Lifetime Version (lifetime + version)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Serotonin, Impulsivity, and Alcohol Use Disorders in the Older Adolescent: A Psychobiological Study

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2000
Paul H. Soloff
Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents are associated with a high prevalence of conduct disorder (CD), much as type II alcoholism in adults is associated with impulsive-aggressive behavior and antisocial personality traits. Adults with impulsive personality disorders and AUD demonstrate diminished central serotonergic responsiveness to serotonergic agonists. Dysregulation of central serotonergic function may contribute to a vulnerability to impulsive-aggressive behavior, CD, and AUD. We studied older adolescents, both male and female, to examine the relationships between sex, dispositional impulsivity, aggressivity, CD, and responsiveness to serotonergic challenge with d,l fenfluramine (FEN) early in the development of AUD. Methods: Thirty-six adolescents between the ages of 16 and 21 years were assessed for DSM-IV AUD and other Axis I disorders by using the Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children,Present and Lifetime Version, and CD interviews. Impulsivity and aggressivity were assessed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Lifetime History of Aggression, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Youth Self Report, and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaires. FEN was administered as 0.8 mg/kg to a maximum of 60 mg, and blood was sampled at fixed intervals for prolactin, cortisol, fenfluramine, and norfenfluramine levels. Results: Eighteen adolescents (12 male, 6 female) with AUD scored significantly higher on all measures of impulsivity and aggressivity compared with 18 healthy controls (12 male, 6 female). There were no significant differences between groups in peak prolactin or cortisol responses (minus baseline), or area-under-the-curve determinations (AUC); however, 9 subjects with AUD and comorbid CD had significantly elevated cortisol AUC levels compared with subjects with AUD and no CD or with normal controls. In the total sample, cortisol AUC was associated positively with measures of aggression. Conclusions: Adolescents with early-onset AUD are characterized by impulsivity and aggressivity compared with healthy peers but do not demonstrate the diminished prolactin or cortisol responses to FEN characteristic of adult alcoholics with impulsive-aggression. [source]

Psychopathology in female juvenile offenders

Angela Dixon
Background:, The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method:, One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and socioeconomic status (SES). Psychological profiles and trauma histories of both groups were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children , Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and family functioning was assessed with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale II (FACES II) self-report measure. Results:, Rates of psychopathology were higher for offenders than non-offenders (p < .001), with particularly high levels of conduct disorder (91% v.1%, p < .001), substance abuse disorders (85% v. 5%, p < .001), depression (55% v. 25%, p < .001) and posttraumatic stress disorder (37% v. 4%, p < .001). In the offenders, 78% met the criteria for three or more diagnoses. The number of psychiatric diagnoses was the most significant factor associated with offender status (OR = 21.26, p < .001). Conclusions:, There is a high prevalence of psychological disorder in females in juvenile justice custody and this has a very strong association with offender status. Because these co-morbid disorders are treatable, there is a clear opportunity to intervene to decrease psychological distress. [source]

Alcohol Use Disorders and Anxiety Disorders: Relation to the P300 Event-Related Potential

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2001
Mary-Anne Enoch
Background: The robust association of alcoholism with reduced P300 event-related potential amplitude has been largely established in severely affected alcoholics and their offspring. Few studies have examined the relationship of increased arousal, anxiety, and P300. In this study, we sought to determine whether P300 group differences could be discerned in well functioning individuals with less severe forms of alcohol use disorders and anxiety disorders. We were particularly interested in looking at the subgroup of alcohol use disorders accompanied by anxiety disorders. This subgroup has previously been found to have diminished , amplitude in the resting EEG. Methods: Male and female community volunteers (99 unrelated index participants and 78 relatives) and 21 unrelated volunteers from an anxiety disorder clinic were interviewed by using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Lifetime version. Blind-rated lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assigned according to DSM-III-R criteria. Auditory and visual P300 event-related potentials were elicited with an oddball paradigm and were recorded at the midparietal (Pz) site. Results: As expected, auditory P300 amplitudes were significantly reduced in participants with alcohol use disorders and significantly increased in participants with lifetime anxiety disorders. However, more detailed analysis revealed that, in an apparent paradox, auditory P300 amplitudes were lowest in individuals with comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders and highest in individuals with anxiety disorders alone. Visual P300 amplitudes followed the same trends but were generally not significant. Conclusions: Even in a sample of largely community-ascertained individuals, auditory P300 amplitude is reduced in alcoholics, particularly those with anxiety disorders, and is highest in nonalcoholics with anxiety disorders. [source]

Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with relapse in schizophrenia

Abstract The aim of the present study was to examine sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with relapse in schizophrenia. The study group consisted of a convenience sample of 40 schizophrenia patients (20 patients each in relapse and remission). Relapse and remission were defined based on clinical criteria (ICD-10 criteria, course since last episode, and duration of remission) and psychometric criteria (scores on Socio-Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale [SOFAS] and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia [PANSS]). The index group was evaluated after the occurrence of current relapse but within 6 months of its onset. Sociodemographic, current psychopathology (PANSS) and functioning (SOFAS), and other (mainly retrospective) variables were assessed with a specifically designed clinical profile sheet, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Lifetime version, Presumptive Stressful life Events Scale, and World Health Organization Life Chart Schedule for Assessment of Course and Outcome of Schizophrenia. Patients who had relapsed were more symptomatic and exhibited greater dysfunction in comparison to remitted patients. Relapse in schizophrenia was significantly associated with unemployment, number of psychotic episodes, side-effects of medication, and life events score. The present findings suggest that a severe illness (no. psychotic episodes, unemployment), psychological stress and inappropriate treatment (side-effects of medicines) may be causally related to relapse in schizophrenia. However, the possibility that these variables may be caused by relapse or may be explained by a common underlying variable needs to be assessed prospectively. [source]