Lifetime Reproductive Output (lifetime + reproductive_output)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Foraging specialisms, prey size and life-history patterns: a test of predictions using sympatric polymorphic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

D. Fraser
Abstract,,, We use arguments based on optimal foraging theory to predict body size constraints and the consequences of these on a range of life-history traits in three trophic specialist morphs of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, living in sympatry in Loch Rannoch, Scotland. As predicted, foraging specialists feeding on small prey items with a narrow size range showed evidence of deterministic growth; the ultimate body size of macrobenthos feeders being larger (L, = 238 mm) than that of planktivores (L, = 216 mm). In contrast, the piscivorous morph showed no evidence of reaching a maximal body size. The two size-constrained morphs (benthivores and planktivores) matured earlier and died younger (living for up to 11 and 7 years, respectively, in this study) than did the piscivorous charr which showed continuous growth up to at least 17 years. The pattern of annual reproductive investment in maturing individuals was complex. Planktivores invested in larger eggs than the other two forms, but benthivores produced a greater number of eggs than planktivores, which in turn produced more than piscivores. Planktivorous males had a greater investment in mean testis weight than the other two forms. Lifetime reproductive output was the greatest in the benthivorous charr, intermediate in planktivorous and the lowest in the piscivorous charr when measured either as fecundity or as gonadal weight. We conclude that constraints imposed upon foraging specialists by foraging efficiency is a significant driver of body size and ultimately reproductive investment in gape-limited foraging salmonids. [source]

Lifetime reproductive output of Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata in outdoor caged and field populations; flight vs. egg production?

Abstract Females of the blowflies Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) maintained in sheltered outdoor cages and supplied with excess food, oviposited later than would have been expected from the temperature-sum. The survival rates of the caged flies was high and the isolation of flies from predation, extreme temperatures and food shortages is likely to have contributed to this. Despite good survival rates, subsequent egg production over the greater part of the adult life span was reduced to ,24% for C. vicina and ,55% for L. sericata, of the potential expected from the published temperature-sums required for the maturation of successive egg batches. The data suggest that under field-cage conditions there is a considerable variation in egg development between individuals of the same age and that this variation should not be overlooked, since it may have significant implications in ecological and forensic investigations; however, the cause of this variability remains unclear. While lower than expected, the reproductive outputs recorded in the cages were nevertheless considerably greater than those that have been estimated for blowflies in the field and illustrate the potential for population increase in these species under favourable conditions. The possibility of a greater energy investment in flight activity relative to reproductive output in C. vicina compared to L. sericata is proposed. [source]

Adult mortality and oviposition rates in field and captive populations of the blowfly Lucilia sericata

K. M. Pitts
Abstract., 1. Adult mortality and oviposition rates were determined for populations of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). This species is of economic importance as the primary agent of sheep myiasis throughout north-western Europe. 2. Populations of marked flies in six, 1 m3, outdoor field cages and unmarked wild flies at two farms in south-west England were studied simultaneously between May and September 1998. 3. In the field, wild female L. sericata were caught and aged using a combination of wing-fray and ovarian dissection techniques. Survivorship analysis gave estimates of mortality of 1.94% ( 0.037) and 2.09% ( 0.044) per day-degree and mean life expectancy of 51.5 and 47.9 day-degrees above a threshold of 11 C, at the two farms studied. Mean lifetime reproductive output in the field was estimated to be 159.6 and 138.4 eggs per female at the two farms respectively. 4. The survivorship of cohorts of marked female flies in cages was followed by counting the number of dead individuals each day; the mortality rate of these flies was 0.81% per day-degree ( 3.49 10,4%) and the mean life expectancy was 123.1 day-degrees above a threshold of 11 C. Mortality rate was shown to increase significantly with average ambient temperature and relative humidity lagged for two sample periods (approximately 10 days). Oviposition rate also increased with average temperature but declined with average relative humidity. A best-fit multiple regression model incorporating both ambient temperature and humidity explained 60.5% of the variance in the pattern of oviposition. 5. The differences between the field and cage populations highlight the caution required when extrapolating life-history parameters from artificial to natural habitats. [source]

Effects of age, breeding experience, mate fidelity and site fidelity on breeding performance in a declining population of Cassin's auklets

Peter Pyle
Summary 1We examined how mate and site fidelity varied with age, experience and sex, and how age, breeding experience, mate experience, site experience and sex affected annual reproductive success and lifetime reproductive output in a declining population of Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphusaleuticus). Our 276 study birds were 2,14 years of age, recruited at age 2,12 years, and had 0,11 years' breeding experience, 0,8 years' experience with the same mate and 0,11 years' experience in the same nest box. 2Mate fidelity was significantly greater with increasing age in males but not females. There was also a significant negative relationship between mate fidelity and breeding density (as measured by proportion of box occupancy); i.e. the lower the breeding density the higher the incidence of breeding with the same mate. 3Site fidelity showed significant linear and curvilinear increases with age that were significant in females but not males. There was also a significant negative relationship between site fidelity and breeding density; i.e. the lower the breeding density the higher the incidence of breeding at the same site. 4Previous breeding experience had no effect on either mate fidelity or site fidelity, and both mate and site fidelity were significantly lower after a breeding season was skipped. In addition, mate fidelity was significantly lower when a site was switched and vice versa. 5Lifetime reproductive output increased significantly with mate fidelity but showed no relationship with site fidelity. This suggests that fitness is optimized more through mate selection than site selection and that mate fidelity is not a by-product of site fidelity. 6Annual reproductive success showed a significant linear increase with age in males but not females, and a strong parabolic relationship with breeding experience that was significant in both sexes and significantly greater in males than females. 7These results suggest that (i) males may be more responsible for mate selection and females for site selection; (ii) improved foraging experience with age and a cost of reproduction may be more important factors in males than females; and (iii) reproductive success may be optimized by behaviour of the male rather than the female. 8Controlling for the age and experience terms of both parents, experience with a mate had a significant positive linear effect on annual reproductive success. This suggests that mate fidelity is adaptive in Cassin's auklets, and that studies examining the effects of age and experience on reproductive performance should separately consider the duration of the pair bond. 9,Controlling for all other variables, neither experience at a breeding site nor breeding density showed significant correlations with reproductive success. 10,We suggest that reductions in food supply, which correlate with reduced breeding densities, may prevent all but the highest quality breeders (those which have already established a pair bond) from reproducing, and that the increase in quality offsets the reduction in food availability. [source]