Lithography

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Lithography

  • beam lithography
  • capillary force lithography
  • colloidal lithography
  • e-beam lithography
  • electron beam lithography
  • electron-beam lithography
  • force lithography
  • interference lithography
  • nanoimprint lithography
  • nanosphere lithography
  • optical lithography
  • probe lithography
  • soft lithography

  • Terms modified by Lithography

  • lithography technique

  • Selected Abstracts


    Broad Beam Ion Sources for Electrostatic Space Propulsion and Surface Modification Processes: From Roots to Present Applications

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS, Issue 7 2007
    H. Neumann
    Abstract Ion thrusters or broad beam ion sources are widely used in electrostatic space propulsion and in high-end surface modification processes. A short historical review of the roots of electric space propulsion is given. In the following, we introduce the electrostatic ion thrusters and broad beam ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles and describe the similarities as well as the differences briefly. Furthermore, an overview on source plasma and ion beam characterisation methods is presented. Apart from that, a beam profile modelling strategy with the help of numerical trajectory codes as basis for a special grid system design is outlined. This modelling represents the basis for the adaptation of a grid system for required technological demands. Examples of model validation demonstrate their reliability. One of the main challenges in improvement of ion beam technologies is the customisation of the ion beam properties, e.g. the ion current density profile for specific demands. Methods of an ex-situ and in-situ beam profile control will be demonstrated. Examples for the use of ion beam technologies in space and on earth , the RIT-10 rescue mission of ESA's satellite Artemis, the RIT-22 for BepiColombo mission and the deposition of multilayer stacks for EUVL (Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography) mask blank application are provided in order to illustrate the potential of plasma-based ion beam sources. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Two- and Three-Dimensional Micro- and Sub-Micrometer Periodic Structures Using Two-Beam Laser Interference Lithography,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 1-2 2010
    A. F. Lasagni
    Abstract In this study, we present different approaches for the fabrication of two and three dimensional structures using two-beam interference lithography. The advantages of using more than one irradiation step for the fabrication of complex structures are theoretically demonstrated by avoiding the introduction of line effects. For the fabrication of 3D structures, two alternatives are discussed including a layer by layer approach as well as a multidimensional (non-orthogonal) interference exposure setup. Finally, an example of biomimetic patterning is given. In all cases, numerical calculations showed a good agreement with the experimental results, being able to explain the shape of the fabricated structures. [source]


    Layer-by-Layer Interference Lithography of Three-dimensional Microstructures in SU-8,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 5 2009
    Andrs F. Lasagni
    We report on rapid fabrication of two-, two and a half-, and 3D planar periodic structures using layer-by-layer deposition and interference patterning of SU-8 photoresist. Complex structures with non-periodic vertical symmetry were fabricated controlling the cure depth by addition of a UV absorber. The fabrication method reported here can be applied for the high-volume manufacturing of solid structures for microelectromechanical systems and microfluidic devices. [source]


    Conjugated Polymers: High-Resolution Scanning Near-Field Optical Lithography of Conjugated Polymers (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2010
    Mater.
    The fabrication of high-resolution nanostructures in both poly(p -phenylene vinylene), PPV, and a crosslinkable derivative of poly(9,9,-dioctylfluorene), F8, using scanning near-field optical lithography, is reported. The ability to draw complex, reproducible structures with 65000 pixels and lateral resolution below 60 nm (< ,/5) is demonstrated over areas up to 20 ,m 20 ,m. Patterning on length-scales of this order is desirable for realizing applications both in organic nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. The technique is based on the site-selective insolubilization of a precursor polymer under exposure to the confined optical field present at the tip of an apertured near-field optical fiber probe. In the case of PPV, a leaving-group reaction is utilized to achieve insolubilization, whereas the polyfluorene is insolubilized using a photoacid initiator to create a crosslinked network in situ. For PPV, resolubilization of the features is observed at high exposure energies. This is not seen for the crosslinked F8 derivative, r-F8Ox, allowing us to pattern structures up to 200 nm in height. [source]


    High-Resolution Scanning Near-Field Optical Lithography of Conjugated Polymers

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2010
    Daniel Credgington
    The fabrication of high-resolution nanostructures in both poly(p -phenylene vinylene), PPV, and a crosslinkable derivative of poly(9,9,-dioctylfluorene), F8, using scanning near-field optical lithography, is reported. The ability to draw complex, reproducible structures with 65000 pixels and lateral resolution below 60 nm (< ,/5) is demonstrated over areas up to 20 ,m 20 ,m. Patterning on length-scales of this order is desirable for realizing applications both in organic nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. The technique is based on the site-selective insolubilization of a precursor polymer under exposure to the confined optical field present at the tip of an apertured near-field optical fiber probe. In the case of PPV, a leaving-group reaction is utilized to achieve insolubilization, whereas the polyfluorene is insolubilized using a photoacid initiator to create a crosslinked network in situ. For PPV, resolubilization of the features is observed at high exposure energies. This is not seen for the crosslinked F8 derivative, r-F8Ox, allowing us to pattern structures up to 200 nm in height. [source]


    Nanopatterning by an Integrated Process Combining Capillary Force Lithography and Microcontact Printing

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 4 2010
    Xuexin Duan
    Abstract A novel nanopatterning process was developed by combining capillary force lithography (CFL) and microcontact printing (CP). Flat polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate in CFL, and after chemical functionalization, as the stamp in CP, which increased the resolution of both methods. The polymer patterns, produced by CFL on a thin polymer film on the flat PDMS substrate, acted as a mask to oxidize the uncovered regions of the PDMS. The chemical patterns were subsequently formed by gas phase evaporation of a fluorinated silane. After removal of the polymer, these stamps were used to transfer thiol inks to a gold substrate by CP. Gold patterns at a scale of less than 100,nm were successfully replicated by these chemically patterned flat PDMS stamps. [source]


    Reactive Imprint Lithography: Combined Topographical Patterning and Chemical Surface Functionalization of Polystyrene- block -poly(tert -butyl acrylate) Films

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 3 2010
    Joost Duvigneau
    Abstract Here, reactive imprint lithography (RIL) is introduced as a new, one-step lithographic tool for the fabrication of large-area topographically patterned, chemically activated polymer platforms. Films of polystyrene- block -poly(tert -butyl acrylate) (PS- b -PtBA) are imprinted with PDMS master stamps at temperatures above the corresponding glass transition and chemical deprotection temperatures to yield structured films with exposed carboxylic acid and anhydride groups. Faithful pattern transfer is confirmed by AFM analyses. Transmission-mode FTIR spectra shows a conversion of over 95% of the tert -butyl ester groups after RIL at 230,C for 5 minutes and a significantly reduced conversion to anhydride compared to thermolysis of neat films with free surfaces in air or nitrogen. An enrichment of the surface layer in PS is detected by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to demonstrate application potentials of the activated platforms, a 7,nm,,1,nm thick NH2 -terminated PEG layer (grafting density of 0.9 chains nm,2) is covalently grafted to RIL-activated substrates. This layer reduces the non-specific adsorption (NSA) of bovine serum albumin by 95% to a residual mass coverage of 9.1,,2.9,ng cm,2. As shown by these examples, RIL comprises an attractive complementary approach to produce bio-reactive polymer surfaces with topographic patterns in a one-step process. [source]


    Silicon Microstructures: Detachment Lithography of Photosensitive Polymers: A Route to Fabricating Three-Dimensional Structures (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 2 2010
    Mater.
    The scanning electron microscope image featured on the front cover shows a three-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molded film bonded on a glass rod. Multilevel silicon structures used to mold the PDMS film were fabricated from successive steps of detachment lithography of photoresist films, which are patterned with lithography and reactive ion etching, as reported by J. Yeom and M. A. Shannon on page 289. The smallest feature on the pyramid is 2 m in diameter. [source]


    Detachment Lithography of Photosensitive Polymers: A Route to Fabricating Three-Dimensional Structures

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 2 2010
    Junghoon Yeom
    Abstract A technique to create arrays of micrometer-sized patterns of photosensitive polymers on the surface of elastomeric stamps and to transfer these patterns to planar and nonplanar substrates is presented. The photosensitive polymers are initially patterned through detachment lithography (DL), which utilizes the difference in adhesion forces to induce the mechanical failure in the film along the edges of the protruded parts of the mold. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp with a kinetically and thermally adjustable adhesion and conformal contact can transfer the detached patterns to etched or curved substrates, as well as planar ones. These printed patterns remain photochemically active for further modification via photolithography, and/or can serve as resists for subsequent etching or deposition, such that photolithography can be used on highly nonconformal and nonplanar surfaces. Various 3D structures fabricated using the process have potential applications in MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) sensors/actuators, optical devices, and microfluidics. [source]


    Polystyrene Arrays: Non-Close-Packed Crystals from Self-Assembled Polystyrene Spheres by Isotropic Plasma Etching: Adding Flexibility to Colloid Lithography (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 20 2009
    Mater.
    Hexagonally ordered arrays of non-close-packed spherical polystyrene (PS) particles are prepared by A. Plettl et al. on page 3279, and exhibit precisely controlled diameters and interparticle distances. An isotropic low-temperature plasma-etching process is applied to extended monolayers of PS colloids deposited onto hydrophilic silicon. These non-close-packed PS arrays are used as masks for the fabrication of arrays of cylindrical nanopores by reactive ion etching. [source]


    Non-Close-Packed Crystals from Self-Assembled Polystyrene Spheres by Isotropic Plasma Etching: Adding Flexibility to Colloid Lithography

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 20 2009
    Alfred Plettl
    Abstract Hexagonally ordered arrays of non-close-packed nanoscaled spherical polystyrene (PS) particles are prepared exhibiting precisely controlled diameters and interparticle distances. For this purpose, a newly developed isotropic plasma etching process is applied to extended monolayers of PS colloids (starting diameters <300,nm) deposited onto hydrophilic silicon. Accurate size, shape, and smoothness control of such particles is accomplished by etching at low temperatures (,150,C) with small rates not usually available in standard reactive ion etching equipment. The applicability of such PS arrays as masks for subsequent pattern transfer is demonstrated by fabricating arrays of cylindrical nanopores into Si. [source]


    Spatiotemporal Control over Molecular Delivery and Cellular Encapsulation from Electropolymerized Micro- and Nanopatterned Surfaces,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 18 2009
    Eric Stern
    Abstract Bioactive, patterned micro- and nanoscale surfaces that can be spatially engineered for three-dimensional ligand presentation and sustained release of signaling molecules represent a critical advance for the development of next-generation diagnostic and therapeutic devices. Lithography is ideally suited to patterning such surfaces due to its precise, easily scalable, high-throughput nature; however, to date polymers patterned by these techniques have not demonstrated the capacity for sustained release of bioactive agents. Here a class of lithographically defined, electropolymerized polymers with monodisperse micro- and nanopatterned features capable of sustained release of bioactive drugs and proteins is demonstrated. It is shown that precise control can be achieved over the loading capacity and release rates of encapsulated agents and this aspect is illustrated using a fabricated surface releasing a model antigen (ovalbumin) and a cytokine (interleukin-2) for induction of a specific immune response. Furthermore, the ability of this technique to enable three-dimensional control over cellular encapsulation is demonstrated. The efficacy of the described approach is buttressed by its simplicity, versatility, and reproducibility, rendering it ideally suited for biomaterials engineering. [source]


    Cell,Material Interfaces: Capillary Force Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Structured Biomaterials Interface Towards Cell and Tissue Engineering (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2009
    Mater.
    An in-depth overview of the recently developed molding technology termed capillary force lithography (CFL) is presented by K.-Y. Suh et al. on page 2699, with particular emphasis on control of the properties of the cellular microenvironment, such as cell,protein, cell,cell, and cell,topography interactions. The cover image demonstrates that the adhesion and growth of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts is extremely sensitive to multi-scale, hierarchical structures, with the cells elongated along the nanoscale bridges. [source]


    Capillary Force Lithography: A Versatile Tool for Structured Biomaterials Interface Towards Cell and Tissue Engineering,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2009
    Kahp-Yang Suh
    Abstract This Feature Article aims to provide an in-depth overview of the recently developed molding technologies termed capillary force lithography (CFL) that can be used to control the cellular microenvironment towards cell and tissue engineering. Patterned polymer films provide a fertile ground for controlling various aspects of the cellular microenvironment such as cell,substrate and cell,cell interactions at the micro- and nanoscale. Patterning thin polymer films by molding typically involves several physical forces such as capillary, hydrostatic, and dispersion forces. If these forces are precisely controlled, the polymer films can be molded into the features of a polymeric mold with high pattern fidelity and physical integrity. The patterns can be made either with the substrate surface clearly exposed or unexposed depending on the pattern size and material properties used in the patterning. The former (exposed substrate) can be used to adhere proteins or cells on pre-defined locations of a substrate or within a microfluidic channel using an adhesion-repelling polymer such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymer and hyaluronic acid (HA). Also, the patterns can be used to co-culture different cells types with molding-assisted layer-by-layer deposition. In comparison, the latter (unexposed substrate) can be used to control the biophysical surrounding of a cell with tailored mechanical properties of the material. The surface micropatterns can be used to engineer cellular and multi-cellular architecture, resulting in changes of the cell shape and the cytoskeletal structures. Also, the nanoscale patterns can be used to affect various aspects of the cellular behavior, such as adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. [source]


    Densely Packed Arrays of Ultra-High-Aspect-Ratio Silicon Nanowires Fabricated using Block-Copolymer Lithography and Metal-Assisted Etching

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2009
    Shih-Wei Chang
    Abstract Metal-assisted etching is used in conjunction with block-copolymer lithography to create ordered and densely-packed arrays of high-aspect-ratio single-crystal silicon nanowires with uniform crystallographic orientations. Nanowires with diameters and spacings down to 19,nm and 10,nm, respectively, are created as either continuous carpets or as carpets within trenches. Wires with aspect ratios up to 220 are fabricated, and capillary-induced clustering of wires is eliminated through post-etching critical point drying. The wires are single crystals with ,100, axis directions. The distribution of wire diameters is narrow and closely follows the size distribution of the block copolymer, with a standard deviation of 3.12,nm for wires of mean diameters 22.06,nm. Wire arrays formed in carpets and in channels have hexagonal order with good fidelity to the block copolymer pattern. Fabrication of wires in topographic features demonstrates the ability to accurately control wire placement. Wire arrays made using this new process will have applications in the creation of arrays of photonic and sensing devices. [source]


    Siloxane Copolymers for Nanoimprint Lithography,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 1 2007
    P. Choi
    Abstract Presented here is the novel use of thermoplastic siloxane copolymers as nanoimprint lithography (NIL) resists for 60,nm features. Two of the most critical steps of NIL are mold release and pattern transfer through dry etching. These require that the NIL resist have low surface energy and excellent dry-etching resistance. Homopolymers traditionally used in NIL, such as polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), generally cannot satisfy all these requirements as they exhibit polymer fracture and delamination during mold release and have poor etch resistance. A number of siloxane copolymers have been investigated for use as NIL resists, including poly(dimethylsiloxane)- block -polystyrene (PDMS- b -PS), poly(dimethylsiloxane)- graft -poly(methyl acrylate)- co -poly(isobornyl acrylate) (PDMS- g -PMA- co -PIA), and PDMS- g -PMMA. The presence of PDMS imparts the materials with many properties that are favorable for NIL, including low surface energy for easy mold release and high silicon content for chemical-etch resistance,in particular, extremely low etch rates (comparable to PDMS) in oxygen plasma, to which organic polymers are quite susceptible. These properties give improved NIL results. [source]


    Exploiting Chemical Switching in a Diels,Alder Polymer for Nanoscale Probe Lithography and Data Storage,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 11 2006
    B. Gotsmann
    Abstract Reversibly crosslinked polymer films have properties that are beneficial to scanned-probe data storage and lithographic applications that use thermomechanical nanoindentation as a write or expose mechanism. The novel polymer under study contains linkages based on thermally reversible Diels,Alder crosslinking. Thermomechanical properties on the nanometer scale are analyzed by indentation experiments on polymer thin films using heated tips. The underlying indentation mechanism is studied at varying tip temperatures and indentation times, revealing Arrhenius kinetics. This is in contrast to the Williams,Landau,Ferry kinetics usually observed for polymer systems. The discrepancy is explained by the reversible crosslinking incorporated into the structure of the polymer that allows switching between two different states: a rigid, highly crosslinked, low-temperature state, and a deformable, fragmented, high-temperature state. An individual indentation volume of less than 10,20,L (10,000,molecule pairs) is estimated. These kinetics experiments demonstrate that a chemical reaction of only a few thousand molecules can be transduced into a mechanically measurable action. The ability to cycle between two sets of properties in these materials opens up new perspectives in lithography and data storage. Examples of data storage with densities up to 1,Tb,in.,2 and maskless lithography with resolution below 20,nm are demonstrated at writing times of 10,,s per bit/pixel. [source]


    Multifaceted and Nanobored Particle Arrays Sculpted Using Colloidal Lithography,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 1 2006
    D.-G. Choi
    Abstract A novel method of fabricating multifaceted and nanobored particle arrays via colloidal lithography using colloidal-crystal layers as masks for anisotropic reactive-ion etching (RIE) is reported. The shape of the sculpted particles is dependent on the crystal orientation relative to the etchant flow, the number of colloidal layers, the RIE conditions, and the matrix (or mask) structure in colloidal lithography. Arrays of non-spherical particles with sculpted shapes, which to date could not otherwise be produced, are fabricated using a tilted anisotropic RIE process and the layer-by-layer growth of a colloidal mask. These non-spherical particles and their ordered arrays can be used for antireflection surfaces, biosensors, and nanopatterning masks, as well as non-spherical building blocks for novel colloidal crystals. In addition, polymeric particles with patterned holes of controlled depths obtained by the present method can be applied to the fabrication of functional composite particles. [source]


    Soft-Contact Optical Lithography Using Transparent Elastomeric Stamps and Application to Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 9 2005
    T.-W. Lee
    Abstract Conventional photolithography uses rigid photomasks of fused quartz and high-purity silica glass plates covered with patterned microstructures of an opaque material. We introduce new, transparent, elastomeric molds (or stamps) of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) that can be employed as photomasks to produce the same resist pattern as the pattern of the recessed (or non-contact) regions of the stamps, in contrast to other reports in the literature[1] of using PDMS masks to generate edge patterns. The exposure dose of the non-contact regions with the photoresist through the PDMS is lower than that of the contact regions. Therefore, we employ a difference in the effective exposure dose between the contact and the non-contact regions through the PDMS stamp to generate the same pattern as the PDMS photomask. The photomasking capability of the PDMS stamps, which is similar to rigid photomasks in conventional photolithography, widens the application boundaries of soft-contact optical lithography and makes the photolithography process and equipment very simple. This soft-contact optical lithography process can be widely used to perform photolithography on flexible substrates, avoiding metal or resist cracks, as it uses soft, conformable, intimate contact with the photoresist without any external pressure. To this end, we demonstrate soft-contact optical lithography on a gold-coated PDMS substrate and utilized the patterned Au/PDMS substrate with feature sizes into the nanometer regime as a top electrode in organic light-emitting diodes that are formed by soft-contact lamination. [source]


    Enhanced Electro-Optic Behavior for Shaped Polymer Cholesteric Liquid-Crystal Flakes Made Using Soft Lithography,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 2 2005
    A. Trajkovska-Petkoska
    Abstract Polymer cholesteric liquid-crystal (PCLC) flakes were investigated for their electro-optical behavior under an applied alternating-current field. Shaped flakes, fabricated using soft lithography and suspended in dielectric-fluid-filled cells, reoriented more uniformly than randomly shaped flakes made by fracturing of PCLC films. Extensive characterization found shaped flakes to be smooth and uniform in size, shape, and thickness. Reorientation in applied fields as low as tens of mVrms,,m,1 was fastest for flakes with lateral aspect ratios greater than 1:1, confirming theoretical predictions based on Maxwell,Wagner polarization. Brilliant reflective colors and inherent polarization make shaped PCLC flakes of interest for particle displays. [source]


    The Materials Challenge in Diffraction-Unlimited Direct-Laser-Writing Optical Lithography

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 32 2010
    Joachim Fischer
    Using a novel photoresist (composed of pentaerythritol triacrylate and isopropyl thioxanthone) that favors stimulated emission depletion by a ,-,* transition and using a two-color two-photon excitation scheme, 65-nm wide lines are achieved. This value is limited by parasitic two-photon absorption of the continuous-wave depletion beam. It is estimated that, without this process, line widths of 30 nm are in reach. [source]


    Solvent-Assisted Decal Transfer Lithography by Oxygen-Plasma Bonding and Anisotropic Swelling

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 22 2010
    Pilnam Kim
    Solvent-assisted decal transfer lithography (DTL) enables the formation of well-defined micro-/nanostructures over a large area (,4 in. wafer) by combining irreversible oxygen bonding and anisotropic swelling of poly(dimethoxylsiloxane) (PDMS). Such swelling-induced stress gradient allows for cohesion failure of the skin layer upon removal of the stamp, leaving behind a highly uniform layer (,100,nm). [source]


    Drug Delivery: Drawing Lithography: Three-Dimensional Fabrication of an Ultrahigh-Aspect-Ratio Microneedle (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 4 2010
    4/2010)
    Ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microneedles can be fabricated via "drawing lithography", a novel technique in which a thermosetting polymer is directly drawn from a two-dimensional solid surface without the need for a mask and light irradiation. Kwang Lee and co-workers demonstrate this technique on p. 483. The inside cover shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of three-dimensional structures with ultrahigh aspect ratios, potentially suitable as drug-delivery devices that could replace hypodermic syringes. [source]


    Drawing Lithography: Three-Dimensional Fabrication of an Ultrahigh-Aspect-Ratio Microneedle

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 4 2010
    Kwang Lee
    Drawing lithography is a novel fabrication technique in which a thermosetting polymer is directly drawn from a two-dimensional solid surface without the need for a mask and light irradiation (see figure). Drawing lithography differs from traditional lithography techniques, such as photolithography, in that it is based on the inherently planar geometries of a two-dimensional substrate in a three-dimensional microstructure. [source]


    Multifunctional Integrated Platforms: Fabrication of Advanced Functional Devices Combining Soft Chemistry with X-ray Lithography in One Step (Adv. Mater.

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 48 2009
    48/2009)
    Combining bottom-up sol,gel assembly with micro- and nanofabrication offers a simple and fast route to develop multifunctional integrated platforms, from microfluidics to microarrays, allowing the chemistry and geometry to be tailored to the application, as reported by Paolo Falcaro, Plinio Innocenzi, and co-workers on p. 4932. The inside cover illustrates different patterns of functionalized surfaces. The background is an example of highly controlled microfluidic interface fabricated combining deep X-rays lithography with sol,gel syntheses. [source]


    Fabrication of Advanced Functional Devices Combining Soft Chemistry with X-ray Lithography in One Step

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 48 2009
    Paolo Falcaro
    Deep X-ray lithography combined with sol,gel techniques offers facile fabrication of controlled patterned films. Using sol,gel, different functional properties can be induced; deep X-ray lithography alters the functionality in the exposed regions. Miniaturized devices based on local property changes are easily fabricated: this technique requires no resist, enabling direct patterning of films in a one-step lithographic process. [source]


    Lithographically Patterned Breath Figure of Photoresponsive Small Molecules: Dual-Patterned Honeycomb Lines from a Combination of Bottom-Up and Top-Down Lithography

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 41 2009
    Jung Hak Kim
    A line-patterned breath figure film is achieved using a photo-crosslinkable small molecule through a novel dual-patterning process that combines a breath-figure technique (bottom-up) and photolithography (top-down). The organogelator molecules form honeycomb structures, organizing into supramolecular fibers similar to polymers that stabilize water droplets. [source]


    Low-Cost Fabrication of Transparent Hard Replica Molds for Imprinting Lithography

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 40 2009
    Joohee Kim
    A new and cost-effective replica fabrication method for transparent and hard molds used in imprinting lithography is presented. The process uses a polymer copy as a carrier. Replicated hard molds eliminate the need for direct contact between the master and the patterned polymer on the substrate, and thus reduce contamination of the master. [source]


    Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Using Multibeam Interference Lithography and Electrodeposition

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 29 2009
    Masao Miyake
    High-quality 3D photonic crystals are fabricated through electrodeposition into a polymer template created by multibeam interference lithography. Complete infilling of the template is achieved through electrodeposition of Cu2O, and subsequent etching of the template results in a Cu2O/air photonic crystal with the exact inverse structure of the template (see figure). The resultant photonic crystal shows a high peak reflectance at theoretically predicted wavelength. [source]


    High-Resolution Contact Printing with Chemically Patterned Flat Stamps Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 27 2009
    Xuexin Duan
    Chemically patterned flat stamps provide an effective solution to avoid mechanical stamp-stability problems currently encountered in microcontact printing. A new method is developed to fabricate chemical patterns on a flat PDMS stamp using nanoimprint lithography. Sub-100,nm gold patterns are successfully replicated by these chemically patterned flat PDMS stamps. [source]