Antitumor Immune Response (antitumor + immune_response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Identification of SPARC as a candidate target antigen for immunotherapy of various cancers

Mitsuhiro Inoue
Abstract To establish efficient anticancer immunotherary, it is important to identify tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) directing the immune system to attack cancer. A genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis identified that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) gene is overexpressed in the gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancer tissues but not in their noncancerous counterparts. This study attempted to identify HLA-A24 (A*2402)-restricted and SPARC-derived CTL epitopes. We previously identified H-2Kd -restricted and SPARC-derived CTL epitope peptides in BALB/c mice, of which H-2Kd -binding peptide motif is comparable with that of HLA-A24 binding peptides. By using these peptides, we tried to induce HLA-A24 (A*2402)-restricted and SPARC-reactive human CTLs and demonstrated an antitumor immune response. The SPARC-A24-1143,151 (DYIGPCKYI) and SPARC-A24-4225,234 (MYIFPVHWQF) peptides-reactive CTLs were successfully induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by in vitro stimulation with these two peptides in HLA-A24 (A*2402) positive healthy donors and cancer patients, and these CTLs exhibited cytotoxicity specific to cancer cells expressing both SPARC and HLA-A24 (A*2402). Furthermore, the adoptive transfer of the SPARC-specific CTLs could inhibit the tumor growth in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing human cancer cells expressing both HLA-A24 (A*2402) and SPARC. These findings suggest that SPARC is a potentially useful target candidate for cancer immunotherapy. [source]

Short-term dietary administration of celecoxib enhances the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccines in treating murine breast cancer

Tobias Hahn
Abstract Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins. It is over-expressed in multiple cancers and has been associated with diminished tumor immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered candidates for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T cells and stimulate immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumors. In this study, we evaluated the effect of short-term administration of the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib on the efficacy of DC-based vaccines in preventing and treating established 4T1 murine mammary tumors. We show that dietary celecoxib alone significantly suppresses the growth of primary tumors and the incidence of lung metastases in the prophylactic setting but is less effective against pre-established tumors. However, we demonstrate that celecoxib administered after primary tumor establishment synergizes with tumor lysate-pulsed DC and the adjuvant, GM-CSF, to improve the antitumor immune response by suppressing primary tumor growth and markedly reducing the occurrence of lung metastases. This triple combination therapy elicits a tumor-specific immune response evidenced by elevated IFN-, and IL-4 secretion by CD4+ T cells and results in increased infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to the tumor site. In addition, dietary celecoxib inhibits angiogenesis evidenced by decreased vascular proliferation within the tumor and serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels. These studies suggest that short-term celecoxib therapy in combination with DC vaccines may be safely used for treating metastatic breast cancer. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Therapeutics targeting tumor immune escape: Towards the development of new generation anticancer vaccines

Simone Mocellin
Abstract Despite the evidence that immune effectors can play a significant role in controlling tumor growth under natural conditions or in response to therapeutic manipulation, it is clear that malignant cells evade immune surveillance in most cases. Considering that anticancer vaccination has reached a plateau of results and currently no vaccination regimen is indicated as a standard anticancer therapy, the dissection of the molecular events underlying tumor immune escape is the necessary condition to make anticancer vaccines a therapeutic weapon effective enough to be implemented in the routine clinical setting. Recent years have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor immune escape. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed at reverting the immunosuppressive circuits that undermine an effective antitumor immune response. In this review, the best characterized mechanisms that allow cancer cells to evade immune surveillance are overviewed and the most debated controversies constellating this complex field are highlighted. In addition, the latest therapeutic strategies devised to overcome tumor immune escape are described, with special regard to those entering clinical phase investigation. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Med Res Rev, 28, No. 3, 413,444, 2008 [source]

Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Photocarcinogenesis Through Inhibition of Angiogenic Factors and Activation of CD8+ T Cells in Tumors

Sudheer K. Mantena
ABSTRACT There has been considerable interest in the use of botanical supplements to protect skin from the adverse effects of solar UV radiation, including photocarcinogenesis. We and others have shown that topical application of (,)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea prevents photocarcinogenesis in mice; however, the chemopreventive mechanism of EGCG in an in vivo tumor model is not clearly understood. In this study, UV-B-induced skin tumors with and without treatment of EGCG (,1 mg/cm2) and age-matched skin biopsies from SKH-1 hairless mice were used to identify potential molecular targets of skin cancer prevention by EGCG. These biopsies were analyzed for various biomarkers of angiogenesis and antitumor immune response using immunostaining, Western blotting and gelatinolytic zymography. We report that compared to non-EGCG-treated tumors, topical application of EGCG in UV-induced tumors resulted in inhibition of protein expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which play crucial roles in tumor growth and metastasis. In contrast, tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1), which inhibits MMP activity, was increased in tumors. With respect to the tumor vasculature, EGCG decreased the expression of CD31, a cell surface marker of vascular endothelial cells, and inhibited the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in tumors, which are essential for angiogenesis. EGCG inhibited proliferating cell nuclear antigen in UV-B-induced tumors as well. Additionally, higher numbers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+ T cells) were detected in EGCG-treated tumors compared with non-EGCG-treated tumors. Together, these in vivo tumor data suggested that inhibition of photocarcinogenesis in mice by EGCG is associated with inhibition of angiogenic factors and induction of antitumor immune reactivity. [source]

Combined radiation therapy and dendritic cell vaccine for treating solid tumors with liver micro-metastasis

Zhuang Chen
Abstract Background Tumor metastasis and relapse are major obstacles in combating human malignant diseases. Neither radiotherapy alone nor injection of dendritic cells (DCs) can successfully overcome this problem. Radiation induces tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis, resulting in the release of tumor antigen and danger signals, which are favorable for DC capturing antigens and maturation. Hence, the strategy of combined irradiation and DC vaccine may be a novel approach for treating human malignancies and early metastasis. Methods To develop an effective combined therapeutic approach, we established a novel concomitant local tumor and liver metastases model through subcutaneous (s.c.) and intravenous (i.v.) injection. We selected the optimal time for DC injection after irradiation and investigated the antitumor effect of combining irradiation with DC intratumoral injection and the related mechanism. Results Combined treatment with radiotherapy and DC vaccine could induce a potent antitumor immune response, resulting in a significant decrease in the rate of local tumor relapse and the numbers of liver metastases. The related mechanisms for this strong antitumor immunity of this combined therapy might be associated with the production of apoptotic and necrotic tumor antigens and heat shock proteins after irradiation, phagocytosis, migration and maturation of DCs, and induction of more efficient tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity through a cross-presentation pathway. Conclusions Co-administration of local irradiation and intratumoral DC injection may be a promising strategy for treating radiosensitive tumors and eliminating metastasis in the clinic. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Distribution of Foxp3-, CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytic cells in benign and malignant prostate tissue

APMIS, Issue 5 2010
Valdman A, Jaraj SJ, Compérat E, Charlotte F, Roupret M, Pisa P, Egevad L. Distribution of Foxp3-, CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytic cells in benign and malignant prostate tissue. APMIS 2010; 118: 360,5. Foxp3 is a transcription factor that inhibits antitumor immune response and is expressed in regulatory T cells (Tregs). High levels of Tregs have been reported in several human cancers. This study investigates the distribution of cells positive for Foxp3, CD4 and CD8 in benign prostatic tissues and prostatic carcinoma. Tissue microarrays were constructed from radical prostatectomy specimens of 36 patients. From each patient, six cores were taken: two cores from cancer, one from benign tissue of each of the peripheral (PZ), transition (TZ) and central zones (CZ) and one from atrophy. Foxp3-, CD4- and CD8-positive cells were more common in cancer than in non-atrophic benign tissue (p < 0.01) and more common in atrophy than in non-atrophic PZ, but did not differ significantly between cancer and atrophy. Cells positive for Foxp3 and CD4 were less prevalent in CZ than in PZ and TZ. Tregs infiltrate more in prostate cancer (PC) than in benign tissue. Their presence in atrophy may have relevance for the hypothesis on atrophy as a potential precursor lesion of PC. CZ has the lowest Treg levels, and a possible role for the low rate of cancer in this zone remains to be investigated. [source]

,-Galactosylceramide-loaded, antigen-expressing B cells prime a wide spectrum of antitumor immunity

Yeon-Jeong Kim
Abstract Most of the current tumor vaccines successfully elicit strong protection against tumor but offer little therapeutic effect against existing tumors, highlighting the need for a more effective vaccine strategy. Vaccination with tumor antigen-presenting cells can induce antitumor immune responses. We have previously shown that NKT-licensed B cells prime cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with epitope peptide and generate prophylactic/therapeutic antitumor effects. To extend our B cell vaccine approach to the whole antigen, and to overcome the MHC restriction, we used a nonreplicating adenovirus to transduce B cells with antigenic gene. Primary B cells transduced with an adenovirus-encoding truncated Her-2/neu (AdHM) efficiently expressed Her-2/neu. Compared with the moderate antitumor activity induced by vaccination with adenovirus-transduced B cells (B/AdHM), vaccination with ,-galactosylceramide-loaded B/AdHM (B/AdHM/,GalCer) induced significantly stronger antitumor immunity, especially in the tumor-bearing mice. The depletion study showed that CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells were all necessary for the therapeutic immunity. Confirming the results of the depletion study, B/AdHM/,GalCer vaccination induced cytotoxic NK cell responses but B/AdHM did not. Vaccination with B/AdHM/,GalCer generated Her-2/neu -specific antibodies more efficiently than B/AdHM immunization. More importantly, B/AdHM/,GalCer could prime Her-2/neu -specific cytotoxic T cells more efficiently and durably than B/AdHM. CD4+ cells appeared to be necessary for the induction of antibody and CTL responses. Our results demonstrate that, with the help of NKT cells, antigen-transduced B cells efficiently induce innate immunity as well as a wide range of adaptive immunity against the tumor, suggesting that they could be used to develop a novel cellular vaccine. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

PIBF: The Double Edged Sword.

Pregnancy, Tumor
Citation Szekeres-Bartho J, Polgar B. PIBF: The Double Edged Sword. Pregnancy and Tumor. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 64: 77,86 Problem, The role of progesterone-dependent immunomodulation in the maintenance of normal pregnancy. Methods,In vitro and in vivo data on the effect that progesterone and its mediator progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) exert on the immune functions of pregnant women are reviewed, together with clinical findings. Results, Activated pregnancy lymphocytes express progesterone receptors, which enable progesterone to induce a protein called PIBF. PIBF increases Th2 type cytokine production by signaling via a novel type of IL-4 receptor and activating the Jak/STAT pathway. PIBF inhibits phosholipase A2, thus reduces prostaglandin synthesis. PIBF inhibits perforin release in human decidual lymphocytes and reduces the deleterious effect of high NK activity on murine pregnancy. PIBF production is a characteristic feature of normal human pregnancy, and its concentration is reduced in threatened pregnancies. PIBF mRNA and protein are expressed in a variety of malignant tumors. Inhibition of PIBF synthesis increases survival rates of leukemic mice. Conclusion, Progesterone-induced blocking factor is produced by pregnancy lymphocytes and also by malignant tumors. The PIBF-induced Th2-dominant immune response is favorable during pregnancy but might facilitate tumor growth by suppressing local antitumor immune responses. [source]

Natural killer T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses and their clinical applications

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2006
Ken-ichiro Seino
A unique lymphocyte population, CD1d-restricted NKT cells, has been revealed to be a key player in both the innate and acquired immune responses, including antitumor effects. Recent studies revealed that at least two subsets of CD1d-restricted NKT cells exist: type I, having invariant V,14 receptor; and type II, having heterogeneous non-V,14 receptor. The specific glycolipid ligand, ,-GalCer, effectively stimulates mouse and human type I NKT cells. The activation of type I NKT cells substantially influences function of other various cell types, particularly DC, NK cells, CD4 Th1 cells, and CD8 cytotoxic T cells, all contributing to the antitumor immune responses. Recent studies also indicated that, unlike type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells have a potential to repress antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the antitumor immune responses mediated by both mouse and human CD1d-restricted NKT cells and discuss their potential in clinical applications against cancer. (Cancer Sci 2006; 97: 807,812) [source]

Generation of mature dendritic cells fully capable of T helper type 1 polarization using OK-432 combined with prostaglandin E2

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 12 2003
Marimo Sato
Dendritic cell (DC) administration appears to be a very promising approach for the immunotherapy of cancer. The results of clinical studies have suggested that the nature and the magnitude of antitumor immune responses are critically affected by DC functions, including production of T helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing cytokines, activation of T cell subsets and natural killer (NK) cells, and migration from peripheral tissues to the T cell area of the draining lymph nodes. Administration of immature DCs could fail to fully stimulate antigen-specific immune responses and might induce tolerance under some conditions. In this study, we developed a method to obtain fully mature DCs, and we compared in detail the DCs thus obtained with those obtained using a maturation stimulus termed monocyte-derived medium (MCM)-mimic, which is a mixture of recombinant cytokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mimicking the components of monocyte-conditioned medium. Using DCs derived from monocytes of advanced cancer patients in this study, we found that DCs stimulated with OK-432 alone showed phenotypes similar to those of mature DCs induced using MCM-mimic, though with better secretion of IL-6 and IL-12. However, these DCs were found to have poor migratory capacity associated with the marginal expression of CCR7. When OK-432 was combined with PGE2, the CCR7 expression and migratory capacity of DCs were significantly improved without impairing other immuno-stimulatory functions. These results suggest that stimulation with the combination of OK-432 and PGE2 could be applicable as an alternative to MCM-mimic in clinical trials which require fully matured DCs to induce Th1-type immune responses against tumor cells even in patients with advanced cancer. [source]