Antibacterial Efficacy (antibacterial + efficacy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Antibacterial efficacy of calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

C. Sathorn
Abstract Aim, To determine to what extent does calcium hydroxide intracanal medication eliminate bacteria from human root canals, compared with the same canals before medication, as measured by the number of positive cultures, in patients undergoing root canal treatment for apical periodontitis (teeth with an infected root canal system). Methodology, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Reference lists from identified articles were scanned. A forward search was undertaken on the authors of the identified articles. Papers that had cited these articles were also identified through the Science Citation Index to identify potentially relevant subsequent primary research. Review methods, The included studies were pre-/post-test clinical trials comparing the number of positive bacterial cultures from treated canals. Data in those studies were independently extracted. Risk differences of included studies were combined using the generic inverse variance and random effect method. Results, Eight studies were identified and included in the review, covering 257 cases. Sample size varied from 18 to 60 cases; six studies demonstrated a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-medicated canals, whilst two did not. There was considerable heterogeneity among studies. Pooled risk difference was ,21%; 95% CI: ,47% to 6%. The difference between pre- and post-medication was not statistically significant (P = 0.12). Conclusions, Calcium hydroxide has limited effectiveness in eliminating bacteria from human root canal when assessed by culture techniques. [source]

Control of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria of Xanthomonas spp. by the Essential Oil and Extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu In vitro and In vivo

Vivek K. Bajpai
Abstract Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and non-biodegradable and cause extended environmental pollution. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial efficacy of the essential oil and organic extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides against plant pathogenic bacteria of Xanthomonas spp. The oil (1000 ,g/disc) and extracts (1500 ,g/disc) displayed potential antibacterial effect in vitro as a diameter of zones of inhibition against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris KC94-17-XCC, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria YK93-4-XCV, X. oryzae pv. oryzae KX019-XCO and X. sp SK12, which were found in the range of 10,14 and 8,12 mm, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of oil and the extracts were ranged from 125,250 and 125 500 ,g/ml and 250,1000 and 250,2000 ,g/ml, respectively. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable count of the tested bacteria. Further, the oil displayed remarkable in vivo antibacterial effect up to 65 to 100% disease suppression efficacy against the tested strains of Xanthomonas spp. on greenhouse-grown oriental melon plants (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa). These results suggest that the oil and extracts of M. glyptostroboides could be potential source of natural antibacterials for applying in food and agriculture industries to control plant bacterial diseases caused by Xanthomonas spp. [source]

Antibacterial activities of essential oils and extracts of Turkish Achillea, Satureja and Thymus species against plant pathogenic bacteria

Recep Kotan
Abstract BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oils and hexane extracts of the aerial parts of Satureja spicigera (C. Koch) Boiss., Thymus fallax Fisch. & CA Mey, Achillea biebersteinii Afan, and Achillea millefolium L. by GC and GC,MS, and to test antibacterial efficacy of essential oils and n -hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts as an antibacterial and seed disinfectant against 25 agricultural plant pathogens. RESULTS: Thymol, carvacrol, p -cymene, thymol methyl ether and ,-terpinene were the main constituents of S. spicigera and T. fallax oils and hexane extracts. The main components of the oil of Achillea millefolium were 1,8-cineole, ,-cadinol and caryophyllene oxide, whereas the hexane extract of this species contained mainly n -hexacosane, n -tricosane and n -heneicosane. The oils and hexane extracts of S. spicigera and T. fallax exhibited potent antibacterial activity over a broad spectrum against 25 phytopathogenic bacterial strains. Carvacrol and thymol, the major constituents of S. spicigera and T. fallax oils, also showed potent antibacterial effect against the bacteria tested. The oils of Achillea species showed weak antibacterial activity. Our results also revealed that the essential oil of S. spicigera, thymol and carvacrol could be used as potential disinfection agents against seed-borne bacteria. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that S. spicigera, T. fallax oils, carvacrol and thymol could become potentials for controlling certain important agricultural plant pathogenic bacteria and seed disinfectant. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Animal studies for the prevention of endophthalmitis

Topical anti-infectives are commonly used to prevent post-surgical endophthalmitis. Animal models can be used for the development and selection of topical anti-infectives for optimizing ocular surgical prophylaxis. The primary outcome measures for providing prophylactic efficiency are antibacterial efficacy and anti-infective penetration into the anterior chamber. This curreent presentation will focus on a rabbit prevention of endophthalmitis model. Publish data will be presented detailing clinical correlation and limitations of the models. [source]

In-vitro and in-vivo evidence of dose-dependent decrease of uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence after consumption of commercial Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) capsules

J.-P. Lavigne
Abstract This study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the consumption of cranberry capsules vs. placebo in the urine of healthy volunteers. A first double-blind, randomised, crossover trial involved eight volunteers who had followed three regimens, with or without cranberry, with a wash-out period of at least 6 days between each regimen. Twelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. Different Escherichia coli strains were cultured in the urine samples. Urinary antibacterial adhesion activity was measured in vitro using the human T24 epithelial cell-line, and in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans killing model. With the in-vitro model, 108 mg of cranberry induced a significant reduction in bacterial adherence to T24 cells as compared with placebo (p <0.001). A significant dose-dependent decrease in bacterial adherence in vitro was noted after the consumption of 108 and 36 mg of cranberry (p <0.001). The in-vivo model confirmed that E. coli strains had a reduced ability to kill C. elegans after growth in the urine of patients who consumed cranberry capsules. Overall, these in-vivo and in-vitro studies suggested that consumption of cranberry juice represents an interesting new strategy to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection. [source]