Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Liquidity

  • excess liquidity
  • market liquidity

  • Terms modified by Liquidity

  • liquidity constraint
  • liquidity cost
  • liquidity crisis
  • liquidity effects
  • liquidity hypothesis
  • liquidity management
  • liquidity premium
  • liquidity provider
  • liquidity risk
  • liquidity shock
  • liquidity supplier
  • liquidity trap

  • Selected Abstracts


    Nobuhiro Kiyotaki
    We broadly define liquid assets, or monetary assets, as any asset that can be readily sold in the market and can be held by a number of people in succession before maturity. We ask in what environment is the circulation of liquid assets essential for the smooth running of the economy. By developing a canonical model of a monetary economy (i.e., where the circulation of liquid assets is essential), we are able to examine the interaction between liquidity, asset prices, and aggregate economic activity. [source]


    Michael J. Brennan
    Although the first investor relations department was established by General Electric as long ago as 1952, the role of investor relations (IR) is one that has largely escaped scientific analysis and academic scrutiny. This article attempts to demonstrate the importance of a company's IR activities for its stock price by establishing a clear chain of causation between the following: 1,corporate IR activities and the number of stock analysts who follow the firm; 2,the number of analysts who follow the firm and the liquidity of trading in the firm's shares; 3,the liquidity of the firm's shares and its required rate of return, or cost of capital. The authors begin by presenting evidence that corporate IR activities, in the form of high levels of disclosure and presentations to investment analysts, increase the number of analysts who follow the firm by reducing their cost of acquiring information. Studies have also shown that more effective IR tends to improve the accuracy of analyst forecasts and the degree of agreement among analysts. Second, the authors summarize their own research showing that the number of analysts who follow a firm has a positive effect on the liquidity of the firm's shares. More specifically, their findings can be interpreted as saying that, for the average company, coverage by six additional analysts reduces "market-impact costs" (using a measure known as Kyle's lambda) by 28%, holding volume constant. And when the indirect effect of increased analyst coverage through expanded volume is taken into account, the reduction in trading costs is estimated to be as high as 85%. The final link in the chain of analysis is the growing evidence (much of it reviewed in the preceding article) that increased liquidity leads to a lower cost of capital and thus higher stock prices. In sum, a firm can reduce its cost of capital and increase its stock price through more effective investor relations activities, which reduce the cost of information to the market and to investment analysts in particular. [source]


    Duong Nguyen
    Abstract We examine whether the use of the three-moment capital asset pricing model can account for liquidity risk. We also make a comparative analysis of a four-factor model based on Fama,French and Pástor,Stambaugh factors versus a model based solely on stock characteristics. Our findings suggest that neither of the models captures the liquidity premium nor do stock characteristics serve as proxies for liquidity. We also find that sensitivities of stock return to fluctuations in market liquidity do not subsume the effect of characteristic liquidity. Furthermore, our empirical findings are robust to differences in market microstructure or trading protocols between NYSE/AMEX and NASDAQ. [source]


    Kee H. Chung
    Abstract We analyze market liquidity (i.e., spreads and depths) and quote clustering using data from the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE), where the tick size increases with share price in a stepwise fashion. We find that stocks that are subject to larger mandatory tick sizes have wider spreads and less quote clustering. We also find that liquidity providers on the KLSE do not always quote larger depths for stocks with larger tick sizes. Overall, our results suggest that larger tick sizes for higher priced stocks are detrimental to market liquidity, although the adverse effect of larger tick sizes is mitigated by lower negotiation costs (i.e., less quote clustering). [source]

    Corporate Governance and Equity Liquidity: analysis of S&P transparency and disclosure rankings

    Wei-Peng Chen
    This paper sets out to investigate the effects of disclosure, and other corporate governance mechanisms, on equity liquidity, arguing that those companies adopting poor information transparency and disclosure practices will experience serious information asymmetry. Since poor corporate governance leads to greater information asymmetry, liquidity providers will incur relatively higher adverse information risks and will therefore offer higher information asymmetry components in their effective bid-ask spreads. The Transparency and Disclosure (T&D) rankings of the individual stocks on the S&P 500 index are employed to examine whether firms with greater T&D rankings have lower information asymmetry components and lower stock spreads. Our results reveal that the economic costs of equity liquidity, i.e. the effective spread and the quoted half-spread, are greater for those companies with poor information transparency and disclosure practices. [source]

    Liquidity and Trading Dynamics

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 6 2009
    Veronica Guerrieri
    In this paper, we build a model where the presence of liquidity constraints tends to magnify the economy's response to aggregate shocks. We consider a decentralized model of trade, where agents may use money or credit to buy goods. When agents do not have access to credit and the real value of money balances is low, agents are more likely to be liquidity constrained. This makes them more concerned about their short-term earning prospects when making their consumption decisions and about their short-term spending opportunities when making their production decisions. This generates a coordination element in spending and production which leads to greater aggregate volatility and greater comovement across producers. [source]

    Liquidity in Asset Markets With Search Frictions

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2009
    Ricardo Lagos
    We develop a search-theoretic model of financial intermediation in an over-the-counter market and study how trading frictions affect the distribution of asset holdings and standard measures of liquidity. A distinctive feature of our theory is that it allows for unrestricted asset holdings, so market participants can accommodate trading frictions by adjusting their asset positions. We show that these individual responses of asset demands constitute a fundamental feature of illiquid markets: they are a key determinant of trade volume, bid,ask spreads, and trading delays,the dimensions of market liquidity that search-based theories seek to explain. [source]

    Liquidity Constrained Markets Versus Debt Constrained Markets

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 3 2001
    Timothy J. Kehoe
    This paper compares two different models in a common environment. The first model has liquidity constraints in that consumers save a single asset that they cannot sell short. The second model has debt constraints in that consumers cannot borrow so much that they would want to default, but is otherwise a standard complete markets model. Both models share the features that individuals are unable to completely insure against idiosyncratic shocks and that interest rates are lower than subjective discount rates. In a stochastic environment, the two models have quite different dynamic properties, with the debt constrained model exhibiting simple stochastic steady states, while the liquidity constrained model has greater persistence of shocks. [source]

    What Do Data Say About Monetary Policy, Bank Liquidity and Bank Risk Taking?

    ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 2 2007
    Marcella Lucchetta
    This paper tests empirically the linkage between banks' investment and interbank lending decisions in response to interest rate changes. We draw conclusions for the monetary policy, which uses the interest rate as its main tool. Across European countries we find that the risk-free (i.e. monetary policy) interest rate negatively affects the liquidity retained by banks and the decision of a bank to be a lender in the interbank market. Instead, the interbank interest rate has a positive impact on these decisions. We also find that banks who lend show less risk-taking behaviour and tend to be smaller than those who are borrowers. Most importantly, the risk-free interest rate is positively correlated with loans investment and bank risk-taking behaviour. [source]

    Interbank Lending, Liquidity and Banking Crises

    ECONOMIC NOTES, Issue 3 2002
    Paola Brighi
    In this paper, we show that abandoning the Diamond and Dybvig hypothesis of a unique bank representing the entire banking system gives rise to the possibility of endogenizing the interbank exchanges. In a system characterized by uncertainty regarding the moment of withdrawal of deposits, access to interbank liquidity decreases the bank risk of failure and bank runs. The possibility, moreover, to invest excess liquidity in the interbank market at a positive interest rate increases expected bank profits. (J.E.L.: E52, G21). [source]

    Book Reviews: Financial Crises, Liquidity, and the International Monetary System

    ECONOMICA, Issue 282 2004
    Ronald I. McKinnon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Liquidity: Considerations of a Portfolio Manager

    Laurie Simon Hodrick
    This paper examines liquidity and how it affects the behavior of portfolio managers, who account for a significant portion of trading in many assets. We define an asset to be perfectly liquid if a portfolio manager can trade the quantity she desires when she desires at a price not worse than the uninformed expected value. A portfolio manager is limited by both what she needs to attain and the ease with which she can attain it, making her sensitive to three dimensions of liquidity: price, timing, and quantity. Deviations from perfect liquidity in any of these dimensions impose shadow costs on the portfolio manager. By focusing on the trade-off between sacrificing on price and quantity instead of the canonical price-time trade-off, the model yields several novel empirical implications. Understanding a portfolio manager's liquidity considerations provides important insights into the liquidity of many assets and asset classes. [source]

    Share Repurchase Offers and Liquidity: An Examination of Temporary and Permanent Effects

    Nandkumar Nayar
    Open-market repurchase programs do not allow for precise estimates of share buy-back intensity to measure liquidity effects. To circumvent the uncertainty surrounding the quantity and timing of shares truly acquired in repurchase programs and to measure their long-term impact, we examine Dutch auctions and fixed-price tender offers. We investigate both the temporary and permanent liquidity effects of share repurchase programs and find that the improvement in liquidity is transitory and limited to the tender period when the firm's offer to repurchase shares is outstanding. Improvements in liquidity over longer intervals appear to be the result of an overall price improvement and a reduction in volatility rather than the result of structural change in market dynamics. [source]

    Stock Liquidity and Investment Opportunities: Evidence from Index Additions

    John R. Becker-Blease
    We examine the relation between stock liquidity and investment opportunities in a sample of firms experiencing an exogenous liquidity shock. We find a positive relation between changes in capital expenditures and changes in stock liquidity, indicating that stock liquidity influences corporate investment decisions. This relation is robust to alternative measures of growth opportunities, and is consistent with a liquidity premium in equity returns. That is, an increase in liquidity effectively expands the set of positive NPV projects because it reduces the cost of capital. The results suggest that liquidity-enhancing events benefit shareholders by increasing the pool of viable growth opportunities. [source]

    Investor Recognition, Liquidity, and Exchange Listings in the Reformed Markets

    Pankaj K. Jain
    We examine multiple facets of firms' descisions to list on the NYSE. Although the average Nasdaq spreads are now comparable to the average NYSE spreads, we find that firms continue to switch from Nasdaq to the NYSE, and that they experience positive cumulative abnormal returns on listing. Using a simultaneous ststem of equations approach, we establish that enhanced investor recognition mainly explains this phenomenon. A logistic regression suggesrts that corporate listing choice is consistent with these findings, since eligible unlisted firms already have high volumes and recognition and might not benefit as much as do firms that actually switch. [source]

    Arbitrage, Liquidity, and the Valuation of Exchange Traded Funds

    Lucy F. Ackert
    This paper investigates the performance of U.S. and country exchange traded funds currently traded in the United States and provides new insight into their pricing. While the U.S. funds are priced closely to their net asset values, the country funds are not and can exhibit large, positive autocorrelations in fund premium. The mispricing of country funds is related to momentum, illiquidity, and size effects. We also find an inverted U-shaped relationship between fund premium and market liquidity, which suggests that more active trading does lead to lower mispricing but only after a certain level of liquidity is reached. [source]

    Liquidity, Labels and Medium-Term Notes

    Donald J. Mullineaux
    We suggest that the medium-term note market provides an excellent laboratory for exploring the relationships between yield, liquidity, and the label affixed to a financial instrument. Crabbe and Turner (1995) examined the liquidity issue and uncovered the counter-intuitive result that issue size is unrelated to liquidity. Their study failed to examine a potential channel for a liquidity effect, however, in the form of multiple issues from a single, typically large, MTN registration filing. We find evidence that file size is significantly related to yield in a number of instances. Several other proxies for liquidity, such as frequency of issue, are also sometimes significantly related to yields. Contrary to Crabbe and Turner (1995), we find that labeling a security an MTN can have an impact on its yield. The label "note" also appears to matter for yield in some instances. [source]

    Securitization: The Transformation of Illiquid Financial Assets into Liquid Capital Market Securities Examples from the European Market

    Charles Austin Stone
    Since the benefits a firm can derive from securitization are universal, the discussion of a market bounded by national borders is somewhat artificial unless the focus is on constraints particular to the country which promote or inhibit the use of securitization. With the exception of the United Kingdom, regulatory constraints have been an important factor in slowing the development of a European market for asset and mortgage backed securities. In addition to the regulatory hurdles, securitization in Europe has been inhibited by segmented corporate bond markets and the relatively slow development of money market savings vehicles for households. Liquidity across credit spectrums has been enhanced since the introduction of the Euro, as has been the competition for savings. European companies are developing the ability to securitize even if the technique is not yet being widely exploited. What is the European market for mortgage and asset backed securities? Does it include the U.S. credit card banks, Citicorp, Chase, MBNA, and First USA that have refinanced U.S. credit card receivables in European currencies and in Euro? Does it include GMAC which has structured Swiss Franc and Euro ABS backed by its U.S. dealer floor plan loans? Does it include Japanese banks that have refinanced Yen denominated leases with Euro and Swiss Franc ABS? Does it include Barclays' issue of $1 billion of ABS backed by sterling credit card receivables? Of course the answer is yes. Markets are defined by both the supply and demand sides. Our analysis focuses on the supply side of the domestic European market. [source]

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and Market Liquidity

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
    Pankaj K. Jain
    G14; M41 Abstract Investors rely heavily on the trustworthiness and accuracy of corporate information to provide liquidity to the capital markets. We find that the rash of financial scandals caused a severe deterioration in market liquidity in the form of wider spreads, lower depths, and a higher adverse selection component of spreads vis-ŕ-vis their benchmark levels. Regulatory responses including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) had inconsequential short-term liquidity effects but highly significant and positive long-term liquidity effects. These liquidity improvements are positively associated with the improved quality of financial reports, several firm-specific variables (e.g., size), and market factors (e.g., price, volatility, volume). [source]

    Is Off,Board Trading Detrimental to Market Liquidity?

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2002
    Joanne Hamet
    Dual trading can have opposite effects: although competition between markets should induce dealers to offer cheaper transactions, market fragmentation could reduce market activity, liquidity, and exchange efficiency. This paper shows that for French stocks traded on the London Stock Exchange's SEAQ International (SEAQ,I), market activity decreases significantly in the Paris Bourse during UK bank holidays. Thus, SEAQ,I market makers seem to divert a new clientele to the Paris Bourse, increasing both market activity and the breadth of the Bourse's order book. Also, contrary to the fragmentation hypothesis, dual trading does not seem to increase information asymmetry. [source]

    Liquidity, Volatility and Equity Trading Costs Across Countries and Over Time

    Ian Domowitz
    Actual investment performance reflects the underlying strategy of the portfolio manager and the execution costs incurred in realizing those objectives. Execution costs, especially in illiquid markets, can dramatically reduce the notional return to an investment strategy. This paper examines the interactions between cost, liquidity and volatility, and analyses their determinants using panel data for 42 countries from September 1996 to December 1998. We document wide variation in trading costs across countries; emerging markets, in particular, have significantly higher trading costs even after correcting for factors such as market capitalization and volatility. We analyse the inter-relationships between turnover, equity trading costs and volatility, and investigate the impact of these variables on equity returns. In particular, we show that increased volatility, acting through costs, reduces a portfolio's expected return. However, higher volatility reduces turnover also, mitigating the actual impact of higher costs on returns. Further, turnover is inversely related to trading costs, providing a possible explanation for the increase in turnover in recent years. The results demonstrate that the composition of global efficient portfolios can change dramatically when cost and turnover are taken into account. [source]

    The Interaction of Solvency with Liquidity and its Association with Bankruptcy Emergence

    Daniel M. Bryan
    Prior research has shown that accounting information available prior to a bankruptcy is associated with the likelihood of bankruptcy. We show that additionally, the accounting information available prior to bankruptcy is associated with whether or not a firm will emerge from bankruptcy. We predict that firms that exhibit low solvency risk and high liquidity risk are most likely to emerge from bankruptcy. Firms that exhibit high solvency risk and high liquidity risk are predicted to be least likely to emerge from bankruptcy. Cross,sectionally, our results support these predictions, but our findings differ across large and small firms. [source]

    Discipline and Liquidity in the Interbank Market

    market discipline; federal funds; liquidity; bank risk Using 20 years of panel data, I demonstrate that high-risk banks have consistently paid more than safe banks for interbank loans and have been less likely to use these loans as a source of liquidity. The economic importance of this effect was relatively small until the mid-1990s, when regulatory and institutional changes began to impose more of the costs of bank failure on uninsured creditors. Subsequently, interbank-market price discipline roughly doubled, and risk-based rationing effects increased by a factor of six. In imposing this discipline, lenders seem to care most about credit risk at borrowing institutions. [source]

    Bank Mergers, Competition, and Liquidity

    credit market competition; bank reserves; internal money market; banking system liquidity; monetary operations We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings, and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the distribution of bank sizes and aggregate liquidity needs. Mergers among large banks tend to increase aggregate liquidity needs and thus the public provision of liquidity through monetary operations of the central bank. [source]

    Dealer Liquidity in an Auction Market: Evidence from the London Stock Exchange,

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 522 2007
    Sylvain Friederich
    We analyse the trade characteristics and market conditions which determine the market share of a continuous auction trading system at the London Stock Exchange, where a network of broker-dealer firms is also available for trade. We show that execution and information risks govern the choice of execution venue. Further, we uncover strong commonality in the market share of the order book across stocks, and find that variables proxying for market-wide liquidity and informational risks also affect the choice of trading venue. Our results suggest that competing, off-book liquidity suppliers voluntarily perform at least some of the ,stabilisation' functions normally assigned to designated market-makers. [source]

    Market Liquidity, Investor Participation, and Managerial Autonomy: Why Do Firms Go Private?

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 4 2008
    ABSTRACT We focus on public-market investor participation to analyze the firm's decision to stay public or go private. The liquidity of public ownership is both a blessing and a curse: It lowers the cost of capital, but also introduces volatility in a firm's shareholder base, exposing management to uncertainty regarding shareholder intervention in management decisions, thereby affecting the manager's perceived decision-making autonomy and curtailing managerial inputs. We extract predictions about how investor participation affects stock price level and volatility and the public firm's incentives to go private, providing a link between investor participation and firm participation in public markets. [source]

    The Development of Secondary Market Liquidity for NYSE-Listed IPOs

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 5 2004
    ABSTRACT For NYSE-listed IPOs, limit order submissions and depth relative to volume are unusually low on the first trading day. Initial buy-side liquidity is higher for IPOs with high-quality underwriters, large syndicates, low insider sales, and high premarket demand, while sell-side liquidity is higher for IPOs that represent a large fraction of outstanding shares and have low premarket demand. Our results suggest that uncertainty and offer design affect initial liquidity, though order flow stabilizes quickly. We also find that submission strategies are influenced by expected underwriter stabilization and preopening order flow contains information about both initial prices and subsequent returns. [source]

    Endogenous Liquidity in Asset Markets

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 1 2004
    Andrea L. Eisfeldt
    ABSTRACT This paper analyzes a model in which long-term risky assets are illiquid due to adverse selection. The degree of adverse selection and hence the liquidity of these assets is determined endogenously by the amount of trade for reasons other than private information. I find that higher productivity leads to increased liquidity. Moreover, liquidity magnifies the effects of changes in productivity on investment and volume. High productivity implies that investors initiate larger scale risky projects which increases the riskiness of their incomes. Riskier incomes induce more sales of claims to high-quality projects, causing liquidity to increase. [source]

    Presidential Address: Liquidity and Price Discovery

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 4 2003
    Maureen O'Hara
    This paper examines the implications of market microstructure for asset pricing. I argue that asset pricing ignores the central fact that asset prices evolve in markets. Markets provide liquidity and price discovery, and I argue that asset pricing models need to be recast in broader terms to incorporate the transactions costs of liquidity and the risks of price discovery. I argue that symmetric information-based asset pricing models do not work because they assume that the underlying problems of liquidity and price discovery have been solved. I develop an asymmetric information asset pricing model that incorporates these effects. [source]

    Order Flow and Liquidity around NYSE Trading Halts

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 4 2000
    Shane A. Corwin
    We study order flow and liquidity around NYSE trading halts. We find that market and limit order submissions and cancellations increase significantly during trading halts, that a large proportion of the limit order book at the reopen is composed of orders submitted during the halt, and that the market-clearing price at the reopen is a good predictor of future prices. Depth near the quotes is unusually low around trading halts, though specialists and/or floor traders appear to provide additional liquidity at these times. Finally, specialists appear to ,spread the quote' prior to imbalance halts to convey information to market participants. [source]