Antiapoptotic Proteins (antiapoptotic + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Antiapoptotic Proteins

  • antiapoptotic protein bcl-2

  • Selected Abstracts

    GATA-3 transduces survival signals in osteoblasts through upregulation of bcl-xL gene expression,

    Ruei-Ming Chen
    Abstract GATA-3, a transcription factor, participates in regulating cell development, proliferation, and death. This study was aimed at evaluating the roles of GATA-3 in protecting osteoblasts against oxidative stress,induced apoptotic insults and their possible mechanisms. Pretreatment with nitric oxide (NO) for 24 hours protected osteoblasts, prepared from neonatal rat calvaria, against oxidative stress,induced apoptotic insults. Such protection involved enhancement of Bcl-XL messenger (m)RNA and protein syntheses and the translocation of this antiapoptotic protein from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. GATA-3 was detected in rat osteoblasts, and GATA-3-specific DNA-binding elements exist in the promoter region of the bcl-xL gene. NO preconditioning attenuated oxidative stress,caused suppression of GATA-3 mRNA and protein synthesis and the translocation of this transcription factor from the cytoplasm to nuclei. Application of GATA-3 small interfering (si)RNA into osteoblasts decreased the levels of this transcription factor and simultaneously inhibited Bcl-XL mRNA synthesis. Pretreatment with NO lowered the oxidative stress,caused alteration in the binding of GATA-3 to its specific DNA motifs. Oxidative stress,inhibited Runx2 mRNA expression, but NO preconditioning decreased such inhibition. NO pretreatment time-dependently enhanced the association of GATA-3 with Runx2. Knocking down the translation of GATA-3 using RNA interference significantly decreased the protection of NO preconditioning against oxidative stress,induced alterations of cell morphologies, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. In comparison, overexpression of GATA-3 could promote NO preconditioning,involved Bcl-XL expression and cell survival. Therefore, this study shows that GATA-3 plays critical roles in mediating survival signals in osteoblasts, possibly through upregulating bcl-xL gene expression. 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. [source]

    Evidence that bcl-2 is the Target of Three Photosensitizers that Induce a Rapid Apoptotic Response,

    David Kessel
    ABSTRACT We originally proposed that the subcellular target for one class of photosensitizing agents was the mitochondrion. This classification was based on effects that occur within minutes of irradiation of photosensitized cells: rapid loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (,,m), release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and activation of caspase-3. These effects were followed by the appearance of an apoptotic morphology within 30,90 min. Fluorescence localization studies on three sensitizers initially classified as ,mitochondrial' revealed that these agents bind to a variety of intracellular membranes. The earliest detectable effect of photodamage is the selective loss of the antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 leaving the proapoptotic protein bax undamaged. Bcl-2 photodamage can be detected directly after irradiation of cells at 10C. Subsequent warming of cultures to 37C results in loss of ,,m, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. The latter appears to amplify the other two effects. Based on results reported here we propose that the apoptotic response to these photosensitizers is derived from selective photodamage to the antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 while leaving the proapoptotic protein bax unaffected. [source]

    COX-2 inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Ugochukwu C. Nzeako
    Fas expression has been shown to negatively regulate the progression of cholangiocarcinoma cells in xenografts. However, many human cholangiocarcinomas express Fas, suggesting these cancers have developed mechanisms to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which generates prostanoids, is expressed by many cholangiocarcinomas. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether COX-2 expression inhibits death receptor,mediated apoptosis in KMBC cells, a cholangiocarcinoma cell line. These cells express messenger RNA for the death receptors Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1), death receptor 4 (DR4), and DR5. Agonists for these death receptors, CH-11, TNF-,, and TRAIL all induced apoptosis. However, COX-2, whether induced by proinflammatory cytokines or transient transfection, only significantly inhibited Fas-mediated apoptosis. The COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 restored Fas-mediated apoptosis in COX-2 transfected cells. Prostaglandin E2 reduced apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization after treatment with the Fas agonist CH-11. Of a variety of antiapoptotic proteins examined, COX-2/prostaglandin E2 only increased expression of Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. In conclusion, these data suggest that prostanoid generation by COX-2 specifically inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis, likely by up-regulating Mcl-1 expression. Pharmacologic inhibition of COX-2 may be useful in augmenting Fas-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cells. [source]

    TNF-,-mediated signal transduction pathway is a major determinant of apoptosis in dilated cardiomyopathy

    Samarjit Das
    Abstract Although J2N-k strain of cardiomyopathic hamsters is an excellent model of dilated cardiomyopathy, the presence and mechanisms of apoptosis in the hearts of these genetically modified animals have not been investigated. This study examined the hypothesis that cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis in the cardiomyopathic hamsters were associated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,)-mediated signalling pathway involving the activation of some pro-apoptotic proteins and/or deactivation of some antiapoptotic proteins. Echocardiographic assessment of 31-week-old hamsters indicated an increase in the internal dimension of the left ventricle as well as decreases in the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output without any evidence of cardiac hypertrophy. Increased level of TNF-, and apoptosis in cardiomyopathic hearts were accompanied by increased protein content for protein kinase C (PKC) -, and -, isozymes as well as caspases 3 and 9. Phosphorylated protein content for p38 MAPK and NF,B was increased whereas that for Erk1/2, BAD and Bcl-2 was decreased in cardiomyopathic hearts. These results support the view that TNF-, and PKC isozymes may promote apoptosis due to the activation of p38 MAPK and deactivation of Erk1/2 pathways, and these changes may contribute toward the development of cardiac dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy. [source]

    Modulations of nerve growth factor and Bcl-2 in ultraviolet-irradiated human epidermis

    Catherine M. Stefanato
    Background:, Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to the skin causes apoptosis of keratinocytes. Melanocytes are more resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, due, in part, to high levels of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2. In vitro studies have shown that nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophic polypeptide, is produced by keratinocytes and exerts a protective role for melanocytes by upregulating Bcl-2. The purpose of this study was to determine NGF and Bcl-2 modulations in UV-irradiated human skin. Methods:, Nine volunteers were irradiated with two minimal erythema doses using solar-simulated UV irradiation. Seventy-two hours post irradiation, skin biopsies were obtained from irradiated and sun-protected skin. The skin specimens were stained with anti-tyrosinase-related protein-1 monoclonal antibody IgG2a (Mel-5), anti-Bcl-2 (monoclonal antibody IgG-kappa), and with anti-NGF (polyclonal antibody IgG). Results:, NGF staining was identified within the cytoplasm of epidermal melanocytes, similar to the staining observed for TRP-1 and Bcl-2. While no significant difference in the number of TRP-1- and Bcl-2-positive melanocytes was observed between irradiated and non-irradiated skin within 72 h, the number of NGF-positive melanocytes decreased significantly, 72 h after UV irradiation (p < 0.024). NGF was also identified within keratinocytes, and while non-irradiated skin exhibited cytoplasmic NGF staining throughout the epidermis, NGF staining was reduced in the lower epidermal layers after UV irradiation. Conclusions:, This is the first in vivo study showing NGF to be present in melanocytes, as well as showing modulations of NGF and Bcl-2 in melanocytes, following solar-simulated UV irradiation. [source]

    The role of neutrophil apoptosis in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2009
    Angela Midgley
    Objective Accumulation of apoptotic cells may lead to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through a breakdown in immune tolerance. Altered neutrophil apoptosis may contribute to nuclear autoantigen exposure, ultimately leading to autoantibody generation. This study aimed to determine whether neutrophil apoptosis is altered in patients with juvenile-onset SLE as compared with controls. Methods Apoptosis was measured in neutrophils from patients with juvenile-onset SLE (n = 12), adult-onset SLE (n = 6), and pediatric patients with inflammatory (n = 12) and noninflammatory (n = 12) conditions. Annexin V staining and flow cytometry were used to determine neutrophil apoptosis. Proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins were measured in sera and in neutrophil cell lysates. Results Neutrophil apoptosis was significantly increased in patients with juvenile-onset SLE as compared with the noninflammatory controls at time 0. Incubation of neutrophils with sera from patients with juvenile-onset SLE further increased neutrophil apoptosis as compared with incubation with sera from pediatric controls. Concentrations of TRAIL and FasL were significantly increased in sera from patients with juvenile-onset SLE, whereas interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor ,, and granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly decreased. Addition of GM-CSF to sera from patients with juvenile-onset SLE significantly decreased neutrophil apoptosis as compared with juvenile-onset SLE sera alone. The expression of proapoptotic proteins (caspase 3, Fas, and FADD) was elevated in juvenile-onset SLE neutrophils, whereas the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 and 2 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis) was decreased. Neutrophil apoptosis correlated with biomarkers of disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and double-stranded DNA concentration) and the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group disease activity score. Conclusion Our data demonstrate an imbalance in proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors in both neutrophils and sera from patients with juvenile-onset SLE. This imbalance results in increased neutrophil apoptosis in these patients. Correlations with markers of disease activity indicate that altered neutrophil apoptosis in juvenile-onset SLE patients may play a pathogenic role in this condition. [source]

    The behaviour of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x in Darier's disease

    M.R. Bongiorno
    SummaryBackground Darier's disease (DD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of keratinization caused by a mutation of the ATP2A2 gene. There is little information on the behaviour of Bcl-2, Bax and Bcl-x in DD. Objectives To investigate the dynamic control and the behaviour of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-x in DD. We asked whether members of the Bcl-2 family might manifest their effects through modulation of intracellular calcium signalling or whether the gene that encodes the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2) modulates the Bcl-2 family in the regulation of apoptosis in DD. Methods Immunohistochemical methods were used. Results There was no immunoreactivity for Bcl-2 and Bcl-x in epidermal keratinocytes in lesional epidermis. Staining for Bax was evident in the cells of the perilesional uninvolved skin, but decreased in the epidermal cells of lesional involved skin. Conclusions The decrease or absence of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x and the imbalance of Bax in the epithelial cells of affected DD skin is likely to be an important control point determined by the genetic mutation of SERCA2, which modifies the programme of the antiapoptotic proteins. The consequent imbalance of the factors controlling apoptosis in keratinocytes underlines another apoptotic pathway responsible for the dyskeratotic cells in DD. [source]

    NV-128, a novel isoflavone derivative, induces caspase-independent cell death through the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway

    CANCER, Issue 14 2009
    Ayesha B. Alvero MD
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Resistance to apoptosis is 1 of the key events that confer chemoresistance and is mediated by the overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, which inhibit caspase activation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the activation of an alternative, caspase-independent cell death pathway could promote death in chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells. The authors report the characterization of NV-128 as an inducer of cell death through a caspase-independent pathway. METHODS: Primary cultures of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells were treated with increasing concentration of NV-128, and the concentration that caused 50% growth inhibition (GI50) was determined using a proprietary assay. Apoptotic proteins were characterized by Western blot analyses, assays that measured caspase activity, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Protein-protein interactions were determined using immunoprecipitation. In vivo activity was measured in a xenograft mice model. RESULTS: NV-128 was able to induce significant cell death in both paclitaxel-resistant and carboplatin-resistant EOC cells with a GI50 between 1 ,g/mL and 5 ,g/mL. Cell death was characterized by chromatin condensation but was caspase-independent. The activated pathway involved the down-regulation of phosphorylated AKT, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and phosphorylated ribosomal p70 S6 kinase, and the mitochondrial translocation of beclin-1 followed by nuclear translocation of endonuclease G. CONCLUSIONS: The authors characterized a novel compound, NV-128, which inhibits mTOR and promotes caspase-independent cell death. The current results indicated that inhibition of mTOR may represent a relevant pathway for the induction of cell death in cells resistant to the classic caspase-dependent apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using therapeutic drugs, such as NV-128, which may have beneficial effects in patients with chemoresistant ovarian cancer. Cancer 2009. 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]