Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Terms modified by Legal

  • legal abortion
  • legal academic
  • legal accountability
  • legal action
  • legal analysis
  • legal approach
  • legal aspect
  • legal authority
  • legal barrier
  • legal battle
  • legal case
  • legal category
  • legal challenge
  • legal change
  • legal claim
  • legal classification
  • legal compliance
  • legal concept
  • legal condition
  • legal consciousness
  • legal consequence
  • legal consideration
  • legal constraint
  • legal context
  • legal control
  • legal culture
  • legal debate
  • legal decision
  • legal definition
  • legal development
  • legal discourse
  • legal doctrine
  • legal document
  • legal drinking age
  • legal duty
  • legal element
  • legal entity
  • legal environment
  • legal establishment
  • legal expert
  • legal factor
  • legal field
  • legal form
  • legal framework
  • legal frameworks
  • legal history
  • legal immigrant
  • legal implication
  • legal institution
  • legal instruments
  • legal issues
  • legal judgment
  • legal knowledge
  • legal length
  • legal liability
  • legal limit
  • legal measure
  • legal mechanism
  • legal mobilization
  • legal narrative
  • legal norm
  • legal obligation
  • legal order
  • legal origin
  • legal perspective
  • legal pluralism
  • legal position
  • legal practice
  • legal precedent
  • legal principle
  • legal problem
  • legal procedure
  • legal proceeding
  • legal process
  • legal profession
  • legal professional
  • legal protection
  • legal provision
  • legal realism
  • legal reasoning
  • legal recognition
  • legal regime
  • legal regulation
  • legal requirement
  • legal research
  • legal response
  • legal responsibility
  • legal right
  • legal risk
  • legal rule
  • legal scholar
  • legal scholarship
  • legal services
  • legal standards
  • legal status
  • legal structure
  • legal studies
  • legal subject
  • legal system
  • legal theory
  • legal tradition

  • Selected Abstracts


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2004
    Matthew J. Sullivan
    The use of Psychologist Parent Coordinators in child custody cases (called Special Masters in California) is becoming increasingly prevalent across the country. This postdivorce parenting coordination role is a legal/psychological hybrid, demanding knowledge and skill in legal domains (legal procedure, relevant case law, etc.), psychological domains (child development, family systems, etc.), and dispute resolution (mediation and settlement processes). Situated in the interface of legal and psychological paradigms, Parent Coordination may be reviewed by multiple legal and psychological regulatory bodies. Coming from varying perspectives, the practice guidelines and mandates of these legal, ethical, and licensing agencies impose multiple standards of review of Parent Coordination. A brief overview of the legal and psychological review processes applicable to Special Master work in California, as they relate to common issues that confront the Parenting Coordinator across the country, is the focus of this article. They suggest that the current lack of coordination of review processes creates a minefield of professional risk for the psychologist who chooses to practice in this role. [source]

    Global Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic: Economic, Financial, Legal and Political Implications,by Bradly J. Condon and Tapen Sinha

    Karunesh Tuli
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Ethical, Legal, and Social Dimensions of Epilepsy Genetics

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2006
    Sara Shostak
    Summary:,Purpose: Emerging genetic information and the availability of genetic testing has the potential to increase understanding of the disease and improve clinical management of some types of epilepsy. However, genetic testing is also likely to raise significant ethical, legal, and social issues for people with epilepsy, their family members, and their health care providers. We review the genetic and social dimensions of epilepsy relevant to understanding the complex questions raised by epilepsy genetics. Methods: We reviewed two literatures: (a) research on the genetics of epilepsy, and (b) social science research on the social experience and social consequences of epilepsy. For each, we note key empiric findings and discuss their implications with regard to the consequences of emerging genetic information about epilepsy. We also briefly review available principles and guidelines from professional and advocacy groups that might help to direct efforts to ascertain and address the ethical, legal, and social dimensions of genetic testing for epilepsy. Results: Genetic information about epilepsy may pose significant challenges for people with epilepsy and their family members. Although some general resources are available for navigating this complex new terrain, no guidelines specific to epilepsy have yet been developed to assist people with epilepsy, their family members, or their health care providers. Conclusions: Research is needed on the ethical, legal, and social concerns raised by genetic research on epilepsy and the advent of genetic testing. This research should include the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members, as well as those of health care professionals, policymakers, and bioethicists. [source]

    Biomarkers in Migraine: Their Promise, Problems, and Practical Applications

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2006
    Elizabeth Loder MD
    Biomarkers are physical signs or laboratory measurements that "occur in association with a pathological process and have putative diagnostic and/or prognostic utility." Biomarkers hold considerable promise for understanding and intervening in the disease process of migraine. They may permit recognition of individuals at risk of developing migraine, improve the timing, accuracy, and precision of migraine diagnosis, and serve as indicators of treatment response and disease progression. Furthermore, they hold great promise for research. At the same time, there are important limitations to the use of biomarkers in migraine, including problems with validity, reliability, accuracy, and precision. Legal, ethical, and cost considerations are also important. This review describes the potential uses and limitations of biomarkers in migraine diagnosis, treatment, and research. [source]

    Legal Reform, Women's Empowerment and Social Change: The Case of Egypt

    IDS BULLETIN, Issue 2 2010
    Mulki Al-Sharmani
    In the last decade, new family laws have been passed in Egypt, with important ramifications for women. In this article, I argue that two issues diminish the transformative role that these reforms could play in strengthening Egyptian women's rights and achieving gender justice. First, despite the recently passed laws, the model of marriage that the state continues to uphold through its codes and courts is premised on gendered roles and rights for husbands and wives. This model, however, contradicts the realities of Egyptian marriages. Second, the incongruence between the agendas of different reform actors, their piecemeal approach, and their top-down and non-participatory strategies have impacted the reform outcomes in mixed ways. This has meant that the multidimensionality and the social-embeddedness of the process of law-making have not been adequately taken into account in the efforts undertaken by reform actors, thereby undermining the effectiveness and significance of these endeavours. [source]

    National review of state wildlife action plans for Odonata species of greatest conservation need

    Abstract., 1.,The overarching goal of United States wildlife action plans is to prevent wildlife from becoming endangered or declining to levels where recovery becomes unlikely. Effective plan implementation depends on establishing Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN), defined as wildlife species with small or declining populations or other characteristics that make them vulnerable. 2.,Although nearly two-thirds of distinct Odonata species known from the U.S. (441 species as of 2005) were appointed as SGCN, over half the states neglected to assign dragonfly SGCN, damselfly SGCN, or both. Western and southern states listed proportionately fewer odonate SGCN than states of the Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and New England regions, apparently reflecting geographic patterns of legal authority, available information, and involvement by Odonata specialists. 3.,Greater consultation of Odonata specialists is encouraged in any revision of state wildlife action plans, along with increased: (i) use of existing conservation lists, (ii) inferences from field guides and major faunal synopses, (iii) recognition of patterns of endemism, and (iv) application of empirical species distribution modelling. 4.,Legal and management restrictions aside, insects and other invertebrates are often neglected in mainstream conservation efforts because they are perceived as understudied. It is erroneous to assume ,not enough information' exists for well-studied microfauna such as Odonata and doing so further undermines the conservation of less conspicuous and charismatic taxa. [source]

    Refugee Women in Europe: Some Aspects of the Legal and Policy Dimensions

    Alice Bloch
    This article presents an overview of the legal and policy issues affecting refugee and asylum-seeking women in European host societies. First, it explores the unique types of persecution experienced by women and shows that the asylum determination process, along with the status of women relative to men, mitigates against the effective protection of women. The legal basis for asylum, the evidential requirements and the procedural norms all reduce the protection which is likely to be conferred upon asylum-seeking women. Second, the article provides an overview of responses to female refugees and asylum-seekers in European countries of asylum. Although there are differences between countries, there is also a large degree of uniformity. For example, there is a lack of recognition and understanding of the diversity and the range of experiences which refugees bring with them, including different social and cultural norms. Moreover, European policies do not provide special provisions to facilitate the settlement of refugee women and instead place barriers to their social and economic participation. Third, the article examines policies for family reunion in different countries and shows that such unfavourable and unsympathetic policies mitigate against the settlement of refugee women. Finally, the article argues that if refugee and asylum-seeking women are to have their cases recognized and to be successfully settled, then there needs to be a complete rethink of legislation and policy in Europe. [source]

    From Illegal to Legal: Estimating Previous Illegal Experience among New Legal Immigrants to the United States1

    Guillermina Jasso
    This paper develops a framework for estimating previous illegal experience among annual cohorts of new legal immigrants to the United States , using public-use administrative microdata alone, survey data alone, and the two jointly , and provides estimates for the FY 1996 cohort of new immigrants, based on both administrative and survey data. Our procedures enable assessment of type of illegal experience, including entry without inspection, visa overstay, and unauthorized employment. We compare our estimates of previous illegal experience to estimates that would be obtained using administrative data alone; examine the extent of previous illegal experience by country of birth, immigrant class of admission, religion, and geographic residence in the United States; and estimate multivariate models of the probability of having previous illegal experience. To further assess origins and destinations, we carry out two kinds of contrasts, comparing formerly illegal new legal immigrants both to fellow immigrants who do not have previous illegal experience and also to the broader unauthorized population, the latter using estimates developed by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2002), Passel (2002), and Costanzo et al. (2002). [source]

    Pandemic influenza: human rights, ethics and duty to treat

    The 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic seems to be only moderately severe. In the future, a pandemic influenza with high lethality, such as the Spanish influenza in 1918,1919 or even worse, may emerge. In this kind of scenario, lethality rates ranging roughly from 2% to 30% have been proposed. Legal and ethical issues should be discussed before the incident. This article aims to highlight the legal, ethical and professional aspects that might be relevant to anaesthesiologists in the case of a high-lethality infectious disease such as a severe pandemic influenza. The epidemiology, the role of anaesthesiologists and possible threats to the profession and colleagueship within medical specialties relevant to anaesthesiologists are reviewed. During historical plague epidemics, some doctors have behaved like ,deserters'. However, during the Spanish influenza, physicians remained at their jobs, although many perished. In surveys, more than half of the health-care workers have reported their willingness to work in the case of severe pandemics. Physicians have the same human rights as all citizens: they have to be effectively protected against infectious disease. However, they have a duty to treat. Fair and responsible colleagueship among the diverse medical specialties should be promoted. Until disaster threatens humanity, volunteering to work during a pandemic might be the best way to ensure that physicians and other health-care workers stay at their workplace. Broad discussion in society is needed. [source]

    Children at Risk: Legal and Societal Perceptions of the Potential Threat that the Possession of Child Pornography Poses to Society

    Suzanne Ost
    This article examines legal and social discourses surrounding the phenomenon of child pornography, considering the legal responses to child pornography (particularly when an individual is found to be in possession of such material), and the way in which such material, the child, and the possessor of child pornography are socially constructed. The article raises the question of whether there has been a moral panic regarding child pornography and the possession of such material, but also considers whether there are real reasons to consider that the possession of child pornography should remain illegal. Research studies which aim to establish the existence of a causal link between possessing child pornography and the act of committing child sexual abuse are examined, as is the argument that criminalizing the possession of child pornography reduces the market for such material. Finally, there is an analysis of the possible impact of social constructions of the child as innocent. [source]

    Legal, social, cultural and political developments in mental health care in the UK: the Liverpool black mental health service users' perspective

    S. A. Pierre BA(HONs) MSc PhD RMN
    Documentary evidence suggests that attitudes among local health and social services professionals towards the concept of user involvement in health and social care remain deeply polarized, a position characterized by commentators simultaneously as praise and damnation. Perhaps user involvement in health and social care will enhance, and it appears to resonate with the logic of, participatory democracy, in localities where the centralization of power has posed questions as to the nature and purpose of local governance in public services provision. The problems experienced by Britain's black and ethnic minorities within the mental health system have been the subject of exhaustive social inquiry. This essay attempts to explore the way in which legal, social, cultural, and political developments interface with mental health care practice in the UK, in order to assist those responsible for mental health services provision to deliver services that are in line with the Government's expectation of a modernized mental health service that is safe, sound, and supportive. An exploration of these developments within the European, national (UK), and local (Liverpool) contexts is undertaken. An appropriate local response to national priorities will ostensibly cut a swathe through the barriers confronted by the ethnic minority mental health service user in the cross-cultural context, an important prerequisite for the implementation of genuine user involvement. [source]

    Fragmentation of Power and the Emergence of an Effective Judiciary in Mexico, 1994,2002

    Julio Ríos-Figueroa
    ABSTRACT Legal reforms that make judges independent from political pressures and empower them with judicial review do not make an effective judiciary. Something has to fill the gap between institutional design and effectiveness. When the executive and legislative powers react to an objectionable judicial decision, the judiciary may be weak and deferential; but coordination difficulties between the elected branches can loosen the constraints on courts. This article argues that the fragmentation of political power can enable a judiciary to rule against power holders' interests without being systematically challenged or ignored. This argument is tested with an analysis of the Mexican Supreme Court decisions against the PRI on constitutional cases from 1994 to 2002. The probability of the court's voting against the PRI increased as the PRI lost the majority in the Chamber of Deputies in 1997 and the presidency in 2000. [source]

    Regulatory Failure and the Collapse of Japan's Home Mortgage Lending Industry: A Legal and Economic Analysis

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 3-4 2000
    Curtis Milhaupt
    This article analyzes the dynamics of contemporary cooperation and conflict in Japanese financial regulation through the prism of the "jusen problem," the collapse of Japan's home mortgage lending industry in the 1990s. The jusen problem is one of the most striking examples of regulatory failure, strategic interest group bargaining, and large-scale dispute resolution in Japanese history. [source]

    The Effect of Legal and Extra-Legal Variables on the Recommending and Granting of a Pardon

    LAW & POLICY, Issue 1 2000
    Thomas Austin
    A familiar but little studied area of criminal justice is that of pardons. Using data from the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons, the decision-making process is examined to determine the degree of correspondence between the board's recommendation and the governor's decision to grant or deny a pardon. Included in the analysis is an assessment of the relative impact of legal and extra-legal variables on the decision-making process. The paper concludes with a discussion on the dynamics of the process, including why some individuals are more likely than others to be granted a pardon, and the implications the findings have for both policy and theory development. [source]

    Legal and Illegal Production and Trade Under Monopoly with Transaction Cost

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 3 2000
    Amit Bhaduri
    Using illegal trade in narcotics as an example, where regular seizure of part of the merchandise by the law-enforcing authorities imposes a transaction cost on the monopolist supplier, this paper demonstrates the result that a higher transaction cost might increase the volume supplied for trade. The result of the formal model also applies to the opposite situation, e.g. when trade is legal, as in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century maritime trade, but pirates illegally seize part of the merchandise to impose a transaction cost on the traders. The more general implications of this analysis are also discussed. [source]

    Legal and Moral Responsibility

    Antony Duff
    The paper begins with the plausible view that criminal responsibility should track moral responsibility, and explains its plausibility. A necessary distinction is then drawn between liability and answerability as two dimensions of responsibility, and is shown to underpin the distinction in criminal law between offences and defences. This enables us to distinguish strict liability from strict answerability, and to see that whilst strict criminal liability seems inconsistent with the principle that criminal responsibility should track moral responsibility, strict criminal answerability is not. We must ask, therefore, whether, when and why strict criminal responsibility is unacceptable. [source]

    Pathological Gambling in Methadone Maintenance Clinics Where Gambling Is Legal Versus Illegal

    Einat Peles
    Lifetime potential and probable pathological gambling (PG) were assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) questionnaire. The prevalence between patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Tel Aviv (Israel, gambling is illegal) and MMT patients in Las Vegas (NV, USA, gambling is legal) was compared. Urine toxicology and substance use was assessed as well. PG at MMT admission was higher in Tel Aviv (48/178, 27%) than in Las Vegas (19/113, 16.8%; p = .05). In Tel Aviv gambling mostly preceded opiate abuse (58.3%), while it followed opiate abuse in Las Vegas (66.7%, p < .001). Only 20.8% in Tel Aviv and 21.1% in Las Vegas were currently gambling. Multivariate analyses found older age on admission to MMT odds ratio (OR) = 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01,1.08), being male OR = 2.6 (95% CI 1.3,5.3) and being from the Tel Aviv MMT clinic OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.3,4.9) to characterize PG. Detection of any drug in MMT admission urine specimens was unrelated to PG. Older age on admission to MMT, and male gender characterized PG in different MMT clinics, independent of the legal status of gambling. Low current PG rates for patients in both MMT clinics suggest that legality may not be relevant. [source]

    Legal and ethical considerations for genetic clinical research

    Judith E. Beach
    Abstract From the trend in modern medicine toward the study of genes and their contribution to the development of disease has evolved an increased awareness of ,the diversity of genetic fingerprints among individuals' [1]. The incorporation of this knowledge into the technologies of the pharmaceutical industry has led to the emerging field of ,pharmacogenomics'; that is, the process of identifying the differences in genetic sequences between individuals and developing therapies [2] as ,personal medicines' [3]. For example, a drug used as a muscle relaxant during surgery, suxamethonium, was found to be lethal to patients who possessed a rare version of a gene involved in nerve transmission so that now those who receive this drug are tested for this specific gene [4]. Although pharmacogenomics promises great possibilities for the future of medicine, it does involve ethical and legal considerations that must be considered. Indeed, potential misuses of genetic information, such as discrimination in obtaining health insurance and in the workplace, need to be addressed. Genetic testing practices remain more advanced than the national and international laws governing the appropriate use of genetics. Although there is no national law in the United States that specifically addresses DNA and genetic privacy, several federal regulations would apply indirectly to the protection of this information and state legislators have successfully passed numerous state laws. Professional associations and private organizations have issued several guidelines for genetic testing practices. The purpose of this report is to provide a picture of the legal and ethical ramifications of genetic testing in clinical research. The genetic testing issue is presented herein in the categories of national, international, and state laws, policies, regulations and guidelines. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Legal and technical defensibility of data and the Triad approach

    REMEDIATION, Issue 2 2005
    Robert Howe
    The Triad approach was developed primarily to limit decision uncertainty during cleanups at hazardous waste sites. The fundamental principles of the Triad approach include development of a site characterization model and use of emerging technologies, which can provide data at a higher density than could be affordably collected using traditional data collection methodologies, to refine the model in essentially real time. New data formats are used collaboratively with data in traditional formats to iteratively pin down the relative concentration, nature, and extent of contaminants, thus minimizing decision uncertainties. This article examines the potential admissibility as evidence in legal proceedings of data collected by technologies designed to improve the density of information that are commonly used during the course of Triad-type projects. The article explains that such criteria may vary depending on the purpose for which the evidence is to be used (e.g., as direct evidence to prove site conditions or as support for the testimony of an expert witness) and the court in which the legal proceeding would take place (e.g., federal court or state court). Admissibility in federal courts of data both as direct evidence and as support for expert witness testimony is covered. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    When Children Kill: Penal Populism and Political Culture by D.A. Green and Child Pornography and Sexual Grooming: Legal and Societal Responses by S. Ost

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Interrelationships among Native Peoples, Genetic Research, and the Landscape: Need for Further Research into Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues

    Mervyn L. Tano J.D.
    To understand the impacts of development on native peoples requires an understanding of how their genetic make-up is implicated in their relationship with their landscapes. This is an area ripe for more research. The ASLME project on DNA Fingerprinting and Civil Liberties proposed improvements to the ethical and legal safeguards for the collection and storage of DNA-derived genetic information. Native peoples have proposed a similar examination of the ethical and legal issues related to the collection and storage of their genetic information obtained via family histories and genealogies. [source]

    Organ Transplantation: Ethical, Legal and Psychosocial Aspects,Towards a Common European Policy edited by W. Weimar, M. A. Bos, and J. J. Busschbach

    James S. Taylor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    "Squatting is Still Legal, Necessary and Free": A Brief Intervention in the Corporate City

    ANTIPODE, Issue 1 2002
    Paul Chatterton
    Squatting is a solution to homelessness, empty properties and speculation. It provides homes for those who can't get public housing and who can't afford extortionate rents. Squatting creates space for much-needed community projects. Squatting means taking control instead of being pushed around by bureaucrats and property owners. Squatting is still legal, necessary and free.(Advisory Service for Squatters 1996:1) What follows is an account of a brief intervention in the contemporary urban landscape in an English city, Newcastle upon Tyne. It is an account of a group of people who squatted a building as a response to the increasing dominance of corporate organisations and the declining accountability of local authorities in cities. [source]

    Reefer Madness: Legal & Moral Issues Surrounding the Medical Prescription of Marijuana

    BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2000
    R. Eric Barnes
    California, Arizona, and several other states have recently legalized medical marijuana. My goal in this paper is to demonstrate that even if one grants the opponents of legalization many of their contentious assumptions, the federal government is still obligated to take several specific steps toward the legalization of medical marijuana. I defend this claim against a variety of objections, including the claims: that marijuana is unsafe, that marijuana cannot be adequately tested or produced as a drug, that the availability of synthetic THC makes marijuana superfluous, and especially that legalizing medical marijuana will increase recreational use by ,sending the wrong message '. I then go on to argue that given the intransigent position of the federal government on this issue, state governments are justified in unilaterally legalizing medical marijuana as an act of civil disobedience. A large portion of this paper consists of an extensive response to the objection that legalizing medical marijuana will ,send the wrong message ', which I take to be the primary impediment to legalization. This objection basically claims that the consequences of withholding legalization (especially preventing increased recreational use) are superior to those of legalizing medical marijuana. I argue that legalization is justified even if one were to grant both that the harms of legalization outweighed its benefits and that utilitarianism is true. This requires a subtle and somewhat extended discussion of utilitarian moral and political theory. [source]

    When legal counsel is uninformed

    Bill Charney
    Boards often look to attorneys to guide their decisions about governance practice. For example, legal counsel is normally asked for help in revising bylaws, as they usually need to be revised with the adoption of Policy Governance. Legal knowledge, however, is not the same as governance knowledge. Bill Charney and Jim Hyatt's article "Legal Concerns with Policy Governance" (in Issue 78 of Board Leadership) addressed issues periodically seen as problematic by attorneys seeking to minimize legal risks for their clients. In this article, Charney and Hyatt explore misunderstandings that arise when an attorney lacks an understanding of Policy Governance and provide suggestions for effective board responses. [source]

    Knowledge Translation at the Macro Level: Legal and Ethical Considerations

    Gregory Luke Larkin MD, MSPH
    Macro-level legal and ethical issues play a significant role in the successful translation of knowledge into practice. The medicolegal milieu, in particular, can promote clinical inertia and stifle innovation. Embracing new clinical practice guidelines and best practice models has not protected physicians from superfluous torts; in some cases, emerging evidence has been used as the dagger of trial lawyers rather than the scalpel of physicians. Beyond the legal challenges are overarching justice issues that frame the broad goals of knowledge translation (KT) and technology diffusion. Optimal implementation of the latest evidence requires attention to be paid to the context of the candidate community and the key opinion leaders therein, characterized by the "8Ps" (public, patients, press, physicians, policy makers, private sector, payers, and public health). Ethical and equitable KT also accounts for the global burdens and benefits of implementing innovation such that disparities and gaps in health experienced by the least advantaged are prioritized. Researchers and thought leaders must attend to questions of fairness, economics, and legal risk when investigating ways to promote equity-oriented KT. [source]

    Specification, planning, and execution of QoS-aware Grid workflows within the Amadeus environment

    Ivona Brandic
    Abstract Commonly, at a high level of abstraction Grid applications are specified based on the workflow paradigm. However, majority of Grid workflow systems either do not support Quality of Service (QoS), or provide only partial QoS support for certain phases of the workflow lifecycle. In this paper we present Amadeus, which is a holistic service-oriented environment for QoS-aware Grid workflows. Amadeus considers user requirements, in terms of QoS constraints, during workflow specification, planning, and execution. Within the Amadeus environment workflows and the associated QoS constraints are specified at a high level using an intuitive graphical notation. A distinguishing feature of our system is the support of a comprehensive set of QoS requirements, which considers in addition to performance and economical aspects also legal and security aspects. A set of QoS-aware service-oriented components is provided for workflow planning to support automatic constraint-based service negotiation and workflow optimization. For improving the efficiency of workflow planning we introduce a QoS-aware workflow reduction technique. Furthermore, we present our static and dynamic planning strategies for workflow execution in accordance with user-specified requirements. For each phase of the workflow lifecycle we experimentally evaluate the corresponding Amadeus components. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    From determining capacity to facilitating competencies: A new mediation framework

    Susan H. Crawford
    Some in the mediation field suggest that mediators should determine whether or not a participant has the capacity to mediate. This article asserts that determining capacity limits parties' access to the mediation process, abridges civil rights, reduces mediator effectiveness, and erodes fundamental principles of mediation. It proposes a framework that centers not on legal or clinical practice, but on the theory and practice of mediation as a distinct field. [source]

    Ethics Seminars: Withdrawal of Treatment in the Emergency Department,When and How?

    Kelly Bookman MD
    Abstract Although increasing discussion has occurred within emergency medicine about indications for withholding cardiac life support and other resuscitative interventions, emergency physicians (EPs) may be less familiar with the ethical, legal, and practical issues surrounding withdrawal of life support that has already been initiated. Both physicians and out-of-hospital personnel must act rapidly in critical situations and must assume that the patient has the desire to be resuscitated, unless clear evidence exists to the contrary. Often, only after initial life-saving actions have stabilized the patient is there time to reflect and determine a patient's desires regarding such interventions. When the EP can clearly discern a patient's previously stated wishes during the emergency department (ED) stay, these wishes should be honored in the ED. Respecting a patient's request to avoid unwanted, invasive treatments near death may involve withdrawing interventions that could not be withheld during the first few minutes of care. In this article, the authors use a case of out-of-hospital stabilization of a patient as a springboard to review the ethical and legal framework for withdrawal of life-sustaining care, as well as the practical issues involved with withdrawal of such care in the ED. [source]

    Principles of Corporate Governance in Greece

    Harilaos Mertzanis
    This article presents the reasons which led the business community in Greece to reconsider existing corporate governance practices of listed corporations in the Athens Stock Exchange, outlines the general rationale for the creation and adoption of specific recommendations for best corporate practice, presents the recommendations in full detail and finally provides suggestions for the required corporate legal reform. [source]