Antisocial Behavior (antisocial + behavior)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Antisocial Behavior

  • adolescent antisocial behavior


  • Selected Abstracts


    THE APPLE DOESN'T FALL FAR FROM THE TREE (OR DOES IT?): INTERGENERATIONAL PATTERNS OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR,THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY 2008 SUTHERLAND ADDRESS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    TERENCE P. THORNBERRY
    There is a growing literature on intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior and a growing understanding of the unique contributions they are likely to make. At the same time, the field has yet to agree on core design features for intergenerational study. In this article, I propose a set of defining design elements that all intergenerational studies should meet and I discuss the advantages of these studies for enhancing our understanding of the onset and course of delinquent careers. I then use data from the ongoing Rochester Intergenerational Study to illustrate these points and the potential yield of intergenerational studies. In particular, I examine intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior and school disengagement, test the cycle of violence hypothesis to see whether a history of maltreatment increases the likelihood of perpetration of maltreatment, and estimate a structural equation model to help identify mediating pathways that link parents and children with respect to antisocial behavior. [source]


    ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY STRUCTURE AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: PARENTAL COHABITATION AND BLENDED HOUSEHOLDS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    ROBERT APEL
    In the last several decades, the American family has undergone considerable change, with less than half of all adolescents residing with two married biological parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we construct an elaborate measure of family structure and find considerable heterogeneity in the risk of antisocial and delinquent behavior among groups of youth who reside in what are traditionally dichotomized as intact and nonintact families. In particular, we find that youth in "intact" families differ in important ways depending on whether the two biological parents are married or cohabiting and on whether they have children from a previous relationship. In addition, we find that youth who reside with a single biological parent who cohabits with a nonbiological partner exhibit an unusually high rate of antisocial behavior, especially if the custodial parent is the biological father. [source]


    UNPACKING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADOLESCENT EMPLOYMENT AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A MATCHED SAMPLES COMPARISON,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    ROBERT APEL
    A large body of research has consistently found that intensive employment during the school year is associated with heightened antisocial behavior. These findings have been influential in prompting policy recommendations to establish stricter limits on the number of hours that students can work during the school year. We reexamine the linkage between first-time work at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Our analysis uses group-based trajectory modeling to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. This stratification serves to control for preexisting differences between workers and nonworkers and permits us to examine whether the effect of work on problem behaviors depends on the developmental history of those behaviors. Contrary to most prior research we find no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. However, we do find some indication that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their working for the first time. [source]


    ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND YOUTH GANG MEMBERSHIP: SELECTION AND SOCIALIZATION

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    RACHEL A. GORDON
    We examine whether gang membership is associated with higher levels of delinquency because boys predisposed to delinquent activity are more likely than others to join. We use 10 years of longitudinal data from 858 participants of the Pittsburgh Youth Study to identify periods before, during and after gang membership. We build on prior research by controlling for ages and calendar time, by better accounting for gang memberships that occurred before the study began, and by using fixed effects statistical models. We find more evidence than has been found in prior studies that boys who join gangs are more delinquent before entering the gang than those who do not join. Even with such selective differences, however, we replicate research showing that drug selling, drug use, violent behaviors and vandalism of property increase significantly when a youth joins a gang. The delinquency of peers appears to be one mechanism of socialization. These findings are clearest in youth self-reports, but are also evident in reports from parents and teachers on boys' behavior and delinquency. Once we adjust for time trends, we find that the increase in delinquency is temporary, that delinquency falls to pre-gang levels when boys leave gangs. [source]


    INDIVIDUAL STABILITY OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR FROM CHILDHOOD TO ADULTHOOD: TESTING THE STABILITY POSTULATE OF MOFFITT'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    ANDREA G. DONKER
    This paper presents a test of Moffitt's (1993) prediction on the stability of longitudinal antisocial behavior, using data from the South-Holland Study. Aggressive (overt) and non-aggressive antisocial (covert) behaviors were measured when subjects were 6,11 years old, and at follow-ups when they were 12,17 years old and 20,25 years old. In accordance with the postulate, we did find a higher level of stability of overt behavior from childhood to adulthood, compared with childhood to adolescence, especially in combination with early manifestations of status violations and/or covert behavior in childhood. Results related to the stability of covert behavior were not in accordance with the prediction, but did support the recently proposed adjustment to the starting age of the adult phase. [source]


    A CROSS-CULTURAL EXAMINATION OF THE LINK BETWEEN CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AND ADOLESCENT ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    RONALD L. SIMONS
    Several studies with older children have reported a positive relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and child conduct problems. This has lead some social scientists to conclude that physical discipline fosters antisocial behavior. In an attempt to avoid the methodological difficulties that have plagued past research on this issue, the present study used a proportional measure of corporal punishment, controlled for earlier behavior problems and other dimensions of parenting, and tested for interaction and curvilinear effects. The analyses were performed using a sample of Iowa families that displayed moderate use of corporal punishment and a Taiwanese sample that demonstrated more frequent and severe use of physical discipline, especially by fathers. For both samples, level of parental warmth/control (i.e., support, monitoring, and inductive reasoning) was the strongest predictor of adolescent conduct problems. There was little evidence of a relationship between corporal punishment and conduct problems for the Iowa sample. For the Taiwanese families, corporal punishment was unrelated to conduct problems when mothers were high on warmth/control, but positively associated with conduct problems when they were low on warmtwcontrol, An interaction between corporal punishment and warmth/Wcontro1 was found for Taiwanese fathers as well. For these fathers, there was also evidence of a curvilinear relationship, with the association between corporal punishment and conduct problems becoming much stronger at extreme levels of corporal punishment. Overall, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is when parents engage in severe forms of corporal punishment, or administer physical discipline in the absence of parental warmth and involvement, that children feel angry and unjustly treated, defy parental authority, and engage in antisocial behavior. [source]


    Family Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2003
    Maja Dekovi, Ph.D.
    The goal of the present study was to examine the combined and unique ability of different aspects of family functioning to predict involvement in antisocial behavior in a large nonclinical (community) sample of adolescents. Distinction was made between global (e.g., family socio-economic status), distal (dispositional characteristics of parents), contextual (family characteristics), and proximal (parent-child interaction) factors that operate within families. Results show that proximal factors were significant predictors of antisocial behavior, independent of their shared variance with other factors. Consistent with the hypothesized mediational model, the effects of distal and contextual factors appear to be mostly indirect: after their association with proximal factors was taken into account, these factors were no longer significantly related to antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for planning of developmentally appropriate interventions for ado-lesents and their families are discussed. [source]


    Religiousness, Antisocial Behavior, and Altruism: Genetic and Environmental Mediation

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 2 2007
    Laura B. Koenig
    ABSTRACT Although religiousness is considered a protective factor against antisocial behaviors and a positive influence on prosocial behaviors, it remains unclear whether these associations are primarily genetically or environmentally mediated. In order to investigate this question, religiousness, antisocial behavior, and altruistic behavior were assessed by self-report in a sample of adult male twins (165 MZ and 100 DZ full pairs, mean age of 33 years). Religiousness, both retrospective and current, was shown to be modestly negatively correlated with antisocial behavior and modestly positively correlated with altruistic behavior. Joint biometric analyses of religiousness and antisocial behavior or altruistic behavior were completed. The relationship between religiousness and antisocial behavior was due to both genetic and shared environmental effects. Altruistic behavior also shared most all of its genetic influence, but only half of its shared environmental influence, with religiousness. [source]


    The Relation between Observational Measures of Social Problem Solving and Familial Antisocial Behavior: Genetic and Environmental Influences

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 4 2001
    Erica L. Spotts
    Deficits in social problem-solving skills are often associated with antisocial behavior, particularly in children's extrafamilial relationships. The current study was designed to examine this association in several new ways: the association was examined at two times in an adolescent sample within the context of the family; genetic models were used to estimate genetic and environmental effects on observational measures of problem solving and antisocial behavior and on the association between the two. The analyses were conducted as part of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project, consisting of 720 families at Time 1 (mean adolescent age: 14.5 years) and 440 families at Time 2 (mean adolescent age: 16.1 years). Genetic influence was found for antisocial behavior, but not for problem solving. The findings of shared environmental influences on these measures and their association are unusual in the behavioral genetic literature and are important in that respect. [source]


    Childhood Maltreatment and Antisocial Behavior: Comparison of Self-Reported and Substantiated Maltreatment

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2008
    Carolyn A. Smith PhD
    Although accurate assessment of maltreatment is critical to understanding and interrupting its impact on the life course, comparison of different measurement approaches is rare. The goal of this study is to compare maltreatment reports from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records with retrospectively self-reported measures. Research questions address the prevalence and concordance of each type of measure, their relationship to social disadvantage, and their prediction to four antisocial outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood including arrest, self-reported violence, general offending, and illegal drug use. Data to address this comparison come from the Rochester Youth Development Study (RYDS), a longitudinal panel study of 1,000 adolescents. Findings indicate that self-reported retrospective maltreatment is somewhat more prevalent (29%) than official substantiated maltreatment (21%). Among those with official reports, in young adulthood about half self-reported maltreatment, whereas 37% of those self-reporting have an official report. In general, both sources suggest that maltreatment is associated with a higher prevalence of antisocial behavior. It is not clear that combining sources of information improves prediction. [source]


    Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents: Research and Treatment, by Daniel F. Conner

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 3 2003
    Article first published online: 24 MAR 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Validity of the home and community social behavior scales: Comparisons with five behavior-rating scales

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 4 2001
    Kenneth W. Merrell
    Three separate studies focusing on convergent and discriminant validity evidence for the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales are presented. The HCSBS is a 65-item social behavior-rating scale for use by parents and caretakers of children and youth ages 5,18. It is a parent-rating version of the School Social Behavior Scales. Within these studies, relationships with five behavior-rating scales were examined: the Social Skills Rating System, Conners Parent Rating Scale,Revised-Short Form, Child Behavior Checklist, and the child and adolescent versions of the Behavior Assessment System for Children. HCSBS Scale A, Social Competence, evidenced strong positive correlations with measures of social skills and adaptability, strong negative correlations with measures of externalizing behavior problems, and modest negative correlations with measures of internalizing and atypical behavior problems. HCSBS Scale B, Antisocial Behavior, evidenced strong positive correlations with measures of externalizing behavior problems, modest positive correlations with measures of internalizing and atypical behavior problems, and strong negative correlations with measures of social skills and adaptability. These results support the HCSBS as a measure of social competence and antisocial behavior of children and youth. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


    Testing an Individual Systems Model of Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) and Antisocial Behavior Across Adolescence

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2008
    Reid Griffith Fontaine
    This study examined the bidirectional development of aggressive response evaluation and decision (RED) and antisocial behavior across five time points in adolescence. Participants (n = 522) were asked to imagine themselves behaving aggressively while viewing videotaped ambiguous provocations and answered a set of RED questions following each aggressive retaliation (administered at Grades 8 and 11 [13 and 16 years, respectively]). Self- and mother reports of antisocial behavior were collected at Grades 7, 9/10, and 12 (12, 14/15, and 17 years, respectively). Using structural equation modeling, the study found a partial mediating effect at each hypothesized mediational path despite high stability of antisocial behavior across adolescence. Findings are consistent with an individual systems perspective by which adolescents' antisocial conduct influences how they evaluate aggressive interpersonal behaviors, which affects their future antisocial conduct. [source]


    Interpersonal Dynamics Within Adolescent Friendships: Dyadic Mutuality, Deviant Talk, and Patterns of Antisocial Behavior

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2007
    Timothy F. Piehler
    Interpersonal dynamics within friendships were observed in a sample of 120 (60 male, 60 female) ethnically diverse 16- and 17-year-old adolescents characterized as persistently antisocial, adolescent-onset, and normative. Dyadic mutuality and deviant talk were coded from videotaped friendship interactions. Persistently antisocial adolescents demonstrated lower levels of dyadic mutuality compared with adolescent-onset and normative adolescents. Persistently antisocial and adolescent-onset adolescents spent more time in deviant talk than did normative adolescents. Across groups, girls were rated as more mutual and coded less in deviant talk than boys. Furthermore, friendship dyads who engaged in high levels of deviant talk and were mutual in their interactions reported the highest rates of antisocial behavior. [source]


    Linked Lives: Stability and Change in Maternal Circumstances and Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Children

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2004
    Ross Macmillan
    Drawing on the notion of linked lives, this study examined the effects of stability and change in maternal circumstance on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in children 4 to 7 years of age. Using data from a national sample of young mothers and growth curve analysis, the study demonstrated that early maternal circumstances influences early antisocial behavior, whereas stability and change in these circumstances both exacerbate and ameliorate behavior problems. Of particular note, meaningful escape from poverty attenuates antisocial behavior whereas persistence in poverty or long-term movement into poverty intensifies such problems. These findings highlight the importance of structural context for parenting practices and the need to consider child development in light of dynamic and changing life-course fortunes of parents. [source]


    Adolescent inhalant use, abuse and dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Brian E. Perron
    ABSTRACT Aims To compare adolescent inhalant users without DSM-IV inhalant use disorders (IUDs) to youth with IUDs (i.e. abuse or dependence) across demographic, psychosocial and clinical measures. Design Cross-sectional survey with structured psychiatric interviews. Setting Facilities (n = 32) comprising the Missouri Division of Youth Services (MDYS) residential treatment system for juvenile offenders. Participants Current MDYS residents (n = 723); 97.7% of residents participated. Most youth were male (87%) and in mid-adolescence (mean = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.2, range = 11,20); more than one-third (38.6%, n = 279) reported life-time inhalant use. Measurements Antisocial behavior, temperament, trauma-exposure, suicidality, psychiatric symptoms and substance-related problems. Findings Among life-time inhalant users, 46.9% met criteria for a life-time DSM-IV IUD (inhalant abuse = 18.6%, inhalant dependence = 28.3%). Bivariate analyses showed that, in comparison to non-users, inhalant users with and without an IUD were more likely to be Caucasian, live in rural or small towns, have higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, evidence more impulsive and fearless temperaments and report more past-year antisocial behavior and life-time suicidality, traumatic experiences and global substance use problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and adverse outcomes was observed, with comparatively high rates of dysfunction observed among inhalant-dependent youth. Multivariate regression analyses showed that inhalant users with and without an IUD had greater levels of suicidal ideation and substance use problems than non-users. Conclusions Youth with IUDs have personal histories characterized by high levels of trauma, suicidality, psychiatric distress, antisocial behavior and substance-related problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and serious adverse outcomes was observed. [source]


    Antisocial behavior and the prediction of violence: A meta-analysis

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 2 2001
    James H. Derzon
    Youthful antisocial behavior is often viewed as a precursor to later violent and threatening behavior. Olweus (1979) reported aggressive reaction patterns in males that over time approached the stability of intelligence. While Olweus did not examine violent behavior directly, his study is often cited as evidence for the stability of violence. To examine the evidence for this assertion, this study synthesized the evidence from 82 reports of 58 prospective studies that followed individuals over some period of their life span. After correcting effect sizes for exogenous study features, the grand mean correlation of antisocial and substance misusing behaviors with later crimes against persons was estimated to be r = .33, a far cry from the stability of intelligence. Because these predictors are often used to select people into intervention, this study estimated the conditional error rates associated with identification for preventive intervention. Overall, selection failed to identify 66% of those who displayed later violence, while on average, 60% of those engaging in antisocial or substance-using behavior were not later violent. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


    Conflict resolution education and antisocial behavior in U.S. schools: A meta-analysis

    CONFLICT RESOLUTION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2007
    Wendy M. Garrard
    This meta-analysis examines more than twenty-five years of evidence to determine whether participation in school-based conflict resolution education (CRE) contributes to reduced antisocial behaviors among youth in kindergarten through twelfth grade in U.S. schools. Evidence from thirty-six studies, representing 4,971 students, shows improvements in antisocial behaviors in CRE participants compared to control groups (Effect Size = .26), with larger effects observed during midadolescence ( ES = .53) and early adolescence ( ES = .22) compared to middle childhood ( ES = .06). Improvements in antisocial behavior outcomes attributable to CRE are significant in both practical and statistical terms and are similar for different CRE program approaches. [source]


    THE APPLE DOESN'T FALL FAR FROM THE TREE (OR DOES IT?): INTERGENERATIONAL PATTERNS OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR,THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY 2008 SUTHERLAND ADDRESS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    TERENCE P. THORNBERRY
    There is a growing literature on intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior and a growing understanding of the unique contributions they are likely to make. At the same time, the field has yet to agree on core design features for intergenerational study. In this article, I propose a set of defining design elements that all intergenerational studies should meet and I discuss the advantages of these studies for enhancing our understanding of the onset and course of delinquent careers. I then use data from the ongoing Rochester Intergenerational Study to illustrate these points and the potential yield of intergenerational studies. In particular, I examine intergenerational continuities in antisocial behavior and school disengagement, test the cycle of violence hypothesis to see whether a history of maltreatment increases the likelihood of perpetration of maltreatment, and estimate a structural equation model to help identify mediating pathways that link parents and children with respect to antisocial behavior. [source]


    ROMANTIC PARTNERS' INFLUENCE ON MEN'S LIKELIHOOD OF ARREST IN EARLY ADULTHOOD,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    DEBORAH M. CAPALDI
    Female romantic partners' influence on official crime occurrence for men across a 12-year period in early adulthood was examined within a comprehensive dynamic prediction model, including both social learning and social control predictors. We hypothesized that relationship stability, rather than attachment to partner, would be associated with reduced likelihood of crime, whereas women's antisocial behavior would be a risk factor, along with deviant peer association. Models were tested on a sample of at-risk men [the Oregon Youth Study (OYS)] using zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) modeling predicting 1) arrest persistence (class and count) and 2) arrest onset class. The findings indicated that women's antisocial behavior was predictive of both onset and persistence of arrests for men and that deviant peer association was predictive of persistence. Relationship stability was protective against persistence. [source]


    ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAMILY STRUCTURE AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: PARENTAL COHABITATION AND BLENDED HOUSEHOLDS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    ROBERT APEL
    In the last several decades, the American family has undergone considerable change, with less than half of all adolescents residing with two married biological parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we construct an elaborate measure of family structure and find considerable heterogeneity in the risk of antisocial and delinquent behavior among groups of youth who reside in what are traditionally dichotomized as intact and nonintact families. In particular, we find that youth in "intact" families differ in important ways depending on whether the two biological parents are married or cohabiting and on whether they have children from a previous relationship. In addition, we find that youth who reside with a single biological parent who cohabits with a nonbiological partner exhibit an unusually high rate of antisocial behavior, especially if the custodial parent is the biological father. [source]


    UNPACKING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADOLESCENT EMPLOYMENT AND ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A MATCHED SAMPLES COMPARISON,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    ROBERT APEL
    A large body of research has consistently found that intensive employment during the school year is associated with heightened antisocial behavior. These findings have been influential in prompting policy recommendations to establish stricter limits on the number of hours that students can work during the school year. We reexamine the linkage between first-time work at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Our analysis uses group-based trajectory modeling to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. This stratification serves to control for preexisting differences between workers and nonworkers and permits us to examine whether the effect of work on problem behaviors depends on the developmental history of those behaviors. Contrary to most prior research we find no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. However, we do find some indication that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their working for the first time. [source]


    INDIVIDUAL STABILITY OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR FROM CHILDHOOD TO ADULTHOOD: TESTING THE STABILITY POSTULATE OF MOFFITT'S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    ANDREA G. DONKER
    This paper presents a test of Moffitt's (1993) prediction on the stability of longitudinal antisocial behavior, using data from the South-Holland Study. Aggressive (overt) and non-aggressive antisocial (covert) behaviors were measured when subjects were 6,11 years old, and at follow-ups when they were 12,17 years old and 20,25 years old. In accordance with the postulate, we did find a higher level of stability of overt behavior from childhood to adulthood, compared with childhood to adolescence, especially in combination with early manifestations of status violations and/or covert behavior in childhood. Results related to the stability of covert behavior were not in accordance with the prediction, but did support the recently proposed adjustment to the starting age of the adult phase. [source]


    MODELING MEDIATION IN THE ETIOLOGY OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENCE: A TEST OF THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    BU HUANG
    The social development model seeks to explain human behavior through specification of predictive and mediating developmental relationships. It incorporates the effects of empirical predictors ("risk factors" and "protective factors") for antisocial behavior and seeks to synthesize the most strongly supported propositions of control theory, social learning theory, and differential association theory. This article examines the fit of the social development model using constructs measured at ages 10, 13, 14, and 16 to predict violent behavior at age 18. The sample of 808 is from the longitudinal panel of the Seattle Social Development Project, which in 1985 surveyed fifth-grade students from schools serving high crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the fit of the model to the data. The model fit the data (CFI ,.90, RMSEA ,.05). We conclude that the social development model adequately predicts violence at age 18 and mediates much of the effect of prior violence. Implications for theory and for prevention are discussed. [source]


    A CROSS-CULTURAL EXAMINATION OF THE LINK BETWEEN CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AND ADOLESCENT ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    RONALD L. SIMONS
    Several studies with older children have reported a positive relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and child conduct problems. This has lead some social scientists to conclude that physical discipline fosters antisocial behavior. In an attempt to avoid the methodological difficulties that have plagued past research on this issue, the present study used a proportional measure of corporal punishment, controlled for earlier behavior problems and other dimensions of parenting, and tested for interaction and curvilinear effects. The analyses were performed using a sample of Iowa families that displayed moderate use of corporal punishment and a Taiwanese sample that demonstrated more frequent and severe use of physical discipline, especially by fathers. For both samples, level of parental warmth/control (i.e., support, monitoring, and inductive reasoning) was the strongest predictor of adolescent conduct problems. There was little evidence of a relationship between corporal punishment and conduct problems for the Iowa sample. For the Taiwanese families, corporal punishment was unrelated to conduct problems when mothers were high on warmth/control, but positively associated with conduct problems when they were low on warmtwcontrol, An interaction between corporal punishment and warmth/Wcontro1 was found for Taiwanese fathers as well. For these fathers, there was also evidence of a curvilinear relationship, with the association between corporal punishment and conduct problems becoming much stronger at extreme levels of corporal punishment. Overall, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is when parents engage in severe forms of corporal punishment, or administer physical discipline in the absence of parental warmth and involvement, that children feel angry and unjustly treated, defy parental authority, and engage in antisocial behavior. [source]


    Adolescent inhalant use, abuse and dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    Brian E. Perron
    ABSTRACT Aims To compare adolescent inhalant users without DSM-IV inhalant use disorders (IUDs) to youth with IUDs (i.e. abuse or dependence) across demographic, psychosocial and clinical measures. Design Cross-sectional survey with structured psychiatric interviews. Setting Facilities (n = 32) comprising the Missouri Division of Youth Services (MDYS) residential treatment system for juvenile offenders. Participants Current MDYS residents (n = 723); 97.7% of residents participated. Most youth were male (87%) and in mid-adolescence (mean = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.2, range = 11,20); more than one-third (38.6%, n = 279) reported life-time inhalant use. Measurements Antisocial behavior, temperament, trauma-exposure, suicidality, psychiatric symptoms and substance-related problems. Findings Among life-time inhalant users, 46.9% met criteria for a life-time DSM-IV IUD (inhalant abuse = 18.6%, inhalant dependence = 28.3%). Bivariate analyses showed that, in comparison to non-users, inhalant users with and without an IUD were more likely to be Caucasian, live in rural or small towns, have higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, evidence more impulsive and fearless temperaments and report more past-year antisocial behavior and life-time suicidality, traumatic experiences and global substance use problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and adverse outcomes was observed, with comparatively high rates of dysfunction observed among inhalant-dependent youth. Multivariate regression analyses showed that inhalant users with and without an IUD had greater levels of suicidal ideation and substance use problems than non-users. Conclusions Youth with IUDs have personal histories characterized by high levels of trauma, suicidality, psychiatric distress, antisocial behavior and substance-related problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and serious adverse outcomes was observed. [source]


    A longitudinal study of the effects of adolescent cannabis use on high school completion

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2003
    Michael T. Lynskey
    ABSTRACT Objective ,To examine the extent to which weekly cannabis use during mid-adolescence may increase the risk of early school-leaving. Setting ,A prospective study of a general population sample of adolescents studied from ages 15,21 years in Melbourne, Australia. Method ,Computer-assisted self-completion questionnaires and telephone interviews conducted in six waves at ages 15,18 and again at age 21 in a sample of 1601 male and female school students. Results ,Weekly cannabis use, assessed prospectively, was associated with significantly increased risk of early school-leaving. This effect remained after adjustment for a range of prospectively assessed covariates including demographic characteristics, other substance use, psychiatric morbidity and antisocial behavior. There was suggestive evidence of an interaction between weekly cannabis use and age with the effects of weekly cannabis use on early school-leaving being strongest at the youngest ages and diminishing progressively with age. Conclusions ,Early regular cannabis use (weekly use at age 15) is associated with increased risk of early school-leaving. These effects of regular cannabis use may diminish with increasing age and are likely to operate through the social context within which cannabis is used and obtained. [source]


    Family Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2003
    Maja Dekovi, Ph.D.
    The goal of the present study was to examine the combined and unique ability of different aspects of family functioning to predict involvement in antisocial behavior in a large nonclinical (community) sample of adolescents. Distinction was made between global (e.g., family socio-economic status), distal (dispositional characteristics of parents), contextual (family characteristics), and proximal (parent-child interaction) factors that operate within families. Results show that proximal factors were significant predictors of antisocial behavior, independent of their shared variance with other factors. Consistent with the hypothesized mediational model, the effects of distal and contextual factors appear to be mostly indirect: after their association with proximal factors was taken into account, these factors were no longer significantly related to antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for planning of developmentally appropriate interventions for ado-lesents and their families are discussed. [source]


    Who should fund and control the direction of human behavior genetics?

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 6 2003
    Genetics, Human Behaviour: the Ethical Context, Review of Nuffield Council on Bioethics 2002 Report
    In this (Nuffield Council on Bioethics 2002), the third in its series on ethics and related issues in genetics (see also Nuffield Council on Bioethics 1993 and Nuffield Council on Bioethics 1998), the Nuffield Council has focused on four ,normal' behaviors; intelligence, personality, antisocial behavior and sexual orientation. This is a narrow range of behaviors and one where their discussion of the potential impact of predictive genetic testing is probably inappropriate. They also take an unduly narrow view of the purposes of behavior genetics in the 21st century. It is not simply to estimate heritability but to understand more about the structure of behavior and the processes which underlie it. Their narrow focus and their negative approach to the history and achievements of genetics is reflected in their less than positive support for future behavior genetic research. Behavior geneticists need to do more to publicize what their field has achieved in order to counter the very extensive antibehavior genetics initiatives which are almost unique in science. At the same time, organizations such as the Nuffield Council need to consider carefully the impact their deliberations may have on research funding. [source]


    Protective factors related to antisocial behavior trajectories

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Gale M. Morrison
    A group of 115 fifth- and sixth-grade Latino students were surveyed at the beginning and the end of the school year before their transition to middle or junior-high school about their engagement in antisocial behaviors and about individual, social, and behavioral protective factors. The best predictors of decreases in antisocial behavior for these students, above and beyond variance for initial ratings and gender, were student perceptions of social support, parent supervision, and classroom participation. The importance of keeping students engaged in school academic work as a protection against antisocial behavior is emphasized as well as the need to help students gain skills necessary to access support for this academic work. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 277,290, 2002. [source]