Limited Understanding (limited + understanding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Limited Understanding

  • only limited understanding

  • Selected Abstracts

    The achievability of sustainable reporting practices in agriculture

    Belinda R. Williams
    Abstract This research investigates the process of change in moving from a domestic accounting standard, AASB 1037, relating to self-generating and regenerating assets (SGARAs) to an international standard, AASB 141. It focuses on the achievement (or nonachievement as it may be) of sustainable reporting practices for these agricultural assets. This paper finds that the transition to AASB 141 has allowed firms the discretion to change how they value their agricultural assets in comparison to the domestic standard. Consistency may have been achieved to a limited extent with the introduction of this financial accounting standard but comparability appears not to have been. Further, there is very limited understanding of the reporting of these assets from a user's perspective. It is concluded that this lack of consistency, comparability and understandability will not help achieve sustainability in the reporting practices of agricultural assets. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Kinesin-5 is not essential for mitotic spindle elongation in Dictyostelium

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 11 2008
    Irina Tikhonenko
    Abstract The proper assembly and operation of the mitotic spindle is essential to ensure the accurate segregation of chromosomes and to position the cytokinetic furrow during cell division in eukaryotes. Not only are dynamic microtubules required but also the concerted actions of multiple motor proteins are necessary to effect spindle pole separation, chromosome alignment, chromatid segregation, and spindle elongation. Although a number of motor proteins are known to play a role in mitosis, there remains a limited understanding of their full range of functions and the details by which they interact with other spindle components. The kinesin-5 (BimC/Eg5) family of motors is largely considered essential to drive spindle pole separation during the initial and latter stages of mitosis. We have deleted the gene encoding the kinesin-5 member in Dictyostelium, (kif13), and find that, in sharp contrast with results found in vertebrate, fly, and yeast organisms, kif13, cells continue to grow at rates indistinguishable from wild type. Phenotype analysis reveals a slight increase in spindle elongation rates in the absence of Kif13. More importantly, there is a dramatic, premature separation of spindle halves in kif13, cells, suggesting a novel role of this motor in maintaining spindle integrity at the terminal stages of division. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Type 2 diabetes in families and diabetes prevention

    FRCP Professor of Diabetic Molecular Medicine, M Walker MD
    Abstract Type 2 diabetes frequently clusters in families. Non-diabetic first-degree relatives (offspring and siblings) of patients with type 2 diabetes have a three-fold increased lifetime risk of developing diabetes compared with the background population. This increased diabetes risk results from the combined effects of shared genetic and lifestyle factors. Extensive studies of non-diabetic relatives of type 2 diabetic families show that impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance and an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile exist well before the development of frank diabetes. Despite this well-documented adverse metabolic predisposition, patients with type 2 diabetes and their non-diabetic relatives generally have a limited understanding of the risks. Several large-scale studies, such as the Finnish Diabetes Prevention and Diabetes Prevention Program studies, indicate unequivocally that lifestyle modification through dietary change and exercise can dramatically decrease risk of progression to diabetes in high-risk subjects. However, such individuals pursue lifestyle changes only if they understand their own risk of developing diabetes. Further work is therefore needed to investigate and develop optimal ways of improving knowledge of diabetes risk in families of patients with type 2 diabetes, so that they can appreciate the potential benefits of diabetes prevention strategies. Copyright 2008 FEND [source]

    Potential clinical relevance of the ,little brain' on the mammalian heart

    J. A. Armour
    It is hypothetized that the heart possesses a nervous system intrinsic to it that represents the final relay station for the co-ordination of regional cardiac indices. This ,little brain' on the heart is comprised of spatially distributed sensory (afferent), interconnecting (local circuit) and motor (adrenergic and cholinergic efferent) neurones that communicate with others in intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia, all under the tonic influence of central neuronal command and circulating catecholamines. Neurones residing from the level of the heart to the insular cortex form temporally dependent reflexes that control overlapping, spatially determined cardiac indices. The emergent properties that most of its components display depend primarily on sensory transduction of the cardiovascular milieu. It is further hypothesized that the stochastic nature of such neuronal interactions represents a stabilizing feature that matches cardiac output to normal corporal blood flow demands. Thus, with regard to cardiac disease states, one must consider not only cardiac myocyte dysfunction but also the fact that components within this neuroaxis may interact abnormally to alter myocyte function. This review emphasizes the stochastic behaviour displayed by most peripheral cardiac neurones, which appears to be a consequence of their predominant cardiac chemosensory inputs, as well as their complex functional interconnectivity. Despite our limited understanding of the whole, current data indicate that the emergent properties displayed by most neurones comprising the cardiac neuroaxis will have to be taken into consideration when contemplating the targeting of its individual components if predictable, long-term therapeutic benefits are to accrue. [source]

    Habitat selection as a source of inter-specific differences in recruitment of two diadromous fish species

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 11 2008
    Summary 1For aquatic species with highly dispersive offspring, the addition of new individuals into an area (recruitment) is a key process in determining local population size so understanding the causes of recruitment variability is critical. While three general causative mechanisms have been identified (the supply of individuals, habitat selection and mortality), we have a limited understanding of how variation in each is generated, and the consequences this may have for the spatial and temporal distribution of recruits. 2We examined whether active habitat selection during settlement could be the cause of variability in populations of two diadromous fish species using a field survey and laboratory-based choice experiments. If larval behaviour is important, we predicted there would be inter-specific differences in abundance between sites during the survey, and that larvae would prefer water collected from sites with higher conspecific abundances during the experiments. 3During the field survey, significant differences were detected between two rivers (the Cumberland and Grey), with one species (Galaxias maculatus) found in higher abundances at one site (the Cumberland River) while comparable numbers of a closely related species (Galaxias brevipinnis) were caught at both sites. Laboratory choice experiments were conducted to determine whether larval preferences during settlement could be the cause of these differences. G. maculatus larvae showed a preference for freshwater over saltwater, indicating that the fish may be responding to reduced salinities around river mouths during settlement. The results of a second experiment were consistent with the notion that larval preferences could be the mechanism driving differences in the populations of the two rivers, with G. maculatus preferring water collected from the Cumberland River while G. brevipinnis did not prefer water from either river. 4These results demonstrate that active habitat selection may be important in establishing spatial patterns of larvae at settlement, and that multiple cues are likely to be involved. This study also demonstrates that the behaviours exhibited by individuals can strongly influence the structure and dynamics of populations of aquatic species with complex life cycles. [source]

    Interpreting the Viking Age to Medieval period transition in Norse Orkney through cultural soil and sediment analyses

    Ian A. Simpson
    The transition from the Viking Age (ca. A.D. 800,1050) to the Medieval period (ca. A.D. 1050,1500) saw the development of widening trade activities that incorporated peripheral North Atlantic polities into mainstream Europe and contributed to the intensification of marineresource exploitation and agricultural production in these localities. As yet, there is only limited understanding of these intensification processes and their interrelationships, particularly at a local, site-based level. Through the micromorphological analysis of cultural soils and sediments at Quoygrew, Westray, Orkney, we explore the characteristics of farming and fishing activity during the Viking Age,Medieval transition period and establish their chronological relationships. The study demonstrates: (1) that intensification took place from ca. A.D. 966,1162 on an already existing Viking Age settlement, (2) that intensification of fishing activity occurred prior to the intensification of arable agriculture, and (3) that the Quoygrew site continued throughout this period as an economically diverse permanent settlement. When viewed in a wider North Atlantic context, these findings indicate that intensification of different economic activities proceeded at different rates and that intensification of specialized economic activities during the transition from the Viking Age to the Medieval period was dependent on existing knowledge of local environments. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Regional Planning in Queensland's Rangelands: Challenges and Prospects for Biodiversity Conservation

    Abstract In Australia, the Commonwealth and State governments are increasingly devolving natural resource management (NRM) responsibilities to regional bodies. This move has led to the development of regional NRM plans. Native vegetation and biodiversity conservation, along with soil, pasture and water resources, are key components of the regional NRM plans in Queensland's extensive rangelands. This paper outlines and applies a set of criteria for evaluating the native vegetation and biodiversity content of accredited regional NRM plans for Queensland's rangelands. The evaluation showed considerable variation in the comprehensiveness of the information and knowledge base and management action targets among plans, including the poor articulation of impacts of excessive grazing pressure on biodiversity. The NRM plans lacked effective integration of natural resource, native vegetation and biodiversity conservation targets and actions. Several regions had too many biodiversity targets, many of which were poorly integrated. This is symptomatic of a limited understanding of rangelands as ecological systems and the lack of an integrated planning framework. We conclude regional NRM planning is not a ,silver bullet' for biodiversity conservation in the rangelands, but rather, it is the beginning of a long road to address complex, multi-scale problems at a regional level. [source]


    ABSTRACT. A deficiency common to both the historical debates over loss of agricultural land and the current discussions of urbanization and sprawl is a limited understanding of land-use dynamics beyond the urban fringe. Data aggregated at the county level poorly capture the fine-grained pattern of land-use change beyond the dynamic urban-rural interface. Furthermore, current urban-based definitions are poorly suited to delineate these areas, and low-density, exurban land use is difficult to measure using existing land-cover databases. Urbanization and the conversion of once-agricultural or other natural resource lands to other uses has traditionally been tracked using urban areas, as delimited in the U.S. census. Urban densities are typically defined as areas with more than 1,000 people per square mile, or 1.6 people per acre (U.S. Census Bureau 2000). Assuming an average of 2.5 people per housing unit, this translates to roughly 0.7 units per acre, or approximately 1 unit per 1.6 acres. The analytical units used in the census, however, both overbound and underbound areas with urban densities. About one-third of urban areas in 1990 comprised lower-than-urban housing density, thanks to overbounding. But, then, one-third of locations that had urban-level housing densities failed to be included in urban areas as a result of underbounding, which, if counted, would have constituted another 18 million acres of urban area. An increase over time of the average number of acres required per housing unit in exurban and higher-density locations occurred in roughly one-third of U.S. counties from 1960 to 1990 and persisted from 1990 to 2000. In 2000 roughly 38 million acres were settled at urban densities, and nearly ten times that much land was settled at rates from low, exurban density (as low as one house per 40 acres) to higher rates (up to one per 10 acres). This represents a continuing encroachment on land previously given over to other uses,habitat or agriculture. Practitioners of natural resource management need to recognize the ubiquity of exurban development and better incorporate the fine-scale patterns of land use beyond the urban fringe. [source]

    Shift in birch leaf metabolome and carbon allocation during long-term open-field ozone exposure

    Abstract Current and future ozone concentrations have the potential to reduce plant growth and increase carbon demand for defence and repair processes, which may result in reduced carbon sink strength of forest trees in long-term. Still, there is limited understanding regarding the alterations in plant metabolism and variation in ozone tolerance among tree species and genotypes. Therefore, this paper aims to study changes in birch leaf metabolome due to long-term realistic ozone stress and to relate these shifts in the metabolism with growth responses. Two European white birch (Betula pendula Roth) genotypes showing different ozone sensitivity were growing under 1.4,1.7 ambient ozone in open-field conditions in Central Finland. After seven growing seasons, the trees were analysed for changes in leaf metabolite profiling, based on 339 low molecular weight compounds (including phenolics, polar and lipophilic compounds, and pigments) and related whole-tree growth responses. Genotype caused most of the variance of metabolite concentrations, while ozone concentration was the second principal component explaining the metabolome profiling. The main ozone caused changes included increases in quercetin-phenolic compounds and compounds related to leaf cuticular wax layer, whereas several compounds related to carbohydrate metabolism and function of chloroplast membranes and pigments (such as chlorophyll-related phytol derivatives) were decreasing. Some candidate compounds such as surface wax-related squalene, 1-dotriacontanol, and dotriacontane, providing growth-related tolerance against ozone were demonstrated. This study indicated that current growth-based ozone risk assessment methods are inadequate, because they ignore ecophysiological impacts due to alterations in leaf chemistry. [source]

    How States Augment the Capabilities of Technology,Pioneering Firms

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 2 2002
    Maryann P. Feldman
    State governments offer a variety of programs to assist technology intensive entrepreneurial firms yet there is a limited understanding of how firms use these programs. This paper provides a framework for categorizing state technology programs and uses detailed case studies to examine how these programs augment firms' capabilities. It is concluded that firms made extensive use of state programs that provide access to university intellectual property and research facilities. In addition, firms participated in programs that provided incentives for faculty to conduct joint research with industry. Finally, state venture capital programs, though small relative to federal R&D grants or venture capital, appear to nurture firms' development. [source]

    Costs and determinants of privately financed home-based health care in Ontario, Canada

    Denise N. Guerriere PhD
    Abstract The Canadian context in which home-based healthcare services are delivered is characterised by limited resources and escalating healthcare costs. As a result, a financing shift has occurred, whereby care recipients receive a mixture of publicly and privately financed home-based services. Although ensuring that care recipients receive efficient and equitable care is crucial, a limited understanding of the economic outcomes and determinants of privately financed services exists. The purposes of this study were (i) to determine costs incurred by families and the healthcare system; (ii) to assess the determinants of privately financed home-based care; and (iii) to identify whether public and private expenditures are complements or substitutes. Two hundred and fifty-eight short-term clients (< 90 days of service utilisation) and 256 continuing care clients (> 90 days of utilisation) were recruited from six regions across the province of Ontario, Canada, from November 2003 to August 2004. Participants were interviewed by telephone once a week for 4 weeks and asked to provide information about time and monetary costs of care, activities of daily living (ADL), and chronic conditions. The mean total cost of care for a 4-week period was $7670.67 (in 2004 Canadian dollars), with the overwhelming majority of these costs (75%) associated with private expenditures. Higher age, ADL impairment, being female, and a having four or more chronic conditions predicted higher private expenditures. While private and public expenditures were complementary, private expenditures were somewhat inelastic to changes in public expenditures. A 10% increase in public expenditures was associated with a 6% increase in private expenditures. A greater appreciation of the financing of home-based care is necessary for practitioners, health managers and policy decision-makers to ensure that critical issues such as inequalities in access to care and financial burden on care recipients and families are addressed. [source]

    A taxonomy of political processes in systems development

    Rajiv Sabherwal
    Abstract Significant resources invested in information system development (ISD) are wasted due to political manoeuvres. Prior research on ISD politics has contributed mainly through theoretical development and case studies. This has enhanced understanding of relevant concepts, political tactics and conditions facilitating politics. However, there is limited understanding of the different processes through which politics unfold. This paper uses 89 ISD projects to develop a taxonomy of political processes in ISD. The taxonomy includes three distinct processes: Tug of War, wherein multiple parties strive to gain project control; Obstacle Race, which involves efforts to resist and pursue the project; and Empire Building, wherein the project is used as an instrument to enhance political or resource bases. The taxonomy is explained using the non-proponents' view of the project and the balance of power between system's proponents and non-proponents. We also discuss the emergent taxonomy's implications for how politics can be managed and studied. [source]

    Coaching patients to self-care: a primary responsibility of nursing

    Julie Pryor BA
    Aim., To explore the process nurses use to guide and support patients to actively re-establish self-care. Background., The movement of hospitalized patients from less to more independence is primarily a nursing responsibility. Studies of nursing practice in inpatient rehabilitation settings have begun to shed some light on this, but as yet there is limited understanding of the actual skills nurses use to support patients to re-establish self-care. Method., This study used grounded theory. Microanalysis and constant comparative analysis of data collected during interviews with, and observation of, registered and enrolled nurses during everyday nursing practice in five inpatient rehabilitation units facilitated open, axial and selective coding. Relevant literature was woven into the final theory. Findings., To facilitate patient transition from the role of acute care patient to rehabilitation patient actively reclaiming self-care, nurses engaged in a three-phase process known as coaching patients to self-care. The three phases were: easing patients into rehabilitation, maximizing patient effort and providing graduated assistance. Conclusion., Coaching patients to self-care is a primary activity and technology of rehabilitation nursing. Relevance to clinical practice., Patients in a variety of settings would benefit from nurses incorporating coaching skills into their nurse,patient interactions. [source]

    Stem cells for enhancing recovery after stroke: a review

    Tim England
    The potential application for stem cell therapy is vast, and development for use in ischaemic stroke is still in its infancy. Access to stem cells for research is contentious; however, stem cells are obtainable from both animal and human. Despite a limited understanding of their mechanisms of action, clinical trials assessing stem cells in human stroke have been performed. Trials are also underway evaluating haematopoietic precursors mobilised with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, an approach offering an autologous means of administrating stem cells for therapeutic purposes. This review summarises current knowledge in regard to stem cells and their potential for helping improve recovery after stroke. [source]

    Patients' evaluations of the quality of care: influencing factors and the importance of engagement

    Sophie H. Staniszewska BSc DPhil
    Aims., This paper reports a study exploring the process of patient evaluation and identifying the factors which influence this. Background., Patient experiences of health care have become a central focus for researchers, policymakers, clinicians and patient groups in many countries. While surveys of patient experiences have become increasingly common internationally, concerns about the validity of concepts such as satisfaction have cast doubt on the utility of their findings. These concerns reflect our limited understanding of patient evaluation and the factors that can influence this process. Methods., A qualitative design was adopted, using semi-structured interviews with a sample of outpatients in their homes in one county in England. In total, 41 patients participated in the study and were interviewed before their appointment. Of these patients, 37 were interviewed again after their appointment. Six of the latter were then re-interviewed 6 weeks after the appointment to explore whether evaluations had changed. Findings., Patient evaluation was influenced by a number of factors, including gratitude, faith, loyalty, luck and equity. The overall effect was to prompt positive evaluation, even when care was poor. These factors should be accounted for in the interpretation of patient experiences surveys. Patient experiences were further influenced by their sense of engagement with the system. A negative sense of engagement could have a major impact on the patient, resulting in disappointment or fear and a desire to leave the health care system, and in a negative evaluation of a specific aspect of care. Conclusions., Engagement may provide a more appropriate indicator of negative experience than dissatisfaction. The influence of these factors should be considered in future attempts to develop more sensitive and appropriate methods of eliciting patient experiences. [source]

    Fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients

    Mukadder Mollao
    Aim., This study aimed to describe fatigue and the factors that affect fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis. Background., Fatigue is the most common symptom and has the greatest effect on multiple sclerosis patients' activities of daily living. There is limited understanding of the level of fatigue experienced by people with multiple sclerosis, with research currently limited to other symptoms and problems related to multiple sclerosis. Design., This research was conducted as a descriptive survey. Methods., The study involved 120 people with multiple sclerosis. The data were collected with a Patient Questionnaire and a Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F). Variance analysis, Mann,Whitney U -test and Kruskal,Wallis test were used in the data analysis. Results., All of the individuals in the sample experienced fatigue. Their fatigue was also affected by factors such as age, gender, education, marital status, number of children, occupation and duration of illness. In addition, the situations with the greatest effect on their fatigue were taking a hot bath/shower, hot/humid weather, stress, infection and other illnesses causing fever, disturbance in sleep pattern, increase in daily activities and exercise. Conclusions., Fatigue is a symptom that has a significant effect on the daily lives of people with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, it is recommended that factors affecting fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis be evaluated and that education programmes directed at how to control these factors. Relevance to clinical practice., The determination of factors affecting fatigue is important for multiple sclerosis individuals' ability to cope with fatigue and keep it under control. To be able to accomplish this it is necessary for health care personnel, the family and friends to work together. [source]

    Information needs of women with non-invasive breast cancer

    Marina Brown BN
    ,,The purpose of this inquiry was to gain a better understanding of the experience of women who have had surgery for non-invasive breast cancer. In particular, issues surrounding information were explored. ,,Six women who had undergone surgery for a non-invasive breast cancer (ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS) participated in the research and an interpretive approach was used to guide the research process. ,,In-depth interviews took place in the women's homes and the interviews were transcribed verbatim. ,,Through a process of familiarization with the tapes and transcripts, clusters of significant statements were assembled into individual stories of each woman's experience. ,,The findings highlight the individual nature of the experience of information, with the women wanting information that is tailored to their personal needs. ,,Nurses can provide care that is more responsive to the information needs of each woman by being aware of the diverse ways in which women experience information. ,,This small study contributes to the limited understanding of the experience of having surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ and the information needs of these women. [source]

    Sexual relationships in adults with intellectual disabilities: understanding the law

    A. C. O'Callaghan
    Abstract Introduction Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are known to be very vulnerable to sexual abuse. This may result partly from their lack of sexual knowledge and their powerless position in society. It could also be exacerbated by an ignorance of the law. This study investigates their understanding of the law relating to sexuality. Method Understanding of the law regarding sexual relationships, consent and abuse was assessed in 60 adults with IDs (mean age 37.6 years) and 60 young people aged 16,18 years (deemed in law capable of consenting to a sexual relationship). Questions were wide ranging, including general laws around sexuality and abuse, as well as the law relating to sexual relationships and ID. Results There were significant differences between the two groups: adults with IDs had a very limited understanding of the general laws relating to sexuality (e.g. age of consent, incest, abuse), as well as the law relating to sexuality and IDs (e.g. whether they could have sexual relationships, whether they were allowed to marry, what protection they should expect from the law). Young people without disabilities showed a better understanding, both for general laws and for those relating specifically to adults with IDs. Conclusions These findings show that there is a need to educate people with IDs about the laws relating to sexuality. It is important for people to understand the law and, given the high rates of sexual abuse perpetrated against people with ID, it is essential for them to benefit from the protection the law affords. The new law in England (Sexual Offences Act 2003) post-dated this study. It will be interesting to see whether the new legislation is easier for people with and without disabilities to understand. [source]

    Role of Protein Kinases in the Prolactin-Induced Intracellular Calcium Rise in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Expressing the Prolactin Receptor

    B. Sorin
    Abstract There is still only limited understanding of the early steps of prolactin signal transduction in target cells. It has been shown that prolactin actions are associated with cell protein phosphorylation, Ca2+ increases, and so on. However, the link between the activation of kinases and calcium influx or intracellular Ca2+ mobilization has not yet been clearly established. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, stably transfected with the long form of rabbit mammary gland prolactin receptor (PRL-R) cDNA were used for PRL-R signal transduction studies. Spectrofluorimetric techniques were used to measure intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in cell populations with Indo1 as a calcium fluorescent probe. We demonstrate that, although protein kinase C activation (PMA or DiC8) caused a calcium influx in CHO cells, prolactin-induced PKC activation was not responsible for the early effect of prolactin on [Ca2+]i. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase G did not modify [Ca2+]i and inhibition of PKA pathway did not affect the prolactin response. In the same way, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinaseinhibition had no effect on the prolactin-induced Ca2+ increase. On the other hand, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (herbimycin A, lavendustin A, and genistein) completely blocked the effect of prolactin on [Ca2+]i (influx and release). W7, a calmodulin-antagonist, and a specific inhibitor of calmodulin kinases (KN-62), only blocked prolactin-induced Ca2+ influx but had no significant effect on Ca2+ release. Using pharmacological agents, we present new data concerning the involvement of protein phosphorylations in the early effects of prolactin on ionic channels in CHO cells expressing the long form of PRL-R. Our results suggest that, at least in the very early steps of prolactin signal transduction, serine-threonine phosphorylation does not participate in the prolactin-induced calcium increase. On the other hand, tyrosine phosphorylation is a crucial, very early step, since it controls K+ channel activation, calcium influx, and intracellular calcium mobilization. Calmodulin acts later, since its inhibition only blocks the prolactin-induced Ca2+ influx. [source]

    An educational evaluation of supervisor and mentor experiences when supporting Primary Care Graduate Mental Health Workers

    N. HARRISON ma pgdip cogth pgdip pc couns pgdip ed ba(hons) dpsn rgn rmn
    This paper reports on the findings of a postal survey used to enhance understanding into the backgrounds, experiences and support offered to supervisors and mentors of Primary Care Graduate Mental Health Workers (PCGMHWs). A postal questionnaire was sent to the total population of supervisors and mentors who had supported PCGMHW students from three universities in the Northwest of England, during the period of their introduction 2004,2006. Most supervisors and mentors had previous experience of supervision and mentorship with other types of students but not PCGMHWs. Data suggest that there were difficulties due limited understanding of the role of PCGMHWs and how it was to be operationalized. Respondents reported staff shortages, time constraints and competing commitments, which limited support available to students. The lack of organizational readiness and infrastructure to support the role was widely reported. However, the role has developed and is generally well received. The implications for future development of the PCGMHW and the preparation and support of supervisors and mentors are discussed. [source]

    The Private Market for Long-Term Care Insurance in the United States: A Review of the Evidence

    Jeffrey R. Brown
    This article reviews the growing literature on the market for private long-term care insurance, a market notable for its small size despite the fact that long-term care expenses are potentially large and highly uncertain. After summarizing long-term care utilization and insurance coverage in the United States, the article reviews research on the supply of and the demand for private long-term care insurance. It concludes that demand-side factors impose important limits on the size of the private market and that we currently have a limited understanding of how public policies could be designed to encourage the growth of this market. [source]

    The Knowledge of Detained Juveniles About the Juvenile Justice System

    ABSTRACT This article examines the knowledge and perceptions of detained juveniles about the roles of juvenile justice officials and the nature of the juvenile justice system. Data were collected through interviews in a group setting. The small sample size limited the generalizability of the findings but provided specific information important for future research and policymaking on an under-studied group. The study found that the experiences of the juveniles with the justice system provided only limited understanding of the system's processes and confusion about juvenile justice officials' roles. The juveniles did not have a clear understanding of how each official's role operated within a set of roles that constitutes the system. Further, they did not fully understand the cumulative effect of juvenile processing. [source]

    Porphyrin distribution after topical aminolevulinic acid in a novel porcine model of sebaceous skin,,

    Fernanda H. Sakamoto MD
    Abstract Background and Objective Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) depends on drug metabolism into porphyrins. Clinically, ALA-PDT has been used with a wide range of protocols for treating both epidermal and dermal targets, despite limited understanding of porphyrin biodistribution over time. We studied porphyrin accumulation after topical application of ALA in vivo, and also describe the porcine ear as a new animal model to study adnexal glands. Study Design/Materials and Methods The microanatomy of anterior ear skin of swine was measured. Topical 20% ALA in water/ethanol was applied under occlusion. Biopsies taken after 5, 10, 15, and then every 15 minutes for a total of 3 hours were examined by fluorescence microscopy of frozen sections to assess accumulation and distribution of porphyrins. Results Porphyrin fluorescence of digital photomicrograph images was not visually apparent until 30,45 minutes after application, although quantitative pixel analysis showed a statistically significant increase in epidermal fluorescence only 15 minutes after ALA application. From 30 to 120 minutes, epidermis, hair follicles (HF), and sebaceous glands (SG) became progressively more fluorescent. Eccrine gland fluorescence began to be detected after 30 minutes; SG showed fluorescence starting at 45,75 minutes. Fluorescence in all sites reached maximum intensity from 75 to 180 minutes of incubation. There was a trend for HF and SG to express stronger fluorescence compared with epidermis and eccrine glands. Conclusion Anterior pig ear skin is microanatomically similar to human sebaceous skin. The time-dependent accumulation of porphyrins in pilosebaceous units and eccrine glands in this model suggests other routes of uptake of topical ALA in addition to the trans-epidermal route. Apparently, time interval between ALA application and light exposure could be optimized for different uses of ALA-PDT. Lasers Surg. Med. 41:154,160, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs About Inclusion of Students with Learning Disabilities

    Janet R. DeSimone
    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate middle school general education mathematics teachers' beliefs and self-perceived knowledge regarding teaching students with learning disabilities (LD) in inclusive classrooms. Teacher beliefs regarding administrative support and higher education teacher preparation were also examined. The Survey on Teaching Mathematics to Students With Learning Disabilities in Middle School was completed by 228 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade general education mathematics inclusion teachers from 19 states. In addition, telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of 26 survey respondents. Frequency analyses were performed on the survey data, with ,2 tests comparing teachers on demographic variables. Follow-up interview responses were summarized to elaborate on the major research questions. The findings revealed three central issues: (1) teachers had a limited understanding of the mathematics learning needs of students with LD, (2) teacher collaboration was judged to be the most beneficial and available resource by general educators teaching students with LD in inclusive mathematics classrooms, and (3) teachers did not feel that teacher education programs at the preservice level and professional development at the inservice level were adequate in preparing them for teaching students with LD in inclusive mathematics classrooms. Implications and recommendations for teacher preparation and program implementation are provided. [source]

    Interdisciplinary team interactions: a qualitative study of perceptions of team function in simulated anaesthesia crises

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2008
    Jennifer M Weller
    Objectives, We placed anaesthesia teams into a stressful environment in order to explore interactions between members of different professional groups and to investigate their perspectives on the impact of these interactions on team performance. Methods, Ten anaesthetists, 5 nurses and 5 trained anaesthetic assistants each participated in 2 full-immersion simulations of critical events using a high-fidelity computerised patient simulator. Their perceptions of team interactions were explored through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Written questionnaire data and interview transcriptions were entered into N6 qualitative software. Data were analysed by 2 investigators for emerging themes and coded to produce reports on each theme. Results, We found evidence of limited understanding of the roles and capabilities of team members across professional boundaries, different perceptions of appropriate roles and responsibilities for different members of the team, limited sharing of information between team members and limited team input into decision making. There was a perceived impact on task distribution and the optimal utilisation of resources within the team. Conclusions, Effective management of medical emergencies depends on optimal team function. We have identified important factors affecting interactions between different health professionals in the anaesthesia team, and their perceived influences on team function. This provides evidence on which to build appropriate and specific strategies for interdisciplinary team training in operating theatre staff. [source]

    The structure and function of auditory chordotonal organs in insects

    Jayne E. Yack
    Abstract Insects are capable of detecting a broad range of acoustic signals transmitted through air, water, or solids. Auditory sensory organs are morphologically diverse with respect to their body location, accessory structures, and number of sensilla, but remarkably uniform in that most are innervated by chordotonal organs. Chordotonal organs are structurally complex Type I mechanoreceptors that are distributed throughout the insect body and function to detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, from gross motor movements to air-borne sounds. At present, little is known about how chordotonal organs in general function to convert mechanical stimuli to nerve impulses, and our limited understanding of this process represents one of the major challenges to the study of insect auditory systems today. This report reviews the literature on chordotonal organs innervating insect ears, with the broad intention of uncovering some common structural specializations of peripheral auditory systems, and identifying new avenues for research. A general overview of chordotonal organ ultrastructure is presented, followed by a summary of the current theories on mechanical coupling and transduction in monodynal, mononematic, Type 1 scolopidia, which characteristically innervate insect ears. Auditory organs of different insect taxa are reviewed, focusing primarily on tympanal organs, and with some consideration to Johnston's and subgenual organs. It is widely accepted that insect hearing organs evolved from pre-existing proprioceptive chordotonal organs. In addition to certain non-neural adaptations for hearing, such as tracheal expansion and cuticular thinning, the chordotonal organs themselves may have intrinsic specializations for sound reception and transduction, and these are discussed. In the future, an integrated approach, using traditional anatomical and physiological techniques in combination with new methodologies in immunohistochemistry, genetics, and biophysics, will assist in refining hypotheses on how chordotonal organs function, and, ultimately, lead to new insights into the peripheral mechanisms underlying hearing in insects. Microsc. Res. Tech. 63:315,337, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Costs by industry and diagnosis among musculoskeletal claims in a state workers compensation system: 1999,2004

    Kari K. Dunning PhD
    Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a tremendous burden on industry in the United States. However, there is limited understanding of the unique issues relating to specific industry sectors, specifically the frequency and costs of different MSDs. Methods Claim data from 1999 to 2004 from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation were analyzed as a function of industry sector (NAICS industry-sector categories) and anatomical region (ICD-9 codes). Results Almost 50% of the claims were lumbar spine (26.9%) or hand/wrist (21.7%). The majority of claims were from manufacturing (25.1%) and service (32.8%) industries. The industries with the highest average costs per claim were transportation, warehouse, and utilities and construction. Across industries, the highest costs per claim were consistently for the lumbar spine, shoulder, and cervical spine body regions. Conclusion This study provides insight into the severity (i.e., medical and indemnity costs) of MSDs across multiple industries, providing data for prioritizing of resources for research and interventions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:276,284, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    More Than Weighting Cognitive Importance: A Dual-Process Model of Issue Framing Effects

    Rune Slothuus
    Issue frames in policy discourse and news reporting regularly influence citizens' political opinions. Yet, we only have a limited understanding of how and among whom these framing effects occur. I propose a dual-process model of issue framing effects arguing that we must understand mediators of framing (the how question) in connection with individual-level moderators of framing (the whom question). Experimental results show that issue framing affects opinion through different psychological processes depending on who the receiver of the frame is. Among the moderately politically aware or those having weak political values, framing effects were mediated through processes of changing importance of considerations as well as changing content of considerations. Among the highly aware, only the importance change process mediated framing effects, while there were no framing effects among those least aware or those having strong values. [source]

    Natural and human dimensions of environmental change in the proximal reaches of Botswana's Okavango Delta

    Though wetlands are vital for the proper functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and provisioning of a wide range of goods and services, their sustainability is being threatened by inappropriate human resource use practices due to our limited understanding of how these systems operate and lack of appropriately informed interventions. We attempt to address these limitations by using historical CORONA photographs of 1967, Landsat imagery of 1989, 1994 and 2001 and information from the literature to investigate the role of natural and human factors in influencing the direction of environmental change in the proximal reaches of Botswana's Okavango Delta. Results of this investigation point to fragmentation of natural habitats, localised degradation of areas close to perennial water supplies, significant increase in woody cover, significant decrease in open grassland, increase in scrub and shrubs, deterioration in the quality of grazing and depletion of specific woody species. With the direction of change pointing to persistent decrease in the environment's supporting potentials, there is urgent need to adopt intervention strategies potentially capable of enhancing sustainable utilisation of natural resources in this sub-region. [source]

    Communication Flows in International Product Innovation Teams

    Rudy K. Moenaert
    Recently, we have witnessed a strong growth in the internationalization of many firms' product development activities. However, the lack of attention devoted by scientific research to the management of international innovation contrasts sharply with the importance attached to it as a cornerstone of international business success. Although several empirical studies and normative theories have specified the communication requirements in innovation teams, an empirically based insight is definitely needed on the communication requirements and requirements that prevail in the complex context of international innovation teams, in which the participants are located in different company units, countries, and cultures. This article addresses the following research question: viewing international innovation as an interfunctional activity, what are the communication requirements an international innovation team is facing, and what are the communication capabilities (interface mechanisms) that may be adopted to initiate, develop, and launch the new product effectively and efficiently? An extensive case study research project was designed to develop a comprehensive theoretical framework. Over a two year time period, the research team has investigated selected innovation projects in four European multinational corporations. The analysis of the case study data suggests five requirements that determine the effectiveness and efficiency of communication in international product development teams: network transparency, knowledge codification, knowledge credibility, communication cost, secrecy. To cope with these communication requirements, organizations may create firm level capabilities (parallel structures, cross-functional and inter-unit climate, communication infrastructure, goal congruence) and team level capabilities (core team, team leadership, formalization, procedural justice). The evidence from the in-depth case study research indicates that these mechanisms provide a parsimonious and powerful approach to address the communication requirements in international product innovation teams. After the information processing framework proposed by Tushman and Nadler [124], the adoption of these mechanisms is expected to improve innovation effectiveness. This holds important consequences for the management of international product innovation projects. First, the innovating firm must balance centralization and decentralization, employ formal as well as informal strategies, and integrate ad-hoc and permanent strategies. Second, it highlights the critical role of the project leader. Given the fact that companies often select the most available person, rather than the best person for the job, the allocation of light weight project leaders may create heavyweight problems in international teams. Third, following the argument in favor of procedural justice, the absence of involvement may severely hinder cross-functional commitment to international innovation projects. Fourth, the innovating firm must also actively manage the communication flows with external parties. Failure to do so may result in flawed specifications, and a limited understanding about product design and market strategies. [source]