Learning Strategies (learning + strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Taking a Closer Look at Vocabulary Learning Strategies: A Case Study of a Chinese Foreign Language Class

Paula M. Winke
Over the past decades, there have been a number of studies investigating the vocabulary strategies used by learners of Indo-European languages, especially English. However, studies of the strategies used by learners of non-Indo-European languages are rare. This classroom-based case study investigates the vocabulary learning strategies used by nine learners of Chinese as aforeign language and tests a taxonomy, based on Long's (1996) interaction hypothesis, for classifying strategies that mayfacilitate our understanding of strategies and their role within second language acquisition. [source]

Japanese Language Students' Attitudes Toward Kanji and Their Perceptions on Kanji Learning Strategies

Yoshiko Mori
This study aims at identifying interpretable factors underlying Japanese language learners' attitudes toward kanji and their self-reported kanji learning strategies. It also examines the relationship between the two sets of belief factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted among Japanese language students at nine universities in the United States; 311 responses were subjected to exploratory factor analyses that identified six attitudinal factors and six strategy belief factors. Descriptive statistics indicated that students considered rote memorization most effective and metacognitive strategies least effective. Correlational analyses revealed that appreciation of the cultural value of kanji and positive emotions toward kanji were associated with stronger belief in varied strategies. Perception of difficulty and belief in special abilities required for kanji learning, in contrast, were associated with reliance on rote memorization. [source]

A meta-analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States

Carolyn M. Schroeder
This project consisted of a meta-analysis of U.S. research published from 1980 to 2004 on the effect of specific science teaching strategies on student achievement. The six phases of the project included study acquisition, study coding, determination of intercoder objectivity, establishing criteria for inclusion of studies, computation of effect sizes for statistical analysis, and conducting the analyses. Studies were required to have been carried out in the United States, been experimental or quasi-experimental, and must have included effect size or the statistics necessary to calculate effect size. Sixty-one studies met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The following eight categories of teaching strategies were revealed during analysis of the studies (effect sizes in parentheses): Questioning Strategies (0.74); Manipulation Strategies (0.57); Enhanced Material Strategies (0.29); Assessment Strategies (0.51); Inquiry Strategies (0.65); Enhanced Context Strategies (1.48); Instructional Technology (IT) Strategies (0.48); and Collaborative Learning Strategies (0.95). All these effect sizes were judged to be significant. Regression analysis revealed that internal validity was influenced by Publication Type, Type of Study, and Test Type. External validity was not influenced by Publication Year, Grade Level, Test Content, or Treatment Categories. The major implication of this research is that we have generated empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of alternative teaching strategies in science. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 44: 1436,1460, 2007 [source]

Introductory quantum physics courses using a LabVIEW multimedia module

Ismael Orquín
Abstract We present the development of a LabVIEW multimedia module for introductory Quantum Physics courses and our experience in the use of this application as an educational tool in learning methodologies. The program solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) for arbitrary potentials. We describe the numerical method used for solving this equation, as well as some mathematical tools employed to reduce the calculation time and to obtain more accurate results. As an illustration, we present the evolution of a wave packet for three different potentials: the repulsive barrier potential, the repulsive step potential, and the harmonic oscillator. This application has been successfully integrated in the learning strategies of the course Quantum Physics for Engineering at the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ. 15: 124,133, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20100 [source]

Reverse Auctions with Multiple Reinforcement Learning Agents,

Subhajyoti Bandyopadhyay
ABSTRACT Reverse auctions in business-to-business (B2B) exchanges provide numerous benefits to participants. Arguably the most notable benefit is that of lowered prices driven by increased competition in such auctions. The competition between sellers in reverse auctions has been analyzed using a game-theoretic framework and equilibria have been established for several scenarios. One finding of note is that, in a setting in which sellers can meet total demand with the highest-bidding seller being able to sell only a fraction of the total capacity, the sellers resort to a mixed-strategy equilibrium. Although price randomization in industrial bidding is an accepted norm, one might argue that in reality managers do not utilize advanced game theory calculations in placing bids. More likely, managers adopt simple learning strategies. In this situation, it remains an open question as to whether the bid prices converge to the theoretical equilibrium over time. To address this question, we model reverse-auction bidding behavior by artificial agents as both two-player and n -player games in a simulation environment. The agents begin the game with a minimal understanding of the environment but over time analyze wins and losses for use in determining future bids. To test for convergence, the agents explore the price space and exploit prices where profits are higher, given varying cost and capacity scenarios. In the two-player case, the agents do indeed converge toward the theoretical equilibrium. The n -player case provides results that reinforce our understanding of the theoretical equilibria. These results are promising enough to further consider the use of artificial learning mechanisms in reverse auctions and other electronic market transactions, especially as more sophisticated mechanisms are developed to tackle real-life complexities. We also develop the analytical results when one agent does not behave strategically while the other agent does and show that our simulations for this environment also result in convergence toward the theoretical equilibrium. Because the nature of the best response in the new setting is very different (pure strategy as opposed to mixed), it indicates the robustness of the devised algorithm. The use of artificial agents can also overcome the limitations in rationality demonstrated by human managers. The results thus have interesting implications for designing artificial agents in automating bid responses for large numbers of bids where human intervention might not always be possible. [source]

Using Film Text to Support Reluctant Writers

Collette Higgins
Abstract This article is the result of working with several schools concerned with improving achievement in boys' writing. It begins by describing a range of effective teaching and learning strategies, observed in my role as a Literacy Consultant, which had a positive influence on writers especially boys. The article goes on to explore how a small group of boys, described by their teacher as ,reluctant writers', were encouraged by the use of film text to make the most of their preferences for action-driven narratives to improve story writing. It suggests that ,slowing down' this action in the author's eye gives pupils, and boys in particular, an opportunity to consider detail to enhance composition in the same way that a film director uses camera angles to capture the viewer's attention. [source]

5.3 Global challenges in research and strategic planning

Bruce J. Baum
Health sciences research is experiencing dramatic progress. How can dental schools throughout the world best make these research advances relevant for dental students, as well as providing them with the means to assess and utilize the research advances that will occur in the future? This complex question presents a critical challenge to the dental educational community. Research is clearly integral to the mission of dental education. By providing dental students with active learning strategies, dental educators can inculcate the ability for independent scientific thinking and thereby develop reflective as well as technically competent practitioners. However, there is a shortage of well-trained individuals to fill faculty and research positions in certain parts of the world. Global networks for mutual information exchange are imperative to overcome resource limitations in individual institutions, as is dedicated funding for research in the dental educational setting. [source]

Japanese Language Students' Attitudes Toward Kanji and Their Perceptions on Kanji Learning Strategies

Yoshiko Mori
This study aims at identifying interpretable factors underlying Japanese language learners' attitudes toward kanji and their self-reported kanji learning strategies. It also examines the relationship between the two sets of belief factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted among Japanese language students at nine universities in the United States; 311 responses were subjected to exploratory factor analyses that identified six attitudinal factors and six strategy belief factors. Descriptive statistics indicated that students considered rote memorization most effective and metacognitive strategies least effective. Correlational analyses revealed that appreciation of the cultural value of kanji and positive emotions toward kanji were associated with stronger belief in varied strategies. Perception of difficulty and belief in special abilities required for kanji learning, in contrast, were associated with reliance on rote memorization. [source]

Rhythm in Mother-Infant Interactions

INFANCY, Issue 2 2003
Deborah F. Deckner
Rhythmic behavior and the association of vocal rhythmic behavior with language development were studied in a sample of 30 mother-infant dyads. Dyads were observed in 2 contexts (1 involved sharing pictures and the other sharing musical toys) when infants were 18 and 24 months of age. Vocal rhythmic behavior was seen in both contexts, and in both contexts mothers matched their infant's vocal rhythmic behavior at greater than chance rates. Greater matching tended to be associated with higher language scores whereas, counter to prediction, higher rates of maternal vocal rhythmic behavior tended to be associated with lower language scores. At 24 months of age, mother-daughter dyads showed more matching than mother-son dyads. These results suggest that differences in maternal production of vocal rhythmic behavior may foster different language learning strategies. [source]

Sex differences in L2 vocabulary learning strategies

Rosa María Jiménez Catalán
This article reports the results of a descriptive study on sex differences in the use of a second language. A questionnaire was administered to 581 Spanish-speaking students learning Basque and English as L2 (279 males and 302 females) in order to answer these questions: Do male and female second language learners differ in (1) the number and (2) the range of vocabulary strategies they use? The results show that they differ significantly in the number of strategies used. Regarding the range of vocabulary strategies, 8 out of the 10 most frequent strategies are shared by males and females. However, a close analysis of the data also reveals differences, such as females' greater use of formal rule strategies, input elicitation strategies, rehearsal strategies and planning strategies, and males' greater use of image vocabulary learning strategies. In addition, the females' total strategy usage percentages are higher than the males', which points to either different perceptions of vocabulary learning behaviors or different patterns of vocabulary strategy usage for males and females. [source]

An exploration of students' strategy use in inquiry-based computer-supported collaborative learning

Hanna Salovaara
Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate students' use of cognitive learning strategies in inquiry-based computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). A process-oriented interview framework on cognitive activity, self-regulation and motivation, and a coding category for analysing cognitive learning strategies and cognitive self-regulation was developed. The students of an intervention group (n=18) participating in inquiry-based CSCL and a comparison group (n=8) were interviewed six to eight times during the 3 years of the study. The results derived from the mixed-method analysis of altogether 161 interviews were compared between the two groups. The results indicate that the students who participated in the inquiry-based CSCL activities reported deeper-level cognitive strategies such as monitoring, creating representations and sharing information collaboratively. The students of the comparison group reported more surface-level strategies such as memorization. However, the findings concerning the utility of CSCL inquiry on cognitive learning strategies were not uniformly positive. It was found that the students of the comparison group reported significantly more strategies under the category of content evaluation. Nevertheless, the results suggest that computer-supported inquiry-based learning can enhance the use of cognitive strategies that support learning. [source]

Rapid evolution of social learning

Abstract Culture is widely thought to be beneficial when social learning is less costly than individual learning and thus may explain the enormous ecological success of humans. Rogers (1988. Does biology constrain culture. Am. Anthropol. 90: 819,831) contradicted this common view by showing that the evolution of social learning does not necessarily increase the net benefits of learned behaviours in a variable environment. Using simulation experiments, we re-analysed extensions of Rogers' model after relaxing the assumption that genetic evolution is much slower than cultural evolution. Our results show that this assumption is crucial for Rogers' finding. For many parameter settings, genetic and cultural evolution occur on the same time scale, and feedback effects between genetic and cultural dynamics increase the net benefits. Thus, by avoiding the costs of individual learning, social learning can increase ecological success. Furthermore, we found that rapid evolution can limit the evolution of complex social learning strategies, which have been proposed to be widespread in animals. [source]

Enhancing students' understanding of the concept of chemical bonding by using activities provided on an interactive website

Marcel Frailich
Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of a web-based learning environment in enhancing 10th grade high-school students' understanding of the concept of chemical bonding. Two groups participated in this study: an experimental group (N,=,161) and a comparison one (N,=,93). The teachers in the experimental group were asked to implement four activities taken from a website, all dealing with the concept of chemical bonding. Computer-based visual models are utilized in all the activities in order to demonstrate bonding and the structure of matter, and are based on student-centered learning. The study incorporated both quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative research consisted of achievement questionnaires administered to both the experimental and comparison groups. In contrast, the qualitative research included observations and interviews of students and teachers. Importantly, we found that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group significantly, in the achievement post-test, which examines students' understanding of the concept of chemical bonding. These results led us to conclude that the web-based learning activities which integrated visualization tools with active and cooperative learning strategies provided students with opportunities to construct their knowledge regarding the concept of chemical bonding. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 46: 289,310, 2009 [source]

Effect of Episodic and Working Memory Impairments on Semantic and Cognitive Procedural Learning at Alcohol Treatment Entry

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2007
Anne Lise Pitel
Background: Chronic alcoholism is known to impair the functioning of episodic and working memory, which may consequently reduce the ability to learn complex novel information. Nevertheless, semantic and cognitive procedural learning have not been properly explored at alcohol treatment entry, despite its potential clinical relevance. The goal of the present study was therefore to determine whether alcoholic patients, immediately after the weaning phase, are cognitively able to acquire complex new knowledge, given their episodic and working memory deficits. Methods: Twenty alcoholic inpatients with episodic memory and working memory deficits at alcohol treatment entry and a control group of 20 healthy subjects underwent a protocol of semantic acquisition and cognitive procedural learning. The semantic learning task consisted of the acquisition of 10 novel concepts, while subjects were administered the Tower of Toronto task to measure cognitive procedural learning. Results: Analyses showed that although alcoholic subjects were able to acquire the category and features of the semantic concepts, albeit slowly, they presented impaired label learning. In the control group, executive functions and episodic memory predicted semantic learning in the first and second halves of the protocol, respectively. In addition to the cognitive processes involved in the learning strategies invoked by controls, alcoholic subjects seem to attempt to compensate for their impaired cognitive functions, invoking capacities of short-term passive storage. Regarding cognitive procedural learning, although the patients eventually achieved the same results as the controls, they failed to automate the procedure. Contrary to the control group, the alcoholic groups' learning performance was predicted by controlled cognitive functions throughout the protocol. Conclusion: At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients with neuropsychological deficits have difficulty acquiring novel semantic and cognitive procedural knowledge. Compared with controls, they seem to use more costly learning strategies, which are nonetheless less efficient. These learning disabilities need to be considered when treatment requiring the acquisition of complex novel information is envisaged. [source]

Active learning for constructing transliteration lexicons from the Web

Jin-Shea Kuo
This article presents an adaptive learning framework for Phonetic Similarity Modeling (PSM) that supports the automatic construction of transliteration lexicons. The learning algorithm starts with minimum prior knowledge about machine transliteration and acquires knowledge iteratively from the Web. We study the unsupervised learning and the active learning strategies that minimize human supervision in terms of data labeling. The learning process refines the PSM and constructs a transliteration lexicon at the same time. We evaluate the proposed PSM and its learning algorithm through a series of systematic experiments, which show that the proposed framework is reliably effective on two independent databases. [source]

Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement of Students with Learning Disabilities: An Update of Tateyama-Sniezek's Review

Kristen Nyman McMaster
This article reviews research published from 1990 to 2000 examining effects of cooperative learning strategies on the academic achievement of students with learning disabilities. The literature search is described. Fifteen studies are included in the review and are grouped according to the types of cooperative learning strategies that were examined. Sample characteristics, measures, findings, and effect sizes are reported in a table. Achievement outcomes are mixed. Cooperative learning strategies that incorporate individual accountability and group rewards are more likely to improve achievement of students with disabilities. However, design problems across the studies limit conclusions to be drawn about the efficacy of cooperative learning. More research is needed before it may be viewed as an effective strategy for students with disabilities. [source]

Teaching and learning about human sexuality in undergraduate medical education

Mary Dixon-Woods
Background Effective management of the doctor's role in relation to human sexuality requires sensitivity and tact, an ability to put patients at ease, use of appropriate language, and therapeutic, non-discriminatory attitudes. However, previous research suggests that medical students and doctors may hold negative attitudes towards homosexuality and some forms of sexual behaviour. Some educational programmes have started to help students develop communication skills for sexual health consultations, but little work has addressed the broader issue of attitudes and values which may underlie behaviour. It is vital that medical students begin early the process of reflection and recognition of how their attitudes and values might influence their care of patients. In this paper we report on a course designed to initiate this process at Leicester-Warwick Medical School (LWMS). Course description The course utilizes techniques of desensitization, problem-solving and reflection to enable the students to achieve the learning outcomes, which are primarily oriented towards reflection and self-development. It uses a variety of teaching and learning strategies, combining peer learning with self-directed learning, and small-group learning with whole class learning. Course evaluation We report observations and a before-and-after questionnaire study of students' views and attitudes. This evaluation suggests that the course is successful in reducing students' anxieties about human sexuality and improving their confidence in developing appropriate skills. Conclusions The LWMS course is one model which might be used to begin the process of encouraging medical students to develop ways of appropriately managing their responsibilities in relation to human sexuality. [source]

A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample consisted of 275 advanced learners studying English for academic purposes prior to entering Australian universities. The data were analyzed using both variable- and person-centered approaches. The variable-centered approaches included correlational analysis and structural equation modeling, whereas the person-centered approaches utilized cluster analysis and profile analysis using multidimensional scaling (PAMS). The findings supported the hypothesized model of adaptive learning and highlighted the relevance of research in educational psychology for informing language learning research. [source]

Giving up on Modern Foreign Languages?

Students' Perceptions of Learning French
This article reports on the findings of an investigation into the attitudes of English students aged 16 to 19 years towards French and how they view the reasons behind their level of achievement. Those students who attributed success to effort, high ability, and effective learning strategies had higher levels of achievement, and students intending to continue French after age 16 were more likely than noncontinuers to attribute success to these factors. Low ability and task difficulty were the main reasons cited for lack of achievement in French, whereas the possible role of learning strategies tended to be overlooked by students. It is argued that learners' self-concept and motivation might be enhanced through approaches that encourage learners to explore the causal links between the strategies they employ and their academic performance, thereby changing the attributions they make for success or failure. [source]

Supportive teaching and learning strategies in STEM education

Karl A. Smith
This chapter provides faculty with design principles based on the How People Learn framework, as well as current best practices for designing engaged learning environments in STEM classes in the hope of continuing improvement in STEM education. [source]

Training for innovation in India: Cultural considerations and strategic Implications

L. Roxanne Russell
Global organizations with personnel in India rank innovation as a primary workforce development objective to stay competitive in the global market (NASSCOM, 2007). This analysis reviews relevant literature for evidence of cultural factors that stand in the way of innovative performance in Indian personnel and discusses implications for the design of interventions. Findings in the literature indicate possible knowledge gaps resulting from higher education quality assurance problems and high turnover in the job market, underrecognition of creative and practical intellectual abilities owing to testing practices, and restrictions on creative tendencies stemming from hierarchical structures and external pressures. Instructional design implications include the use of diagnostics, transformational learning strategies, and systemic reinforcement initiatives. [source]

Teaching and evaluating point of care learning with an Internet-based clinical-question portfolio

MSc Associate Professor of Medicine, Michael L. Green MD
Abstract Introduction: Diplomates in the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program satisfy the self-evaluation of medical knowledge requirement by completing open-book multiple-choice exams. However, this method remains unlikely to affect practice change and often covers content areas not relevant to diplomates' practices. We developed and evaluated an Internet-based point of care (POC) learning portfolio to serve as an alternative. Methods: Participants enter information about their clinical questions, including characteristics, information pursuit, application, and practice change. After documenting 20 questions, they reflect upon a summary report and write commitment-to-change statements about their learning strategies. They can link to help screens and medical information resources. We report on the beta test evaluation of the module, completed by 23 internists and 4 internal medicine residents. Results: Participants found the instructions clear and navigated the module without difficulty. The majority preferred the POC portfolio to multiple-choice examinations, citing greater relevance to their practice, guidance in expanding their palette of information resources, opportunity to reflect on their learning needs, and "credit" for self-directed learning related to their patients. Participants entered a total of 543 clinical questions, of which 250 (46%) resulted in a planned practice change. After completing the module, 14 of 27 (52%) participants committed to at least 1 change in their POC learning strategies. Discussion: Internists found the portfolio valuable, preferred it to multiple-choice examinations, often changed their practice after pursuing clinical questions, and productively reflected on their learning strategies. The ABIM will offer this portfolio as an elective option in MOC. [source]

Reconciling pedagogy and health sciences to promote Indigenous health

Denise Main
Objectives: To increase knowledge and skills regarding Indigenous learning styles. To raise awareness within the tertiary education sector that Aboriginal students learn differently and that Indigenous cultures and pedagogy have validity and strength. To examine pedagogical strategies that assist both tertiary students capacity for learning and university lecturers' delivery and evaluation of teaching and learning strategies. Methods: A qualitative, ethnographic framework using personal observations, field and classroom experience, interviews and review of literature in the fields of education, public health and Indigenous cultural perspectives. Results: Aboriginal people are the receivers of services and programs that will be delivered, in the majority of cases, by university-educated, non-Aboriginal, professional health care providers. Indigenous students face specific challenges in obtaining an effective education for working in the Aboriginal and wider community in the field of public health; the challenges relate to culture, health paradigms and community. Conclusion: Lecturers in health and human science courses for Aboriginal students need to both examine and appreciate the cultural constraints on learning faced by their students within the context of mainstream curriculum, and to build on the large pool of knowledge and learning styles that Aboriginal society bequeaths to Aboriginal students. Implications: Academics can apply the cultural differences and knowledge base of the Indigenous community as a force to promote health through learning. [source]

Understanding fatty acid metabolism through an active learning approach

M. Fardilha
Abstract A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less emphasis is placed on transmitting information and the focus is shifted toward developing higher order thinking (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation). However, MALA should always involve clearly identified objectives and well-defined targets. Understanding fatty acid metabolism was one of the proposed goals of the Medical Biochemistry unit. To this end, students were challenged with a variety of learning strategies to develop skills associated with group conflict resolution, critical thinking, information access, and retrieval, as well as oral and written communication skills. Overall, students and learning facilitators were highly motivated by the diversity of learning activities, particularly due to the emphasis on correlating theoretical knowledge with human health and disease. As a quality control exercise, the students were asked to answer a questionnaire on their evaluation of the whole teaching/learning experience. Our initial analysis of the learning outcomes permits us to conclude that the approach undertaken yields results that surpass the traditional teaching methods. [source]

The relationship between motivation, learning strategies and choice of environment whether traditional or including an online component

Karen Clayton
This study examined how students' achievement goals, self-efficacy and learning strategies influenced their choice of an online, hybrid or traditional learning environment. One hundred thirty-two post-secondary students completed surveys soliciting their preferences for learning environments, reasons for their preference, their motivational orientation towards learning and learning strategies used. Findings indicated that most students preferred traditional learning environments. This preference was based on how well the environment matched their personal learning style and engaged them as students. Discriminant analyses indicated significant differences in motivational beliefs and learning strategies; students who preferred traditional environments showed a mastery goal orientation and greater willingness to apply effort while learning. Students who preferred less traditional environments presented as more confident that they could manage a non-traditional class. These findings have implications for understanding students' motivation for learning in diverse educational settings. [source]

Learning through teaching: Peer-mediated instruction in minimally invasive education

Ritu Dangwal
The current paper provides insight into the learning strategies adopted by children working at Minimally Invasive Education (MIE) Learning Stations. Previous research has clearly indicated the attainment of basic computer literacy by groups of young children in the age groups of 7,14 years. This learning takes place due to the emergence and development of group social processes, an aspect crucial for achieving basic computing skills. The paper describes the process of socially shared understanding and learning as being crucial to individual learning. It is to be noted that this approach of socially shared learning does not challenge the analysis of the individual level of processing; it maintains that individual learning is vital in any learning context, but insufficient to build the psychology of learning. MIE research is of the view that young children learn through interaction with others, particularly peers as it provides an important context for social and cognitive learning. For it is in this way that children make sense of their own experience and environment. Hence, schools are not the only privileged sites of learning. [source]

Strategies for accommodating individuals' styles and preferences in flexible learning programmes

Eugene Sadler-Smith
Abstract There has been a considerable growth in the use of flexible methods of delivery for workplace learning and development. However, in designing programmes of flexible learning there is often the assumption that learners will exhibit uniformity in the ways in which they process and organise information (cognitive style), in their predispositions towards particular learning formats and media (instructional preferences) and the conscious actions they employ to deal with the demands of specific learning situations (learning strategies). In adopting such a stance one runs the risk of ignoring important aspects of individual differences in styles, preferences and strategies. Our purpose in this paper will be to: (i) consider some aspects of individual difference that are pertinent to the delivery of flexible learning in the workplace; (ii) identify some of the challenges that extant differences in styles and preferences between individuals, may, raise, for, instructional, designers, and, learning, facilitators;, (iii), suggest, ways, in, which, models, of, flexible, learning, design, and, delivery may acknowledge and accommodate individual differences in styles and preferences through the use of an appropriate range of instructional design, learning and support strategies. [source]

Investigating the efficacy of concept mapping with pupils with autistic spectrum disorder

Veronica Roberts
Pupils with autism often present significant challenges to teachers. They seem to have real strengths in visual processing but a cognitive style that encourages them to focus on detail rather than the overarching connections between concepts. Veronica Roberts, currently undertaking doctoral training at the Institute of Education, University of London, in order to become an educational psychologist, and Richard Joiner, senior lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Bath, set out to explore these issues. In this article, they report the outcomes of a naturalistic experiment in which they investigated the utility of concept mapping as an educational strategy with pupils diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Theoretical arguments supporting the use of concept mapping with an autistic population are outlined in the paper. A tutor group of ten pupils with ASD, aged between 11 and 14 years, took part in the study. Concept mapping tasks were integrated within National Curriculum science lessons in collaboration with the school's science teacher. The study found that the increase in pupil performance in subject-specific questionnaires was nearly four times greater in the concept mapping condition than after a more conventional teaching intervention. Veronica Roberts and Richard Joiner tentatively draw out the implications of their work for staff who work with pupils with ASD and make recommendations for further research into the use of these learning strategies. [source]

Electricity peak load forecasting with self-organizing map and support vector regression

Shu Fan Non-member
Abstract This paper aims to study the short-term peak load forecasting (PLF) by using Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) and support vector regression (SVR). We first adopt a SOM network to cluster the input data set into several subsets in an unsupervised learning strategy. Then, several SVRs for the next day's peak load are used to fit the training data of each subset in the second stage. In the numerical experiments, data of electricity demand from the New York Independent System Operator (ISO) are used to verify the effectiveness of the prediction for the proposed method. The simulation results show that the proposed model can predict the next day's peak load with a considerably high accuracy compared with the ISO forecasts. © 2006 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

A systematic review of peer teaching and learning in clinical education

Jacinta Secomb
Aims and objectives., The purpose of this review is to provide a framework for peer teaching and learning in the clinical education of undergraduate health science students in clinical practice settings and make clear the positive and negative aspects of this teaching and learning strategy. Background., The practice of using peers incidentally or purposefully in the clinical education of apprentice or undergraduate health science students is a well-established tradition and commonly practiced, but lacks definition in its implementation. Method., The author conducted a search of health science and educational electronic databases using the terms peer, clinical education and undergraduate. The set limitations were publications after 1980 (2005 inclusive), English language and research papers. Selection of studies occurred: based on participant, intervention, research method and learning outcomes, following a rigorous critical and quality appraisal with a purposefully developed tool. The results have been both tabled and collated in a narrative summary. Results., Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria, representing five countries and four health science disciplines. This review reported mostly positive outcomes on the effectiveness of peer teaching and learning; it can increase student's confidence in clinical practice and improve learning in the psychomotor and cognitive domains. Negative aspects were also identified; these include poor student learning if personalities or learning styles are not compatible and students spending less individualized time with the clinical instructor. Conclusions., Peer teaching and learning is an effective educational intervention for health science students on clinical placements. Preclinical education of students congruent with the academic timetable increases student educational outcomes from peer teaching and learning. Strategies are required prior to clinical placement to accommodate incompatible students or poor student learning. Relevance to clinical practice., The findings from this systematic review, although not statistically significant, do have pragmatic implications for clinical practice. It can increase clinical placement opportunities for undergraduate health students, assist clinical staff with workload pressures and increase clinician time with clients, while further developing students' knowledge, skills and attitudes. [source]