Antitumor Response (antitumor + response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

DC therapy induces long-term NK reactivity to tumors via host DC

Kanako Shimizu
Abstract We vaccinated mice with DC loaded with or without invariant NKT-cell ligand ,-galactosylceramide and evaluated long-term resistance against tumor challenge. When mice had been given either DC or DC/galactosylceramide and were challenged with tumor cells even 6,12 months later, both NK and NKT cells were quickly activated to express CD69 and produce IFN-,. The NK cells could resist a challenge with several different tumors in vivo. The activated NK and NKT cells could be depleted with anti-NK1.1 treatment. In spite of this, the activated cells recovered, indicating that tumor-responsive NK and NKT cells were being generated continuously as a result of vaccination with DC and were not true memory cells. The NK and NKT antitumor response in DC-vaccinated mice depended on CD4+ T cells, but neither CD8+T cells nor CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. However, both vaccine DC and host DC were required for the development of long-term, tumor reactive innate immunity. These results indicate that DC therapy in mice induces long-lasting innate NK- and NKT-cell activation through a pathway that requires host DC and CD4+ T cells and that the continued generation of active NK cells resists the establishment of metastases in vivo. [source]

CTLA-4 gene promoter and exon 1 polymorphisms in Iranian patients with gastric and colorectal cancers

Abolghasem Hadinia
Abstract Background and Aim:, Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that suppresses antitumor response by down-regulating T-cell activation. Effects of several polymorphisms in CTLA-4 on CTLA-4 expression and function have been previously documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the putative effect of CTLA-4 polymorphisms on susceptibility to gastric and colorectal cancers in an Iranian population. Methods:, A total of 155 patients (109 with colorectal cancer and 46 with gastric cancer) and 190 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were evaluated. Genotyping of ,1722T/C, ,1661A/G, and +49A/G were performed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism methods and of ,318C/T by a PCR amplification refractory mutation system technique. Results:, No statistically significant differences were found in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies among patients and controls. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the TACG haplotype (,1722T, ,1661A, ,318C, +49G) frequency was significant increased in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.009) and gastric cancer (P = 0.006) in comparison to the control group. In contrast, the TACA haplotype frequency was significantly decreased in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.02) and not significantly decreased in patients with gastric cancer (P = 0.13) compared to the control group. Conclusion:, A positive association between CTLA-4 TACG haplotype and gastric and colorectal cancers was found in an Iranian population. A protective role for TACA haplotype is postulated. [source]

Cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis by fibroblast growth factor 2,targeted Ad-TK cancer gene therapy,

Koichiro Saito MD
Abstract Objectives: Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in addition to lung, skin, ovarian, and other cancers overexpress fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors on both individual tumor cells and endothelial cells within the tumor microenvironment. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether FGF2-targeted gene therapy could redirect adenoviral vectors encoding the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-TK) to FGF receptors on tumor and endothelial cells with the intent of improving both the efficiency of transgene expression and the antitumor response. Study Design and Methods: An Ad-TK vector consisting of a conjugate of FGF2 linked to a Fab, fragment against the adenoviral knob region was directly delivered to human HNSCC xenograft tumors in nude mice, which were subsequently dosed with ganciclovir. Tumor specimens were assessed for herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV- tk) transgene mRNA expression, FGF1/2 receptor expression, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin,deoxy uridine triphosphate nick end labeling assay for apoptosis, CD31 immunohistochemistry to estimate tumor microvessel density, and tumor volume change. Results: FGF2-retargeted Ad-TK gene therapy demonstrated significant increases in both HSV- tk mRNA expression and cellular apoptosis levels, and a significant decrease in tumor volume size compared with all other groups. Furthermore, microvessel density was significantly lower in the FGF2-retargeted Ad-TK group, indicating a strong antiangiogenesis effect. Conclusions: These data suggest that FGF2-retargeted Ad-TK produces a combination of expected direct antitumor cytotoxicity and a newly reported antiangiogenesis effect that could prove promising as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of FGF receptor,expressing cancers. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]

Combination Nonviral Interleukin-2 Gene Immunotherapy For Head and Neck Cancer: From Bench Top to Bedside

Bert W. O'Malley Jr MD
Abstract Objective/Hypothesis: Intralesional delivery of cytokine genes has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. In addition to the therapeutic effect of the delivered cytokine gene, the components of the gene delivery system also have been shown to induce beneficial immune responses. On the basis of these principles, we hypothesized that a molecular therapy could be developed that would provide synergistic antitumor activity by way of intralesional expression of interleukin (IL)-2 from a recombinant plasmid combined with induction of endogenous interferon (IFN)-, and IL-12 cytokines by immunostimulatory DNA. Our objective in these studies was to create and optimize a novel formulation of cationic lipid and DNA that generates local production of IL-2 protein within a targeted tumor environment with concomitant induction of the antitumor cytokines IFN-, and IL-12. Study Design: Prospective laboratory drug development plan that would produce human clinical trials. Materials and Methods: Engineered bacterial plasmids containing a cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV)-IL-2 expression cassette were specifically formulated with cationic lipids and optimized for antitumor effect in a floor of mouth murine tumor model. The treated tumors were assayed for local expression of IL-2 and concurrent expression of secondary cytokines IFN-, and IL-12. Established tumors in C3H/HeJ mice were treated with various IL-2 gene formulations, and clinical and immunologic responses were evaluated. Immunologic studies were performed and included cytolytic T-cell assays and cytokine expression profiles. For human clinical trials, a phase I 10 patient formulated IL-2 gene therapy study was completed. Subsequently, two large scale, phase II multi-institutional and multi-international studies were initiated comparing non-viral IL-2 gene therapy to palliative methotrexate chemotherapy or in combination with cisplatin. Results: In the preclinical stage, maximum tumor inhibition in animal models was obtained using IL-2 plasmid formulated with 1,2-dioleyloxypropyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chloride (DOTMA):cholesterol (1:1 mol:mol) at a plasmid:lipid charge ratio of 1:0.5 (,/+). Cationic lipid formulated IL-2 plasmid significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with formulated control plasmid (P < .01) or vehicle (lactose; P < .01). Consistent with previously reported studies of the immunostimulatory activity of DNA of bacterial origin, treatment of tumors with control plasmid in cationic lipid formulation induced production of endogenous IFN-, and IL-12 but not IL-2. Treatment of tumors with formulated IL-2 plasmid produced IL-2 protein levels that were 5-fold over background and increased IFN-, by 32-fold (P < .001) and IL-12 by 5.5-fold (P < .001) compared with control plasmid formulations. The phase I human trial demonstrated dose escalation safety, which was its primary objective, and there was one anecdotal reduction in tumor size. The phase II studies have been initiated and focus on either comparing the novel nonviral IL-2 gene immunotherapy formulation alone to methotrexate or comparing IL-2 gene therapy in combination with cisplatin in recurrent or unresectable patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: The preclinical data provided proof of principle for matching a delivered IL-2 transgene with an immunostimulatory nonviral formulation to enhance intralesional production of therapeutic cytokines for the maximization of antitumor response. Human clinical trials have demonstrated this novel therapy to be safe in the human clinical setting. Phase II trials have been initiated to assess efficacy and feasibility as a single or combination therapy for head and neck cancer. [source]

Gene Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer ,

Lyon L. Gleich MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis New treatment methods are needed for head and neck cancer to improve survival without increasing morbidity. Gene therapy is a potential method of improving patient outcome. Progress in gene therapy for cancer is reviewed with emphasis on the limitations of vector technology and treatment strategies. Given the current technological vector limitations in transmitting the therapeutic genes, treatments that require the fewest number of cells to be altered by the new gene are optimal. Therefore an immune-based gene therapy strategy was selected in which the tumors were transfected with the gene for an alloantigen, human leukocyte antigen (HLA),B7, a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This would restore an antigen presentation mechanism in the tumor to induce an antitumor response. This gene therapy strategy was tested in patients with advanced, unresectable head and neck cancer. Study Design Prospective trial. Methods Twenty patients with advanced head and neck cancer who had failed conventional therapy and did not e-press HLA-B7 were treated with gene therapy using a lipid vector by direct intratumoral injection. The gene therapy product contained the HLA-B7 gene and the ,2-microglobulin gene, which permits complete e-pression of the class I MHC at the cell surface. Patients were assessed for any adverse effects, for changes in tumor size, for time to disease progression, and for survival. Biopsy specimens were assessed for pathological response, HLA-B7 e-pression, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, CD-8 cells, granzyme, and p53 status. Results There were no adverse effects from the gene therapy. At 16 weeks after beginning gene therapy, four patients had a partial response and two patients had stable disease. Two of the tumors completely responded clinically, but tumor was still seen on pathological examination. The time to disease progression in the responding patients was 20 to 80 weeks. The median survival in patients who completed gene therapy was 54 weeks, compared with 21 weeks in patients whose tumors progressed after the first cycle of treatment. One patient survived for 106 weeks without any additional therapy. HLA-B7 was demonstrated in the treated tumors, and increased apoptosis was seen in the responding tumors. Conclusion Significant advances have been made in the field of gene therapy for cancer. Alloantigen gene therapy has had efficacy in the treatment of cancer and can induce tumor responses in head and neck tumors. Alloantigen gene therapy has significant potential as an adjunctive treatment of head and neck cancer. [source]

Effect of millimeter waves on natural killer cell activation

V.R. Makar
Abstract Millimeter wave therapy (MMWT) is being widely used for the treatment of many diseases in Russia and other East European countries. MMWT has been reported to reduce the toxic effects of chemotherapy on the immune system. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether millimeter waves (MMWs) can modulate the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPA), an anticancer drug, on natural killer (NK) cell activity. NK cells play an important role in the antitumor response. MMWs were produced with a Russian-made YAV-1 generator. The device produced modulated 42.2,,0.2 GHz radiation through a 10,,20 mm rectangular output horn. Mice, restrained in plastic tubes, were irradiated on the nasal area. Peak SAR at the skin surface and peak incident power density were measured as 622,,100 W/kg and 31,,5 mW/cm2, respectively. The maximum temperature elevation, measured at the end of 30 min, was 1 C. The animals, restrained in plastic tubes, were irradiated on the nasal area. CPA injection (100 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally on the second day of 3-days exposure to MMWs. All the irradiation procedures were performed in a blinded manner. NK cell activation and cytotoxicity were measured after 2, 5, and 7 days following CPA injection. Flow cytometry of NK cells showed that CPA treatment caused a marked enhancement in NK cell activation. The level of CD69 expression, which represents a functional triggering molecule on activated NK cells, was increased in the CPA group at all the time points tested as compared to untreated mice. However, the most enhancement in CD69 expression was observed on day 7. A significant increase in TNF-, level was also observed on day 7 following CPA administration. On the other hand, CPA caused a suppression of the cytolytic activity of NK cells. MMW irradiation of the CPA treated groups resulted in further enhancement of CD69 expression on NK cells, as well as in production of TNF-,. Furthermore, MMW irradiation restored CPA induced suppression of the cytolytic activity of NK cells. Our results show that MMW irradiation at 42.2 GHz can up-regulate NK cell functions. Bioelectromagnetics 26:10,19, 2005. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Induction of carbohydrate-specific antibodies in HLA-DR transgenic mice by a synthetic glycopeptide: a potential anti cancer vaccine for human use

S. Vichier-Guerre
Abstract: Over the last few years, anticancer immunotherapy has emerged as a new exciting area for controlling tumors. In particular, vaccination using synthetic tumor-associated antigens (TAA), such as carbohydrate antigens hold promise for generating a specific antitumor response by targeting the immune system to cancer cells. However, development of synthetic vaccines for human use is hampered by the extreme polymorphism of human leukocyte-associated antigens (HLA). In order to stimulate a T-cell dependent anticarbohydrate response, and to bypass the HLA polymorphism of the human population, we designed and synthesized a glycopeptide vaccine containing a cluster of a carbohydrate TAA B-cell epitope (Tn antigen: , -GalNAc-Ser) covalently linked to peptides corresponding to the Pan DR ,universal' T-helper epitope (PADRE) and to a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope from the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The immunogenicity of the construct was evaluated in outbred mice as well as in HLA transgenic mice (HLA-DR1, and HLA-DR4). A strong T-cell dependent antibody response specific for the Tn antigen was elicited in both outbred and HLA transgenic mice. The antibodies induced by the glycopeptide construct efficiently recognized a human tumor cell line underlying the biological relevance of the response. The rational design and synthesis of the glycopeptide construct presented herein, together with its efficacy to induce antibodies specific for native tumor carbohydrate antigens, demonstrate the potential of a such synthetic molecule as an anticancer vaccine candidate for human use. [source]

Targeted therapy of renal cell carcinoma: Synergistic activity of cG250-TNF and IFNg

Stefan Bauer
Abstract Immunotherapeutic targeting of G250/Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) represents a promising strategy for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The well characterized human-mouse chimeric G250 (cG250) antibody has been shown in human studies to specifically enrich in CA-IX positive tumors and was chosen as a carrier for site specific delivery of TNF in form of our IgG-TNF-fusion protein (cG250-TNF) to RCC xenografts. Genetically engineered TNF constructs were designed as CH2/CH3 truncated cG250-TNF fusion proteins and eucariotic expression was optimized under serum-free conditions. In-vitro characterization of cG250-TNF comprised biochemical analysis and bioactivity assays, alone and in combination with Interferon-, (IFN,). Biodistribution data on radiolabeled [125J] cG250-TNF and antitumor activity of cG250-TNF, alone and in combination with IFN,, were measured on RCC xenografts in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Combined administration of cG250-TNF and IFN, caused synergistic biological effects that represent key mechanisms displaying antitumor responses. Biodistribution studies demonstrated specific accumulation and retention of cG250-TNF at CA-IX-positive RCC resulting in growth inhibition of RCC and improved progression free survival and overall survival. Antitumor activity induced by targeted TNF-based constructs could be enhanced by coadministration of low doses of nontargeted IFN, without significant increase in side effects. Administration of cG250-TNF and IFN, resulted in significant synergistic tumoricidal activity. Considering the poor outcome of renal cancer patients with advanced disease, cG250-TNF-based immunotherapeutic approaches warrant clinical evaluation. 2009 UICC [source]

Combination Nonviral Cytokine Gene Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer,

Daqing Li MD
Abstract Objective To establish the feasibility and efficacy of combination nonviral murine interferon-, (mIFN-,) and murine interleukin-2 (mIL-2) or murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12) gene therapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a murine model. Study Design Randomized controlled studies in a murine head and neck cancer model were performed to assess antitumor responses, secondary cytokine expression, and both natural killer (NK) cell and cytolytic T-cell (CTL) activity. Methods Tumors were established in the floor of mouth in C3H/HeJ immunocompetent mice. Established tumors were directly injected with polymer-formulated murine interferon-, (mIFN-,), lipid-formulated mIL-2, and polymer-formulated mIL-12 alone or in combination. Primary and secondary cytokine expression, NK cell activity, and CTL activity were assayed. Results The use of mIFN-, gene therapy in combination with either mIL-2 or mIL-12 resulted in significant antitumor effects as compared with each of the single cytokine and control treatment groups (P = .002). Increased levels of NK cell activity and tumor specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity were found in the combination mIFN-, and mIL-2 or mIL-12 groups. Augmented immune responses correlated with clinical antitumor effects. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that mIL-2 or mIL-12 augments tumor inhibition from mIFN-, and increases activation of NK and CD8+ T cells. These data support further investigation of polymer and lipid mediated delivery of cytokine genes for head and neck cancer. [source]

A phase II study of gemcitabine and docetaxel therapy in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma

CANCER, Issue 9 2003
Barbara J. Gitlitz M.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine plus docetaxel in patients with unresectable (Stage T4 or , N1) metastatic or locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelial tract. METHODS A total of 27 patients were enrolled in the current multisite study, which was performed within the University of California-Los Angeles Community Oncology Research Network. The first 10 patients in the study received 800 mg/m2 of gemcitabine intravenously on Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day treatment cycle. In addition, on Day 1, the first 10 patients received 80 mg/m2 of docetaxel intravenously after completion of the gemcitabine infusion. Because of dose-limiting toxicity (neutropenia), the initial dose of docetaxel was reduced to 60 mg/m2 for the remaining patients who entered the study (n = 17 patients). RESULTS Neutropenia was the most common adverse event that occurred in patients at the Grade 3 level (in 10 of 27 patients; 37.0%) and the Grade 4 level (in 6 of 27 patients; 22.2%). There were no other adverse events at the Grade 4 toxicity level. Twenty-five of 27 patients (92.6%) completed more than 1 cycle of combination therapy and were evaluated for antitumor responses. The frequency of objective clinical responses was 33.3% (9 of 27 patients). Complete responses to therapy were observed in 2 of 27 patients (7.4%), and partial responses were observed in 7 of 27 patients (25.9%). The median duration of response was 20 weeks (range, 12+ weeks to 152 weeks). The median survival duration was 52 weeks (range, 12 weeks to 160+ weeks). Four of 27 patients (14.8%) remained alive at the time of the current data analysis. CONCLUSIONS The results of the current study suggested that combination therapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel was an effective treatment for patients with unresectable (Stage T4 or , N1) metastatic or locally advanced TCC of the urothelial tract. Gemcitabine plus docetaxel appeared to be tolerated well, and treatment-related toxicities were limited to hematologic toxicities. Because cisplatin-containing regimens are contraindicated for patients with impaired renal function, the gemcitabine plus docetaxel combination may prove to be an effective and well tolerated treatment option for these patients. Cancer 2003. 2003 American Cancer Society. [source]

Clinical applications of natural killer T cell,based immunotherapy for cancer

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
Shinichiro Motohashi
Human invariant V,24 natural killer T (NKT) cells are a novel, distinct lymphocyte population, characterized by an invariant T-cell receptor V,24 chain paired with V,11. V,24 NKT cells are activated by a specific glicolipid ligand, ,-GalCer, and rapidly produce a large amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, thereby modulating other immune cells such as antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells. Recent studies have shown that NKT cells play pivotal regulatory roles in many immune responses, including antitumor immunity. We herein review the quantitative alteration and functional deterioration of circulating V,24 NKT cells in various cancer-bearing patients. We also summarize the recent progress in the clinical studies of NKT cell-based tumor immunotherapy. Novel immunological results including the increased peripheral blood V,24 NKT cells and IFN-producing cells after the immunotherapy were revealed. The details of the safety profile and the antitumor responses were also disclosed. Although the objective clinical responses still remain unclear, some encouraging results have emerged. Therefore, NKT cell-based immunotherapy may potentially be an effective strategy for the treatment of cancer patients. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 638,645) [source]