risk Factors for Vertebral Deformities in Men: Relationship to Number of Vertebral Deformities

    A. A. Ismail
    Abstract Recent epidemiological studies suggest a similar overall prevalence of vertebral deformity in men to that in women, though the influence of increasing age on the prevalence of vertebral deformity is less marked in men. However, most affected men have only a single or two vertebral deformities, which may be unrelated to osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to examine the role of risk factors, previously demonstrated to be associated with vertebral osteoporosis in females, in men with single/dual deformities compared to those with multiple deformities. Age stratified random samples of men aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 30 European centers as part of the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS). Subjects had a lateral spinal radiograph and the presence of vertebral deformity was determined using the McCloskey algorithm. Lifestyle and other risk factor data were obtained from an interviewer-administered questionnaire. In all 6937 men with a mean age of 64.4 (SD = 8.5) years were studied of whom 738 (10.6%) subjects had one or two deformities, and 109 (1.6%) subjects had three or more deformities. There was a marked increase in the prevalence of multiple vertebral deformities with increasing age, but only a modest effect of age on the prevalence of single deformities. Associations between various risk factors for osteoporosis and vertebral deformity were analyzed separately in men with single/dual vertebral deformity from those with three or more deformities using logistic regression. After adjustment for age, there were statistically significant associations between the following risk factors and multiple deformities: previous hip fracture (odds ratio [OR] 10.5), lack of regular physical activity (OR 2.9), low body mass (OR 2.5), and previous steroid use (OR 2.3). By contrast, there were only weak associations with these same variables in males with single/dual deformities and, apart from poor self-reported general health, all of the 95% confidence intervals spanned unity. There was no difference in the reporting of very heavy levels of physical activity under the age of 50 years between men with single/dual deformities and those with multiple deformities. In conclusion, men with multiple deformities showed a similar pattern of risk factor association to those seen in women with vertebral deformity, in contrast to men with single/dual deformities. (J Bone Miner Res 2000;15:278,283) [source]

    Multiple pathways of maternal effects in black-headed gull eggs: constraint and adaptive compensatory adjustment

    Abstract We investigated in the black-headed gull whether female deposition of antioxidants and immunoglobulins (enhancing early immune function), and testosterone (suppressing immune function and increasing early competitive skills) correlate suggesting that evolution has favoured the mutual adjustment of different pathways for maternal effects. We also took egg mass, the position of the egg in the laying sequence and offspring sex into account, as these affect offspring survival. Yolk antioxidant and immunoglobulin concentrations decreased across the laying order, while yolk testosterone concentrations increased. This may substantially handicap the immune defence of last-hatched chicks. The decrease in antioxidant levels was greater when mothers had a low body mass and when the increase in testosterone concentrations was relatively large. This suggests that female black-headed gulls are constrained in the deposition of antioxidants in last-laid eggs and compensate for this by enhanced testosterone deposition. The latter may be adaptive since it re-allocates the chick's investment from costly immune function to growth and competitive skills, necessary to overcome the consequences of hatching late from an egg of reduced quality. [source]

    The digestive tract and life history of small mammals

    MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2002
    ABSTRACT The type of food, differentiation of the large intestine and stomach, and methane production, as well as life history data, are considered in Insectivora, Rodentia and Lagomorpha. When food containing plant cell wall material is eaten, there is either a differentiation of the stomach or the large intestine. In animals with low body mass and little differentiation of the gastrointestinal tract, methane production is low, but structures essential for microbial digestion of plant cell wall material, such as haustration of the colon or formation of a caecum, can be found in many methane-producers. Animals with a body mass < 500 g and a weaning time < 20 days are non-producers of methane. Establishment of a balanced microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract requires some time. Many non-producers of methane wean their young in < 10 days, but many producers need > 50 days for the weaning process. Caviomorpha, Thryonomyidae and Hystricidae seem to have ,opened the door' to the use of low quality food by microbial fermentation, but some of them have to ,pay' for this extension of the food range by an extended weaning period, which also means an extended dependency on the mother. [source]

    Hypothermia During Head and Neck Surgery,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 8 2003
    Nishant Agrawal MD
    Abstract Objective To determine the predictors and incidence of hypothermia in patients undergoing head and neck surgery. Study Design Retrospective analysis. Methods Patients were either not warmed (n = 43) or actively warmed with forced-air warming (n = 25). Clinical variables that were assessed as predictors of core body temperature included age, body mass, duration of procedure, estimated blood loss, amount of intravenous fluids administered, and the use of forced-air warming. The incidence of severe intraoperative hypothermia and potential hypothermia-related complications was also examined. Results The study demonstrated that advanced age is a risk factor for hypothermia and decreased body mass is associated with lower final body temperatures in the groups of patients that was not warmed. After adjusting for differences in the ages and weights between the two groups, the mean core body temperature was found to be 0.4C lower in the patients who were not warmed. Severe intraoperative hypothermia occurred in 5 of 38 patients (11.6%) who were not warmed and 2 of 23 patients (8.0%) who were warmed. The complications associated with hypothermia included delayed time to extubation, the development of neck seromas, and flap dehiscence. Conclusions Patients undergoing head and neck surgery are at risk for the development of intraoperative hypothermia and require careful temperature monitoring. Elderly patients and patients with low body mass are more prone to develop low intraoperative core body temperatures. Active warming with forced-air warmers should be considered for patients at risk for intraoperative hypothermia and for patients who develop hypothermia intraoperatively, to avoid hypothermia-related complications. [source]