Anti-tumour Responses (anti-tumour + response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: strong T and B anti-tumour responses may cause hypocellular aspects of lymph nodes mimicking inflammatory lesions

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
B. Borisch
Abstract: The anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma which occurs in children mostly. The ALK protein is highly immunogenic and elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses. A 15-yr-old child presented with fever and adenopathy and did not respond to antibiotics. Biopsy of the enlarged lymph node contained almost no lymphoid element except for a few CD8-positive T cells, plasma cells and isolated CD30-positive blasts. The patient's condition improved following lymphadenectomy but relapse occurred 3 months later with multiple nodes, high fever and an abdominal mass. This time an ALK-positive ALCL was diagnosed and the retrospective analysis of the initial biopsy revealed rare, isolated ALK+ cells. Molecular analysis showed T-cell clones and oligoclonal B cells in both biopsies and peripheral blood of the patient. The tumour cells harbour a t(2;5) translocation, revealing a null phenotype by immunohistochemistry and no evidence for T-cell clonality by Southern blotting. The patient's serum contained anti-ALK antibodies. Our findings suggest that the T-cell clones and anti-ALK antibodies in this patient constitute an anti-tumour response that caused the hypocellularity of the initial lymph node. Hypocellular and oedematous lymph nodes occurring in a child with evocative symptoms should be tested for the presence of ALK. [source]


New approaches in the immunotherapy of haematological malignancies

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
Régis T. Costello
Abstract: Advances in the management of haematological malignancies have allowed to obtain improved remission rates. Nonetheless, relapses impair these results and justify the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Clinical data demonstrate that the immune system plays an important role in the control of haematological malignancies. An increased frequency of haematological malignancies is observed in immunodeficiency states. Reversal of the immunosuppression is sometimes sufficient to induce tumour regression (withdrawal of cyclosporine in post-transplant lymphoproliferations, highly active anti-retroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus related Kaposi's disease). Another line of evidence for the involvement of the immune system in the anti-tumour response comes from the observation of spontaneous anti-tumour responses that parallel the occurrence of paraneoplastic immune-mediated syndromes. Finally, the efficiency of allogeneic transplantation in the haematological field has been clearly demonstrated to depend on the immune-mediated graft vs. leukaemia effect. Nonetheless, tumours develop in immune competent patients because of various tumour escape mechanisms, such as loss of human leucocyte antigen class I antigens, absence of target recognition by deficient adhesion/co-stimulatory molecule expression, tumour cell counterattack against immune effectors, direct (contact-dependent) or indirect (cytokine-mediated) impairment of T-lymphocyte activation. Novel immunotherapy approaches are now orientated in a convergent direction, i.e. the reversal of immune escape mechanisms either via the correction of deficient phases of the immune response or by the amplification of physiological mechanisms. [source]


Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
E. Martinelli
Summary The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor involved in the proliferation and survival of cancer cells. EGFR is the first molecular target against which monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been developed for cancer therapy. Here we review the mechanisms underlying the effects of EGFR-specific mAb in cancer therapy. The efficacy of EGFR-specific mAb in cancer occurs thanks to inhibition of EGFR-generated signalling; furthermore, the effects of antibodies on the immune system seem to play an important role in determining the overall anti-tumour response. In this review, attention is focused on cetuximab and panitumumab, two mAb introduced recently into clinical practice for treatment of metastatic colorectal and head and neck cancer which target the external part of EGFR. [source]


ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: strong T and B anti-tumour responses may cause hypocellular aspects of lymph nodes mimicking inflammatory lesions

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
B. Borisch
Abstract: The anaplastic large cell lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma which occurs in children mostly. The ALK protein is highly immunogenic and elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses. A 15-yr-old child presented with fever and adenopathy and did not respond to antibiotics. Biopsy of the enlarged lymph node contained almost no lymphoid element except for a few CD8-positive T cells, plasma cells and isolated CD30-positive blasts. The patient's condition improved following lymphadenectomy but relapse occurred 3 months later with multiple nodes, high fever and an abdominal mass. This time an ALK-positive ALCL was diagnosed and the retrospective analysis of the initial biopsy revealed rare, isolated ALK+ cells. Molecular analysis showed T-cell clones and oligoclonal B cells in both biopsies and peripheral blood of the patient. The tumour cells harbour a t(2;5) translocation, revealing a null phenotype by immunohistochemistry and no evidence for T-cell clonality by Southern blotting. The patient's serum contained anti-ALK antibodies. Our findings suggest that the T-cell clones and anti-ALK antibodies in this patient constitute an anti-tumour response that caused the hypocellularity of the initial lymph node. Hypocellular and oedematous lymph nodes occurring in a child with evocative symptoms should be tested for the presence of ALK. [source]


New approaches in the immunotherapy of haematological malignancies

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
Régis T. Costello
Abstract: Advances in the management of haematological malignancies have allowed to obtain improved remission rates. Nonetheless, relapses impair these results and justify the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Clinical data demonstrate that the immune system plays an important role in the control of haematological malignancies. An increased frequency of haematological malignancies is observed in immunodeficiency states. Reversal of the immunosuppression is sometimes sufficient to induce tumour regression (withdrawal of cyclosporine in post-transplant lymphoproliferations, highly active anti-retroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus related Kaposi's disease). Another line of evidence for the involvement of the immune system in the anti-tumour response comes from the observation of spontaneous anti-tumour responses that parallel the occurrence of paraneoplastic immune-mediated syndromes. Finally, the efficiency of allogeneic transplantation in the haematological field has been clearly demonstrated to depend on the immune-mediated graft vs. leukaemia effect. Nonetheless, tumours develop in immune competent patients because of various tumour escape mechanisms, such as loss of human leucocyte antigen class I antigens, absence of target recognition by deficient adhesion/co-stimulatory molecule expression, tumour cell counterattack against immune effectors, direct (contact-dependent) or indirect (cytokine-mediated) impairment of T-lymphocyte activation. Novel immunotherapy approaches are now orientated in a convergent direction, i.e. the reversal of immune escape mechanisms either via the correction of deficient phases of the immune response or by the amplification of physiological mechanisms. [source]


Interleukin-21 is a T-helper cytokine that regulates humoral immunity and cell-mediated anti-tumour responses

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Pallavur V. Sivakumar
Summary Cytokines and their receptors represent key targets for therapeutic intervention. Ligands are being used to supplement cell numbers that become depleted as a result of disease (organ failure, infection) or subsequent disease treatments (i.e. chemotherapy). Conversely, the inhibition of target cell binding by cytokines is an established strategy for abrogating pathologic cellular activities common to many immunological diseases. Considerable effort in biomedical research is being focused on the cytokine families that play a dominant role in regulating immunity and then prioritizing each member for its therapeutic potential. Currently, the interleukin-2 (IL-2) family of cytokines is widely recognized for its central involvement in controlling lymphocyte function and is the most explored for medical utility. Collectively, these proteins (or their antagonists) are either marketed drugs or have received advanced testing for an impressive array of indications including cancer, infectious disease, transplantation, inflammation and allergic asthma. Here we review the current understanding of IL-21, the most recent member of this cytokine family to be discovered. As will be discussed, IL-21 shares many of the same attributes as its relatives in that it has broad immunoregulatory activity and can modulate both humoral and cell-mediated responses. Its ability to stimulate durable anti-tumour responses in mice defines one therapeutic indication that merits clinical development. [source]