Likert Scale (likert + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Likert Scale

  • five-point likert scale

  • Selected Abstracts

    Evaluation of nursing and medical students' attitudes towards people with disabilities

    Hatice Sahin
    Aims and objectives., The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of students towards disabled people and provide suggestions to make necessary changes in the curricula. Background., Disabled people suffer from rejection, exclusion and discrimination. The undergraduate education of future health professionals should include processes of critical thinking towards and analysis of the disabled. Design., Cross-sectional design was used. Methods., All the preclinical medical and nursing students in our institution were included in study. Data were collected using the Turkish Attitudes towards Disabled Person Scale (TATDP) and demographical variables. TATDP Scale was scored according to five-point Likert Scale. Results., Students' mean attitude score is 120·57 (SD 15·24). Subscale mean scores are 53·61 (SD 7·25) for compassion (CP), 50·47 (SDS 7·26) for social value (SV) and 16·49 (SD 2·89) for resource distribution (RD). Whilst nursing students had less contact with the disabled, medical students had a closer contact with them. Medical students acquired more prior knowledge about attitudes towards the disabled. Total attitude scores of female students were above the students' mean attitude score when compared to those of male students. Conclusion., Only if early contact is established with patients and the disabled, practical educational strategies are adopted, and the students are provided with information on attitudes about the disabled, will a social model of disability be introduced into the curriculum. Relevance to clinical practice., This study results were presented to curriculum planning committees of nursing and medical schools, so that they should use them as needs assessment data in developing a disability awareness curriculum. The curriculum will be implemented in cooperation with not only schools but also other social institutions. For instance, clerkship applications will be accomplished by cooperating with nursing homes and organisations of disabled people. [source]

    Social judgements made by children in relation to visible incisor trauma

    Helen D. Rodd
    This study sought to determine how children view other children with visible incisor trauma. Material and methods:, Year 7 (aged 11,12 years) and year 10 (aged 14,15 years) school children (the participants) were invited to look at colour photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgement about these children (the subjects). Participants were randomly allocated either: (i) pictures of children with visible incisor trauma or, (ii) pictures of the same children whose photographs had been digitally modified to restore incisor aesthetics. Using a previously validated child-centred questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using multivariate analysis of variance (P < 0.05, manova). Results:, 291 children completed the questionnaires, giving a response rate of 73%. Year 7 children viewed children with visible incisor trauma more negatively than the same child with normal incisor appearance. However, the converse was true for year 10 participants. Conclusion:, Findings from this study concur with those from adult populations in that negative social judgements may be made on the basis of poor dental appearance. Interestingly, this would not appear to be the case in adolescence, which may relate to high levels of self-monitoring in this age-group. In view of the importance of appearance in adolescent social interaction, aesthetic dental treatment for children with incisor injury may yield important psychosocial benefits. [source]

    Ultrasound-assisted peripheral vascular access in a paediatric ED

    Ed Oakley
    Abstract Objectives: To assess the implementation and utility of US for assisting peripheral venous access in a paediatric ED. Methods: A prospective, observational study of a convenience sample comparing the landmark and US-guided technique for peripheral vascular access in children from July 2006 to February 2007. Clinicians involved under went 3 months of training in US physics and with practical models. Clinicians estimated the degree of difficulty of insertion (using a Likert scale) before each line placement. Data including time of procedure and success or failure were collected, using a standardized clinical record form, by an observing researcher. Results: A total of 84 patients were enrolled. There were 61 line placement episodes in the landmark group (with 253 attempts), and 38 in the US group (with 90 attempts). US recorded slightly higher success per attempt overall (42% vs 38%, P= 0.08), and performed better in the patients with difficult access (success 35% vs 18%, P= 0.003). US attempts took longer than landmark attempts (2 min 15 s vs 4 min, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The US guidance may improve the success rate of peripheral vascular access in children rated to have difficult or very difficult vascular access. [source]

    Knowledge and attitude towards paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation among the carers of patients attending the Emergency Department of the Children's Hospital at Westmead

    Jonathan Cu
    Abstract The present study aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of parents and carers in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation on infants and children. A self-administered questionnaire distributed to a convenience sample of parents and carers attending the Emergency Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Australia from February to March 2008. Main outcome measures were the prevalence of previous cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, willingness and confidence to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on infants and children compared with adults, and an objective assessment of knowledge of current resuscitation guidelines. A total of 348 parents and carers were surveyed; 53% had received previous cardiopulmonary resuscitation training, 75% prior to the previous year. There was no significant difference on their willingness to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on an adult versus a child (75.6% and 75.8% respectively, P= 0.870). However, 81% were willing to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a relative whereas only 64% were willing to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a stranger (P < 0.001). Respondents were moderately confident in delivering cardiopulmonary resuscitation to a collapsed child; mean score of 2.9 on 5-point Likert scale. Only 11% of respondents knew the correct rate for chest compressions and the ratio of compressions to ventilations; 8% had performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a real situation. Parents and carers are willing to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation, especially on family members. However, their knowledge of the current guidelines was poor. More public education is required to update those with previous training and to encourage those who haven't to be trained. [source]

    A longitudinal evaluation of medical student knowledge, skills and attitudes to alcohol and drugs

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2006
    Gavin Cape
    ABSTRACT Aim To examine the knowledge, skills and attitudes of medical students to alcohol and drugs as training progresses. Design A longitudinal, prospective, cohort-based design. Setting The four schools of medicine in New Zealand. Participants All second-year medical students (first year of pre-clinical medical health sciences) in New Zealand were administered a questionnaire which was repeated in the fourth (first year of significant clinical exposure) and then sixth years (final year). A response rate of 98% in the second year, 75% in the fourth year and 34% in the sixth year, with a total of 637 respondents (47.8% male) and an overall response rate of 68%. Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of 43 questions assessing knowledge and skills,a mixture of true/false and scenario stem-based multiple-choice questions and 25 attitudinal questions scored on a Likert scale. Demographic questions included first language, ethnicity and personal consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Findings The competence (knowledge plus skills) correct scores increased from 23.4% at the second year to 53.6% at the fourth year to 71.8% at the sixth year, being better in those students who drank alcohol and whose first language was English (P < 0.002). As training progressed the student's perceptions of their role adequacy regarding the effectiveness of the management of illicit drug users diminished. For example, at second year 21% and at sixth year 51% of students felt least effective in helping patients to reduce illicit drug use. At the sixth year, 15% of sixthyear students regarded the self-prescription of psychoactive drugs as responsible practice. Conclusion Education on alcohol and drugs for students remains a crucial but underprovided part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. This research demonstrated that while positive teaching outcomes were apparent, further changes to medical student curricula need to be considered to address specific knowledge deficits and to increase the therapeutic commitment and professional safety of medical students to alcohol and drugs. [source]

    Measuring therapeutic attitudes in the prison environment: development of the Prison Attitude to Drugs scale

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2003
    Nick Airey
    ABSTRACT Aims, To develop and test the validity of a scale measuring therapeutic attitudes among prison staff working with drug misusers. Design, A cross-sectional postal questionnaire study using 27 statements with a five-point Likert scale. Setting, Four prisons in the south-west of England Participants, A total of 252 prison staff (response rate 70%), including 67 for test,retest (response rate 57%). Findings, The study resulted in a three-dimensional, nine-item scale: the Prison Attitude to Drugs scale (PAD). The three subscales measure confidence in skills (four items), personal rewards (three items) and job satisfaction (two items). Test,retest correlations for the questions were above 0.7, with each factor having an internal coherence (coefficient alpha) of greater than 0.7. Conclusions, The PAD is a reliable tool that can be used in the prison environment. [source]

    Improving the quality of clinical teaching in a restorative clinic using student feedback

    Callum Youngson
    Abstract Introduction:, A large proportion of the undergraduate curriculum is spent within Restorative Dentistry at the University of Liverpool. As well as supportive "phantom head" courses the undergraduates receive significant amounts of teaching within the clinics themselves. In 2004, to help inform the clinical tutors as to their areas of strengths and weaknesses, undergraduates were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire on the quality of teaching they received from their clinical supervisors. This process has been repeated subsequently in 2005 and 2006. Method:, A 19 parameter questionnaire, employing a 5-point Likert scale and space for open comments, was circulated to every clinical undergraduate student. Questionnaires were returned anonymously and all data collected by one researcher. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed and the staff provided with individual feedback within the context of the overall departmental profile. The pooled data from each of the years was then compared to determine if any changes had occurred. Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis tests to determine whether these were statistically significant. Results:, Although the range varied, median scores of 4 (agree) were gained for each question each year. Following statistical analysis 18 of the parameters showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) between 2004 and 2006 with only one remaining constant throughout. Conclusion:, It would appear that the use of a questionnaire based feedback system can result in a tangible and demonstrable improvement in the delivery of clinical teaching. [source]

    The effect of a community dental service outreach programme on the confidence of undergraduate students to treat children: a pilot study

    M. Lindsay Hunter
    Objective:, To examine the effect of a community dental service (CDS) outreach teaching programme on undergraduates' confidence to undertake a range of paediatric dental procedures. Method:, Eighteen final year dental students completed a questionnaire prior to, and following participation in an outreach teaching programme. At each time point, the students were asked to identify how confident they felt to carry out a range of procedures commonly encountered in the treatment of children, employing a Likert scale modified to comprise six points where a rating of 1 represented ,not at all confident' and a rating of 6 ,very confident'. Results:, The distribution of scores at each time point indicated that students were more confident to carry out each of the listed procedures following participation in the outreach teaching programme than they had been on completion of their paediatric dentistry sessions within the School of Dentistry. At the individual student level, 16 of the 18 students indicated that they were, overall, more confident following their placement than previously. Conclusions:, It can be concluded that the long-established CDS outreach teaching programme run by the School of Dentistry, Wales College of Medicine in conjunction with the staff of Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust is a valuable adjunct to undergraduate teaching in paediatric dentistry. [source]

    Evaluation by dental students of a communication skills course using professional role-players in a UK school of dentistry

    P. Croft
    This paper reports student (n = 180) feedback on the role-play teaching methodology used in behavioural sciences teaching at The School of Dentistry in Birmingham (UK). The feedback received on this well-established (since 1995) educational programme was collected via questionnaire (100% response rate), requiring Likert scale and free text responses. Generally students reported that they had enjoyed and valued the session. Over two-thirds (69.7%) of students rated the role-players as ,very real' and over three-quarters (78.9%) rated their feedback as ,very fair'. The data collected from this study will inform future curriculum development. Student feedback was very positive and demonstrated that the cohort (86% of all students studying in years 1, 2 and 3) found the use of professional role-players involved in behavioural sciences teaching to be both acceptable and valuable. [source]

    Suboccipital Nerve Blocks for Suppression of Chronic Migraine: Safety, Efficacy, and Predictors of Outcome

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
    Silvia Weibelt RN
    (Headache 2010;50:1041-1044) Background., Approximately 1 in 50 Americans is afflicted by chronic migraine (CM). Many patients with CM describe cervicogenic headache. Options for treating CM effectively are at present quite limited. Objective., To determine the safety and efficacy of occipital nerve blocks (ONBs) used to treat cervicogenic chronic migraine (CCM) and to identify variables predictive of a positive treatment response. Methods., Using a uniform dose and injection paradigm, we performed ONBs consecutively on a series of patients presenting with CCM. Patients were stratified according to specific findings found to be present or absent on physical examination. A positive treatment outcome was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days per month over the 30 days following treatment relative to the 30-day pre-treatment baseline. We used a 5-point Likert scale as one of the secondary outcome variables. Results., We treated 150 consecutive patients with unilateral (37) or bilateral (113) ONBs. At the 1-month follow-up visit 78 (52%) exhibited evidence of a positive treatment response according to the primary outcome variable, and 90 (60%) reported their headache disorder to be "better" (44; 29%) or "much better" (46; 30%). A total of 8 (5%) patients reported adverse events within the ensuing 72 hours, and 3 (2%) experienced adverse events that reversed spontaneously but required emergent evaluation and management. Conclusion., For suppression of CCM, ONBs may offer an attractive alternative to orally administered prophylactic therapy. [source]

    Improvement in social competence in patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study using a performance-based measure using virtual reality,

    Kyung-Min Park
    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of the use of Virtual Reality Functional Skills Assessment (VRFSA) in a future regular clinical trial, as well as to report a preliminary result about effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics to social competence in schizophrenia. Methods We developed the VRFSA that measured subjects' performances automatically and used analogue scale rather than Likert scale. Twenty-four female patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 15 healthy females were recruited. This was a 6-week, randomized, open-label, and flexible dose study, and 2 treatments (baseline versus post-treatment),×,2 skills phases (receptive versus expressive),×,2 patient groups (aripiprazole versus risperidone) analysis of variance was used in the final analysis. Results There was a significant difference in the VRFAS between the patients and the healthy subjects (p,<,0.05). Eighteen patients were included in the final analysis. We found larger treatment effect than those found in previous studies, and significant treatment,×,skills phase,×,group interaction effect on the VRFAS. Conclusions Our results suggest that the VRFAS is strongly sensitive to changes in social competence and thus especially beneficial in short-term clinical trials. In addition, atypical antipsychotics can improve social competence and differentially improve receptive skills and expressive skills in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Attitudes towards skills examinations for basic surgical trainees

    S.D. Bann
    Summary Objective measures of surgical skill and cognition are becoming available. A questionnaire study examining surgeons' beliefs towards a skills-based examination, current standards and possible benefits was devised. Three hundred pairs of standardised anonymous questionnaires were sent to consultants and their basic surgical trainees (BSTs) irrespective of surgical speciality. Responses were requested using a Likert scale (1,5, 3 = neutral response). Two-hundred and two replies were received (including 54 pairs). BST experience ranged from 6 to 60 months (mean 24 months). When questioned regarding current training in basic surgical skills, only 34% believed that they were given adequate training at present. Sixty-four per cent of respondents believed the introduction of a skills examination would raise standards and 66% believed it necessary. Eighty-three per cent of respondents believed that they or their BST would practice these skills, if an examination were introduced and 85% wanted or would provide dedicated teaching time for this. However, 68% had no access to a dedicated skills facility, and uptake of these, where available, was variable. When questioned about their ability to perform the six appropriate tasks, there was a poor correlation of scoring between the groups. Consultants and their BSTs do not believe that they are given adequate training in basic skills. The introduction of an examination would lead to practice of these skills and is seen as a positive move. [source]

    Factors influencing the acceptance of web-based training in Malaysia: applying the technology acceptance model

    Junaidah Hashim
    Companies in Malaysia are beginning to use web-based training to reduce the cost of training and to provide employees with greater access to instruction. However, some people are uncomfortable with technology and prefer person-to-person methods of training. This study examines the acceptance of web-based training among a convenience sample of 261 employees in Malaysia using the technology acceptance model. The research uses a self-developed questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale. The findings reveal that Malaysian employees accept web-based training to some extent, despite their weak use of the Internet. Perceived ease-of-use, perceived comfortableness and perceived usefulness are found to be positively related to the respondents' attitude towards adopting web-based training. These findings mirror Western studies and suggest that the technology acceptance model, developed in the West, is also applicable in Malaysia. The implications of the study and future research directions are discussed. [source]

    Multidimensional Attitudes of Medical Residents and Geriatrics Fellows Toward Older People

    Ming Lee PhD
    Objectives: To examine dimensions of a validated instrument measuring geriatric attitudes of primary care residents and performances on these dimensions between residents and fellows. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Setting: An academic medical center. Participants: Two hundred thirty-eight primary care residents (n=177) and geriatrics fellows (n=61) participated in the study from 1995 to 2000. Measurements: A 14-item, 5-point Likert scale previously validated for measuring primary care residents' attitudes toward older people and geriatric patient care was used. Results: Factor analysis showed four dimensions of the scale, labeled Social Value, Medical Care (MC), Compassion (CP), and Resource Distribution, which demonstrated acceptable reliability. Both groups of subjects showed significantly (P<.001) positive (mean>3) attitudes across the dimensions and times, except for residents, who had near-neutral (mean=3) attitudes on MC. Residents' mean attitude scores on the overall scale and the MC and CP subscales were significantly (P<.001) lower than those of fellows over time. Residents and fellows showed different change patterns in attitudes over time. Residents' attitudes generally improved during the first 2 years of training, whereas fellows' attitudes declined slightly. Personal experience was a strong predictor of residents' attitudes toward older patients. Ethnicity, academic specialty, professional experience, and career interest in geriatrics were also associated with residents' attitude scores. Conclusion: The multidimensional analysis of the scale contributes to better understanding of medical trainees' attitudes and sheds light on educational interventions. [source]

    Factual memories of ICU: recall at two years post-discharge and comparison with delirium status during ICU admission , a multicentre cohort study

    Brigit L Roberts RN, IC Cert
    Aims and objective., To examine the relationship between observed delirium in ICU and patients' recall of factual events up to two years after discharge. Background., People, the environment, and procedures are frequently cited memories of actual events encountered in ICU. These are often perceived as stressors to the patients and the presence of several such stressors has been associated with the development of reduced health-related quality of life or post-traumatic stress syndrome. Design., Prospective cohort study using interview technique. Method., The cohort was assembled from 152 patients who participated in a previously conducted multi-centre study of delirium incidence in Australian ICUs. The interviews involved a mixture of closed- and open-ended questions. Qualitative responses regarding factual memories were analysed using thematic analysis. A five-point Likert scale with answers from ,always' to ,never' was used to ask about current experiences of dream, anxiety, sleep problems, fears, irritability and/or mood swings. Scoring ranged from 6 to 30 with a mid-point value of 18 indicating a threshold value for the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress syndrome. A P -value of <0·05 was considered significant for all analyses. Results., Forty-one (40%) out of 103 potential participants consented to take part in the follow-up interview; 18 patients (44%) had been delirious and 23 patients (56%) non-delirious during the ICU admission. The non-participants (n = 62) formed a control group to ensure a representative sample; 83% (n = 34) reported factual memories either with or without recall of dreaming. Factual memories were significantly less common (66% cf. 96%) in delirious patients (OR 0·09, 95%CI 0·01,0·85, p = 0·035). Five topics emerged from the thematic analysis: ,procedures', ,staff', ,comfort', ,visitors', and ,events'. Based on the current experiences, five patients (12%, four non-delirious and one delirious) scored ,18 indicative of symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome; this did not reach statistical significance. Memory of transfer out of ICU was less frequent among the delirious patients (56%, n = 10) than among the non-delirious patients (87%, n = 20) (p = 0·036). Conclusion., Most patients have factual memories of their ICU stay. However, delirious patients had significantly less factual recall than non-delirious patients. Adverse psychological sequelae expressed as post-traumatic stress syndrome was uncommon in our study. Every attempt must be made to ensure that the ICU environment is as hospitable as possible to decrease the stress of critical illness. Post-ICU follow-up should include filling in the ,missing gaps', particularly for delirious patients. Ongoing explanations and a caring environment may assist the patient in making a complete recovery both physically and mentally. Relevance to clinical practice., This study highlights the need for continued patient information, re-assurance and optimized comfort. While health care professionals cannot remove the stressors of the ICU treatments, we must minimize the impact of the stay. It must be remembered that most patients are aware of their surroundings while they are in the ICU and it should, therefore, be part of ICU education to include issues regarding all aspects of patient care in this particularly vulnerable subset of patients to optimize their feelings of security, comfort and self-respect. [source]

    Exact Small-Sample Differential Item Functioning Methods for Polytomous Items With Illustration Based on an Attitude Survey

    J. Patrick Meyer
    Exact nonparametric procedures have been used to identify the level of differential item functioning (DIF) in binary items. This study explored the use of exact DIF procedures with items scored on a Likert scale. The results from an attitude survey suggest that the large-sample Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) procedure identifies more items as statistically significant than two comparable exact nonparametric methods. This finding is consistent with previous findings; however, when items are classified in National Assessment of Educational Progress DIF categories, the results show that the CMH and its exact nonparametric counterparts produce almost identical classifications. Since DIF is often evaluated in terms of statistical and practical significance, this study provides evidence that the large-sample CMH procedure may be safely used even when the focal group has as few as 76 cases. [source]

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system: expectations and experiences of users

    Jasperien E. Van Doormaal PharmD
    Abstract Objectives, To explore physicians' and nurses' expectations before and experiences after the implementation of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system in order to give suggestions for future optimization of the system as well as the implementation process. Method, On four internal medicine wards of two Dutch hospitals, 18 physicians and 42 nurses were interviewed to measure expectations and experiences with the CPOE system. Using semi-structured questionnaires, expectations and experiences of physicians and nurses with the CPOE system were measured with statements on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = completely disagree, 5 = completely agree). The percentage respondents agreeing (score of 4 or 5) was calculated. Chi-squared tests were used to compare the expectations versus experiences of physicians and nurses and to assess the differences between physicians and nurses. Results, In general, both physicians and nurses were positive about CPOE before and after the implementation of this system. Physicians and nurses did not differ in their views towards CPOE except for the overview of patients' medication use that was not clear according to the nurses. Both professions were satisfied with the implementation process. CPOE could be improved especially with respect to technical aspects (including the medication overview) and decision support on drug,drug interactions. Conclusion, Overall we conclude that physicians and nurses are positive about CPOE and the process of its implementation and do accept these systems. However, these systems should be further improved to fit into clinical practice. [source]

    Measuring the quality of clinical audit projects

    Andrew D. Millard MSc
    Abstract The aim of the study was to develop and pilot a scale measuring the quality of audit projects through audit project reports. Statements about clinical audit projects were selected from existing instruments assessing the quality of clinical audit projects to form a Likert scale. Audit facilitators based in Scottish health boards and trusts piloted the scale. The participants were known to have over 2 years of experience of supporting clinical audit. The response at first test was 11 of 14 and at the second test 27 of 46. Audit facilitators tested the draft scale by expressing their strength of agreement or disagreement with each statement for three reports. Validity and reliability were assessed by test , re-test, item , total, and total , global indicator correlation. Of the 20 statements, 15 had satisfactory correlation with scale totals. Scale totals had good correlation with global indicators. Test , re-test correlation was modest. The wide range of responses means further research is needed to measure the consistency of audit facilitators' interpretations, perhaps comparing a trained group with an untrained group. There may be a need for a separate scale for reaudits. Educational impact is distinct from project impact generally. It may be more meaningful to treat the selection of projects and aims, methodology and impact separately as subscales and take a project profiling approach rather than attempting to produce a global quality index. [source]

    Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with osteopathy: Results of a randomized controlled pilot study

    Henry WC Hundscheid
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not yet available. Osteopathy is a manual treatment which relies on mobilizing and manipulating procedures in order to relieve complaints. In the present study, a randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of osteopathic treatment for IBS. Methods:, Eligible IBS patients were randomized between osteopathy and standard care. Follow-up was 6 months and validated means of follow-up were used. After 1, 3 and 6 months an overall assessment of symptoms was noted and a symptom score was obtained on a 5-point Likert scale. Quality of life (QOL) was scored with the standardized IBSQOL 2000 questionnaire and the Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index was used. Results:, Twenty patients were randomized into the osteopathy group (OG) and 19 patients were included in the standard care group (SCG). Sixty-eight percent of patients in the OG noted definite overall improvement in symptoms and 27% showed slight improvement. One patient (5%) was free of symptoms at the end of the study. In the SCG, 18% noted definite improvement, 59% showed slight improvement, and in 17% worsening of symptoms was present. The difference in change in overall symptomatic improvement was statistically significant in favor of the osteopathic treatment (P < 0.006). Mean Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index (FBDSI) score in the OG decreased from 174 to 74 at 6 months (P < 0.0001). Also, a significant decrease was noted in the SCG from 171 to 119 (P < 0.0001). However, the decrease in the OG was significantly higher compared with the standard treatment (P = 0.02). Mean symptom score in the OG decreased from 9.1 to 6.8 but this did not reach statistical significance. In the SCG, no change in symptom score occurred (8.7 vs 10). At 6 months, the score in the OG was significantly lower (6.8 vs 10; P = 0.02). The QOL score increased in the OG at 111 versus 129 (P < 0.009). In the SCG an increase was also noted, but this was not statistically significant (109 vs 121). Conclusion:, Osteopathic therapy is a promising alternative in the treatment of patients with IBS. Patients treated with osteopathy overall did better, with respect to symptom score and QOL. [source]

    Empirical Design Research: Student Definitions, Perceptions, and Values

    Joan I. Dickinson Ph.D.
    ABSTRACT Third and fourth year undergraduate interior design students in Colleges of Architecture or Human Sciences at three different research universities were surveyed to compare their: (1) perceived value of research in interior design practice, (2) perceptions of who should conduct research, (3) attitudes toward research in interior design education, and (4) definitions of research. A survey instrument was developed that consisted of one open-ended question and 29 questions using a Likert scale. Questions were adapted from the Chenoweth and Chidister (1983) scale that measured landscape architecture attitudes toward research, and from the Dickson and White (1993) scale administered to interior design practicing professionals. A total of 89 undergraduate students were surveyed from the three universities. The majority of the students were Caucasian (n = 79) and female (n = 84). The results indicated that, overall, students valued research for the profession regardless of their college or university affiliation. However, their definitions of research were pragmatic in nature, and they often regarded research as the gathering of information rather than the generation of new knowledge. The students were also unclear about who should be conducting interior design research. College affiliation revealed that students who were in an architecturally-based program put a higher value on research at the undergraduate level than those students housed in a College of Human Sciences; similarly, College of Architecture students had a better understanding that research advanced a profession. [source]

    Witness confidence and accuracy: is a positive relationship maintained for recall under interview conditions?

    Mark R. Kebbell
    Abstract A large positive correlation between eyewitness recall confidence and accuracy (C-A) is found in research when item difficulty is varied to include easy questions. However, these results are based on questionnaire responses. In real interviews, the social nature of the interview may influence C-A relationships, and it is the interviewer's perception of the accuracy of a witness that counts. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of these factors for recall of a video. Three conditions were used; the same questions were used in each. Participants in condition 1 (self-rate questionnaire condition, n = 20) were given a questionnaire that required them to answer questions and rate confidence on a scale. Pairs of participants in condition 2 (self-rate interview condition, n = 40) were given the role of eyewitness or interviewer. Eyewitnesses were asked questions by an interviewer and responded orally with answers and confidence judgements on a Likert scale. Participants in condition three (interviewer-rate interview condition, n = 40) were tested in the same way as condition two but provided confidence judgements in their own words. Interviewers independently rated each confidence judgement on the Likert scale. The experiment showed high C-A relationships, particularly for ,absolutely sure' responses. The main effect of the social interview condition was to increase confidence in correct answers but not in incorrect answers. However, the advantage of this effect was tempered by the fact that, although observers can differentiate between confident and less confident answers, less extreme confidence judgements were ascribed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Subjective food intake ability in relation to maximal bite force among Korean adults

    B. I. KIM
    Summary, This study examined the relationship between the subjective food intake of 30 food types and their objective bite force to identify the key food items within the 30 food types to achieve a greater depth of masticatory function in Korean adults. A sample of 308 (112 males and 196 females) adults over the age of 20 (average age, 48·6) was selected among patients who visited four dental hospitals in Seoul, Korea. The subjective masticatory ability was evaluated through an interview with food intake ability questionnaires consisting of 30 food types ranging from hard to soft using a five-step Likert scale. The objective maximal bite force was measured using pressure-sensitive films. The relationship between the food intake ability and bite force was analysed and stratified according to age, gender, number of post-canine teeth lost and several clinical oral health indicators. The key foods were selected using correlation and factor analysis. The subjective food intake ability between the 30 foods and key foods were tested by cluster and one-way anova analysis. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between food intake ability and bite force was 0·45 (P < 0·01). The five key food items selected were dried cuttlefish, raw carrot, dried peanut, cubed white radish kimchi and caramel. The correlation coefficient between the food intake ability and bite force of these items was 0·51 (P < 0·01). These results suggest that the subjective food intake ability using the 30 and five key foods can be used to evaluate the masticatory function in Korean adults. [source]

    Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice

    HJ Bovenschen
    Abstract Background, Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. Aim, First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical practice. Second, to identify subgroup variables that may predict treatment success or failure. Methods, A total of 56 patients with scalp psoriasis were treated with short-contact clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Data on treatment satisfaction, user convenience, safety and effectiveness were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale using postal questionnaires. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables that may predict treatment outcome. Results, A total of 41 patients returned both questionnaires (73%). Positive treatment satisfaction and user convenience were reported by 66% and 79% of patients respectively. Patient-rated indicators for disease severity improved by 39,46% (P < 0.05%). No major side-effects were reported. Subgroup analyses did not reveal any statistically significant patient variable that may predict treatment outcome. However, a tendency towards improved treatment satisfaction was observed in patients who had received fewer topical antipsoriatic treatments previously (P > 0.05). Conclusions, Short-contact treatment with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo has high user convenience and patient satisfaction rates. Moreover, the treatment is well-tolerated and efficacious from patients' perspective. Subgroup analyses did not reveal factors predicting treatment outcome, although treatment success tended to be more evident in patients who had received fewer treatments previously. [source]

    Assessment of a New Model for Femoral Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Procedural Training: A Pilot Study

    Michael C. Wadman MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Repetitive practice with feedback in residency training is essential in the development of procedural competency. Lightly embalmed cadaver laboratories provide excellent simulation models for a variety of procedures, but to the best of our knowledge, none describe a central venous access model that includes the key psychomotor feedback elements for the procedure, namely intravascular contents that allow for determination of correct needle position by either ultrasonographic imaging and/or aspiration or vascular contents. Methods:, A cadaver was lightly embalmed using a technique that preserves tissue texture and elasticity. We then performed popliteal fossa dissections exposing the popliteal artery and vein. Vessels were ligated distally, and 14-gauge catheters were introduced into the lumen of each artery and vein. The popliteal artery and vein were then infused with 200 mL of icterine/gel and 200 mL of methylene blue/gel, respectively. Physician evaluators then performed ultrasound (US)-guided femoral central venous line placements and rated the key psychomotor elements on a five-point Likert scale. Results:, The physician evaluators reported a median of 10.5 years of clinical emergency medicine (EM) experience with an interquartile range (IQR) of 16 and a median of 10 central lines placed annually (IQR = 10). Physician evaluators rated the key psychomotor elements of the simulated procedure as follows: ultrasonographic image of vascular elements, 4 (IQR = 0); needle penetration of skin, 4.5 (IQR = 1); needle penetration of vein, 5 (IQR = 1); US image of needle penetrating vein, 4 (IQR = 2); aspiration of vein contents, 3 (IQR = 2); passage of dilator into vein, 4 (IQR = 2); insertion of central venous catheter, 5 (IQR = 1); US image of catheter insertion into vein, 5 (IQR = 1); and overall psychomotor feedback of the simulated procedure compared to the evaluators' actual patient experience, 4 (IQR = 1). Conclusions:, For the key psychomotor elements of central venous access, the lightly embalmed cadaver with intravascular water-soluble gel infusion provided a procedural model that closely simulated clinicians' experience with patients. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:88,92 © 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Impact of UK academic foundation programmes on aspirations to pursue a career in academia

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 10 2010
    Oliver T A Lyons
    Medical Education 2010: 44: 996,1005 Objectives, This study aimed to determine the role played by academic foundation programmes in influencing junior doctors' desire to pursue a career in academic medicine. Methods, We conducted an online questionnaire-based study of doctors who were enrolled on or had completed academic foundation programmes in the UK. There were 92 respondents (44 men, 48 women). Of these, 32 (35%) possessed a higher degree and 73 (79%) had undertaken a 4-month academic placement during Foundation Year 2. Outcomes were measured using Likert scale-based ordinal response data. Results, From a cohort of 115 academic foundation trainees directly contacted, 46 replies were obtained (40% response rate). A further 46 responses were obtained via indirect notification through local programme directors. From the combined responses, the majority (77%) wished to pursue a career in academia at the end of the academic Foundation Year (acFY) programme. Feeling well informed about academic careers (odds ratio [OR] 16.9, p = 0.005) and possessing a higher degree (OR 31.1, p = 0.013) were independently associated with an increased desire to continue in academia. Concern about reduced clinical experience whilst in academic training dissuaded from continuing in academia (OR 0.15, p = 0.026). Many respondents expressed concerns about autonomy, the organisation of the programme and the quantity and quality of academic teaching received. However, choice of work carried out during the academic block was the only variable independently associated with increasing the desire of respondents to pursue a career in academia following their experiences in the acFY programme (OR 6.3, p = 0.007). Conclusions, The results support the provision of well-organised academic training programmes that assist junior clinical academics in achieving clinical competencies whilst providing protected academic time, information about further academic training pathways and autonomy in their choice of academic work. [source]

    Students' and teachers' perceived and actual verbal interactions in seminar groups

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2009
    A Debbie C Jaarsma
    Objectives, This study set out to examine how much time students and teachers devote to different learning-oriented interactions during seminar sessions and students' and teachers' perceptions about the occurrence and desirability of these interactions. Methods, Students and teachers participating in eight seminar group sessions in Year 4 of an undergraduate veterinary curriculum completed an 11-item questionnaire which asked them to rate, on a 5-point Likert scale, the frequency of occurrence and level of desirability of three learning-oriented types of interaction: exploratory questioning; cumulative reasoning, and handling of conflict about knowledge. The questionnaire also invited positive and negative responses to aspects of group interactions and an overall mark (1,10) for the seminars and group interactions. Four group sessions were video-recorded and analysed using a coding scheme. The amount of time devoted to the different interactions was calculated. Results, Both students and teachers gave scores of 3.0,3.5 for frequency of occurrence of exploratory questioning and cumulative reasoning and < 3.0 for occurrence of handling of conflict about knowledge. The desired occurrences of all interaction types were significantly higher than the actual occurrences according to students and teachers. Teachers were responsible for the majority of the interactions (93%). The percentages of session time devoted to teacher-centred cumulative reasoning, exploratory questioning and handling of conflict about knowledge were 65.8%, 15.6% and 3.1%, respectively. Conclusions, Group interactions in seminar groups are dominated by the posing of questions by teachers to students. The moderate occurrence of group interactions as perceived by students and teachers may be explained by the inadequate preparation of teachers and students to stimulate group interactions. [source]

    How can we prepare medical students for theatre-based learning?

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 10 2007
    Nishan Fernando
    Context, The quality of medical undergraduate operating theatre-based teaching is variable. Preparation prior to attending theatre may support student learning. Identifying and agreeing key skills, competences and objectives for theatre-based teaching may contribute to this process of preparation. Methods, We carried out a cross-sectional survey of consultant surgeons and students using a forced choice questionnaire containing 16 skills and competences classified as ,essential', ,desirable' or ,not appropriate', and a choice of 6 different teaching methods, scored for perceived effectiveness on a 5-point Likert scale. Questionnaire content was based on the findings from an earlier qualitative study. Results, Comparative data analyses (Mann, Whitney and Kruskal,Wallis tests) were carried out using spss Version 14. A total of 42 consultant surgeons and 46 students completed the questionnaire (46% and 100% response rates, respectively). Knowledge of standard theatre etiquette and protocols, ability to scrub up adequately, ability to adhere to sterile procedures, awareness of risks to self, staff and patients, and appreciation of the need for careful peri-operative monitoring were considered ,essential' by the majority. Student and consultant responses differed significantly on 5 items, with students generally considering more practical skills and competences to be essential. Differences between students on medical and surgical attachments were also identified. Conclusions, Consultant surgeons and medical students agree on many aspects of the important learning points for theatre-based teaching. Compared with their teachers, students, particularly those on attachment to surgical specialties, are more ambitious , perhaps overly so , in the level of practical skills and risk awareness they expect to gain in theatre. [source]

    Follow the patient: process and outcome evaluation of medical students' educational experiences accompanying outpatients

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2006
    Kei Mukohara
    Background, To instil patient-centred attitudes in medical students, several medical schools in Japan have recently started to offer educational experiences in which medical students accompany outpatients throughout entire visits to hospitals. Objective, To evaluate the processes and outcomes of the educational experience of Year 5 medical students accompanying outpatients at Nagoya University Hospital. Methods, An integrated, multimethod approach was adopted using a written survey with open-ended questions for students, focus groups with students, and a written evaluation survey for patients. In all, 99 students completed the survey, 19 students participated in 3 focus groups, and 46 patients participated in the evaluation. Results, Many students were sceptical about the objectives of the exercise. We were able to gain insight into student perceptions about facets of the exercise such as the ratio of students to patients and whether or not students should wear white coats. In particular, there was consensus among students about the importance of the debriefing session after the experience. Students achieved different learning outcomes depending on their particular individual experiences. In the student survey, 49% were satisfied with this experience, 6% were dissatisfied, and 43% were neither. In contrast, patients were highly satisfied with the experience (mean score 4.2 out of 5.0 on a Likert scale). Some students expressed concern about being a burden to patients, while many patients reported feeling emotionally supported by being accompanied by students. Conclusion, An integrated approach to programme evaluation, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was useful in the process and outcome evaluation of this new educational experience. The results have been taken into consideration for quality improvement of this curricular element. [source]

    Medical students' attitudes towards and perception of the basic sciences: a comparison between students in the old and the new curriculum at the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 12 2002
    Eugène J F M Custers
    Objectives The attitudes towards the basic sciences of medical students enrolled in either of 2 different curricula at the University of Utrecht Medical School in The Netherlands were investigated. The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to compare students (beginning clerks) in a conventional and an innovative curriculum; second, to compare beginning clerks with advanced clerks; and third to compare the present results with those of 2 previous American and Canadian studies in which the same questionnaire was used. Setting Beginning clerks in the old and in the innovative curriculum, and advanced clerks in the old curriculum, rated 9 statements on a 5-point (disagree , agree) Likert scale. The statements assessed students' attitudes toward the basic sciences. Results The results showed that beginning clerks in our innovative curriculum, unlike those in a conventional curriculum, consider the basic sciences as somewhat less important for medical practice and do not think that as many biomedical facts as possible should be learned before entering clinical practice. On the other hand, students in the innovative curriculum are more excited by the faculty's teaching of the basic sciences. This latter result confirms the findings in a previous Canadian study. No significant differences were found between beginning and advanced clerks in the conventional curriculum. Conclusion Students experience teaching of the basic sciences as more exciting when they are integrated in organ system blocks with clinical bearings, though they are somewhat less positive about the actual importance of these sciences. [source]

    Appraising and assessing reflection in students' writing on a structured worksheet

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 6 2002
    Barbel Pee
    Background A variety of teaching and learning techniques intended to engage students in reflection are either in use or are being developed in medical and dental education. In line with evidence-based practice in education, research is needed to appraise the utility and effectiveness of these techniques, so that they may be used with confidence. Aim To assess whether students completing a `reflective' learning activity based on a structured worksheet really were reflecting. Method, A qualitative, multi-method approach was taken. Worksheets completed by students were examined for evidence of reflection by researchers using two sets of criteria for the assessment of reflection derived from the literature, and by peer judges using their own criteria. The opinions of students completing the activity, regarding its acceptability and utility, were elicited by a questionnaire incorporating a 5-point Likert scale. Results Results from all methods suggest that students completing the activity were reflecting. Students' opinions of the activity were mainly positive. Conclusion, The methods employed may be of use to educators wishing to appraise reflective learning activities or, possibly, to assess student reflection. [source]