Learning Outcomes (learning + outcome)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Learning Outcomes

  • student learning outcome


  • Selected Abstracts


    The Determinants of Students' Perceived Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction in University Online Education: An Empirical Investigation,

    DECISION SCIENCES JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATION, Issue 2 2006
    Sean B. Eom
    ABSTRACT In this study, structural equation modeling is applied to examine the determinants of students' satisfaction and their perceived learning outcomes in the context of university online courses. Independent variables included in the study are course structure, instructor feedback, self-motivation, learning style, interaction, and instructor facilitation as potential determinants of online learning. A total of 397 valid unduplicated responses from students who have completed at least one online course at a university in the Midwest were used to examine the structural model. The results indicated that all of the antecedent variables significantly affect students' satisfaction. Of the six antecedent variables hypothesized to affect the perceived learning outcomes, only instructor feedback and learning style are significant. The structural model results also reveal that user satisfaction is a significant predictor of learning outcomes. The findings suggest online education can be a superior mode of instruction if it is targeted to learners with specific learning styles (visual and read/write learning styles) and with timely, meaningful instructor feedback of various types. [source]


    Social Comparison-Based Thoughts in Groups: Their Associations With Interpersonal Trust and Learning Outcomes

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Eric Molleman
    This study relates thoughts derived from 4 types of social comparison to trust and individual learning. Our study (N = 362 students) showed that upward identification (i.e., believing one is just as good as a better performing teammate) was positively related to trust and individual learning. Upward contrast (i.e., believing one is worse than a better performing group member) was negatively related to learning, as were downward-identifying thoughts (i.e., believing one will perform as badly as a poorly performing teammate). Downward contrast (i.e., thinking one can do much better than the poor performer) was negatively related to trust. We concluded that social comparison-based thoughts are important to consider when designing teamwork because of their constructive and destructive consequences. [source]


    Making the Transition to a Food Science Curriculum Based on Assessment of Learning Outcomes

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
    R.W. Hartel
    ABSTRACT: Despite the well-documented advantages of switching to instruction based on assessment of learning outcomes, many academic disciplines, including food science, are still based on the traditional mode of instruction. The problems of converting from traditional to assessment-driven instruction are numerous and change in the university setting is slow. However, certain guidelines can be followed to start the process for change and evaluate the effects on student learning. A partnership between the industry being served and academic instructors is needed to ensure that assessment-based instruction is focused on the proper principles. Methods of assessment of learning outcomes need to be carefully chosen and developed to bring industry standards and student learning together. This can be done only if both direct and indirect assessments at the program level provide faculty with means to answer their most pressing questions about what students know and are able to do as a result of Food Science education. [source]


    Student Learning Outcomes as Professional Development and Public Relations

    MODERN LANGUAGE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2006
    ELIZABETH B. BERNHARDT
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Memory awareness and schematization: learning in the university context

    APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    Debra M. B. Herbert
    Following the application of the remember/know paradigm to student learning by Conway et al. (1997), this study examined changes in learning and memory awareness of university students in a lecture course and a research methods course. The proposed shift from a dominance of ,remember' awareness in early learning to a dominance of ,know' awareness as learning progresses and schematization occurs was evident for the methods course but not for the lecture course. The patterns of remember and know awareness and proposed associated levels of schematization were supported by a separate measure of the quality of student learning using the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) Taxonomy. As found by previous research, the remember-to-know shift and schematization of knowledge is dependent upon type of course and level of achievement. Findings are discussed in terms of the utility of the methodology used, the theoretical implications and the applications to educational practice. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Student use of computer-assisted learning (CAL) and effects on learning outcomes

    BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
    Craig Zimitat
    Abstract This article reports on a qualitative evaluation of student use of a computer-assisted learning (CAL) program and associated learning outcomes. Learning outcomes were classified by analysis of examination scripts using the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy, and individuals were interviewed to uncover aspects of their learning processes while using the CAL program. All students were aware of the "design for learning" features of the CAL program, although not all students were able to take advantage of these because of their own note-taking practices. Verbatim or excessive note-taking was associated with surface learning outcomes, while summarizing or personal note-taking and engagement with the program was associated with deep learning outcomes. Other factors affecting learning outcomes included students' perceptions of the role of the program, social elements of the learning environment, and a lack of distinction between major and minor issues in the content. [source]


    A comparison of learning outcomes and attitudes in student- versus faculty-led problem-based learning: an experimental study

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2000
    David J Steele
    Objectives To compare learning outcomes and perceptions of facilitator behaviours and small-group process in problem-based learning (PBL) groups led by students and those led by faculty. Design A prospective, Latin-square cross-over design was employed. Second-year medical students participated in 11 PBL cases over the course of the academic year. For each case, half the student groups were led by faculty and the other half by a student group member selected randomly to serve in the facilitator role. Learning outcomes were assessed by performance on objective examinations covering factual materials pertinent to the case. Perceptions of facilitator behaviours and of group functioning were assessed with a questionnaire completed at the end of each individual case. Focus-group discussions were held to gain more in-depth information about student perceptions and experience. Student-led sessions were observed at random by the investigators. Setting A state-supported, US medical school with a hybrid lecture-based and problem-based curriculum. Subjects One hundred and twenty-seven second-year medical students and 30 basic science and clinical faculty. Results No differences were detected in student performance on the objective evaluation based on whether the facilitator was a faculty member or peer group member, nor were there any differences in the perceptions of group process. Students gave peer facilitators slightly higher ratings in the second semester of the experiment. In the focus-group discussions, students voiced a general preference for student-led groups because they felt they were more efficient. Observation and focus-group reports suggest that groups led by students sometimes took short cuts in the PBL process. Conclusion In a hybrid lecture- and PBL-based curriculum, student performance on objective examinations covering PBL materials is unaffected by the status of the facilitator (student vs. faculty). However, in peer-facilitated groups, students sometimes took short cuts in the PBL process that may undermine some of the intended goals of PBL. [source]


    Student use of computer-assisted learning (CAL) and effects on learning outcomes

    BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
    Craig Zimitat
    Abstract This article reports on a qualitative evaluation of student use of a computer-assisted learning (CAL) program and associated learning outcomes. Learning outcomes were classified by analysis of examination scripts using the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy, and individuals were interviewed to uncover aspects of their learning processes while using the CAL program. All students were aware of the "design for learning" features of the CAL program, although not all students were able to take advantage of these because of their own note-taking practices. Verbatim or excessive note-taking was associated with surface learning outcomes, while summarizing or personal note-taking and engagement with the program was associated with deep learning outcomes. Other factors affecting learning outcomes included students' perceptions of the role of the program, social elements of the learning environment, and a lack of distinction between major and minor issues in the content. [source]


    Computer-mediated instructional video: a randomised controlled trial comparing a sequential and a segmented instructional video in surgical hand wash

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2005
    M. Schittek Janda
    Background:, Video-based instructions for clinical procedures have been used frequently during the preceding decades. Aim:, To investigate in a randomised controlled trial the learning effectiveness of fragmented videos vs. the complete sequential video and to analyse the attitudes of the user towards video as a learning aid. Materials and methods:, An instructional video on surgical hand wash was produced. The video was available in two different forms in two separate web pages: one as a sequential video and one fragmented into eight short clips. Twenty-eight dental students in the second semester were randomised into an experimental (n = 15) and a control group (n = 13). The experimental group used the fragmented form of the video and the control group watched the complete one. The use of the videos was logged and the students were video taped whilst undertaking a test hand wash. The videos were analysed systematically and blindly by two independent clinicians. The students also performed a written test concerning learning outcome from the videos as well as they answered an attitude questionnaire. Results:, The students in the experimental group watched the video significantly longer than the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to the ratings and scores when performing the hand wash. The experimental group had significantly better results in the written test compared with those of the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to attitudes towards the use of video for learning, as measured by the Visual Analogue Scales. Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the use of video for learning. Conclusion:, The students demonstrated positive attitudes and acceptable learning outcome from viewing CAL videos as a part of their pre-clinical training. Videos that are part of computer-based learning settings would ideally be presented to the students both as a segmented and as a whole video to give the students the option to choose the form of video which suits the individual student's learning style. [source]


    Explaining the modality and contiguity effects: New insights from investigating students' viewing behaviour

    APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Florian Schmidt-Weigand
    The study examined viewing behaviour and learning outcome during multimedia learning in order to explore split-attention processes in modality and spatial contiguity effects. Fourty students viewed a computer instruction depicting the process of lightning. Exploratory text was spoken, written near or written far from accompanying animations. Students who received spoken text outperformed students who received written text in recalling the major steps (retention) and in identifying correct solutions to problems (transfer), replicating a modality effect. Differences between near and far written text presentation in retention (d,=,0.51) and transfer (d,=,0.68) tests failed statistical significance. Two major characteristics concerning the learners' viewing behaviour were identified: (a) in written text presentation, learning was largely text directed and (b) learning success was related to the time learners' spent looking at animations, indicating that the processing of animations is a crucial factor in explanations of modality and spatial contiguity effects. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Minimum standard and learning outcomes in physiology required by the Bologna process: the Federation of European Physiological Societies end-terms of physiology in a medical curriculum

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    Luc Snoeckx Guest Editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Competing Agendas: Young Children's Museum Field Trips

    CURATOR THE MUSEUM JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
    David Anderson
    Agendas are known to directly influence visitor behavior and learning. Numerous agendas are at play during a visit to a museum. We suggest that in a museum-based learning experience, children's agendas are often overlooked, and are at times in competition with the accompanying adult's agendas. This paper describes and qualitatively analyzes three episodes of competing agendas that occurred on young children's field trips to museums in Brisbane, Australia. The aim is to elucidate the kinds of tensions over agendas that can arise in the experience of young museum-goers. Additionally, we hope to alert museum practitioners to the importance of considering children's agendas, with the aim of improving their museum experience. Suggestions are also made for ways in which educators can address children's agendas during museum visits in order to maximize learning outcomes. [source]


    Capturing Flow in the Business Classroom

    DECISION SCIENCES JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATION, Issue 2 2008
    Yi Maggie Guo
    ABSTRACT This study focuses on the flow experience in business education. Flow experience, characterized by concentration, control, and enjoyment, can lead to better learning outcomes. Leading preconditions of flow include the balance of challenge and skill, feedback, and goal clarity. Other situational factors affect the flow experience through the mediating effects of these three factors. In this article, we extend an existing framework linking flow and learning. Using the model as a guide, we start our research effort of flow in business education by conducting a field survey of student learning experience in terms of flow and influential factors. Data were collected using business students taking an introductory Operations Management course. The analysis reveals that flow does exist in classroom learning. Its key dimensions are concentration, sense of control, and enjoyment. The more important leading factor is having clear feedback. Characteristics of both the instructor and students play a role in the flow experience of students during lecture. It is evident that flow theory offers a useful framework for business education research. Suggestions for future research are made. [source]


    The Determinants of Students' Perceived Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction in University Online Education: An Empirical Investigation,

    DECISION SCIENCES JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATION, Issue 2 2006
    Sean B. Eom
    ABSTRACT In this study, structural equation modeling is applied to examine the determinants of students' satisfaction and their perceived learning outcomes in the context of university online courses. Independent variables included in the study are course structure, instructor feedback, self-motivation, learning style, interaction, and instructor facilitation as potential determinants of online learning. A total of 397 valid unduplicated responses from students who have completed at least one online course at a university in the Midwest were used to examine the structural model. The results indicated that all of the antecedent variables significantly affect students' satisfaction. Of the six antecedent variables hypothesized to affect the perceived learning outcomes, only instructor feedback and learning style are significant. The structural model results also reveal that user satisfaction is a significant predictor of learning outcomes. The findings suggest online education can be a superior mode of instruction if it is targeted to learners with specific learning styles (visual and read/write learning styles) and with timely, meaningful instructor feedback of various types. [source]


    Randomized controlled trial of an instructional DVD for clinical skills teaching

    EMERGENCY MEDICINE AUSTRALASIA, Issue 3 2007
    Joon C Lee
    Abstract Objective:, To determine the efficacy of clinical skills teaching using a DVD-based teaching medium (interventional group) compared with the traditional, four-step, face-to-face approach (control group). The clinical skill selected for the study was that of paediatric intraosseous (IO) needle insertion. Methods:, Thirty-six candidates who had no exposure to IO needle insertion experience within the past 12 months were randomly allocated into two groups. The interventional group (n = 18) was shown a 10 min instructional DVD and then allowed 10 min each to practise IO insertion with a paediatric training mannequin. The control group (n = 18) was given a 20 min, four-step, face-to-face teaching session with practical exposure and individual use of an IO needle on a training mannequin facilitated by an instructor. Each candidate was assessed using a checklist of critical steps for successful IO needle insertion and given a score out of 10. A modified Likert score reflecting candidates' subjective perceptions of the whole experience was completed after the test. Results:, The interventional group obtained a mean score of 7.56 (SD 1.65) and the control teaching group a mean score of 6.00 (SD 1.84). The mean difference was ,1.56 (P < 0.01, 95% CI ,2.74 to ,0.37). There was no difference in the candidates' perception on the satisfaction, anxiety and confidence level about the teaching experience. Conclusion:, The study suggests that the use of instructional DVD for clinical skills teaching results in improved learning outcomes compared with the traditional face-to-face didactic teaching method. [source]


    Training evaluation of a course in diabetic retinopathy screening

    EUROPEAN DIABETES NURSING, Issue 2 2005
    R Pauli PhD Senior Lecturer
    Abstract The success and effectiveness of diabetic screening programmes are dependent on the availability of appropriately trained image graders. This study was designed to evaluate graders enrolled on a locally devised, formal training course by means of a performance-based measure. The course consisted of four days of classroom-based tuition followed by three months of practice-based learning in the workplace. The aim was to establish whether trainees showed an improvement in their ability to grade images, and secondly whether test sets of images are useful in measuring training outcome. Thirteen trainees were required to grade a test set of 24 single images both before and after training. A significant improvement in sensitivity (from 35% before training to 45% after training) was observed as a result of training but at a cost of a decline in specificity. Trainees' confidence ratings measured on a five-point scale increased from an average of 2.4 to 4.1 (p<0.01). We concluded that the course needs to focus more on trainees' ability to discriminate between normal and abnormal images as well as improving grading accuracy in line with increased grading confidence. Test-based course evaluation can be seen to be a valuable instrument in establishing a quality standard for stated learning outcomes. In this research it has clearly indicated weaknesses of the training programme in its current form. Copyright 2005 FEND. [source]


    Improving clinical assessment: evaluating students' ability to identify and apply clinical criteria

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 3 2010
    C. Redwood
    Abstract Aim:, There is ongoing concern by health educators over the inability of professionals to accurately self-assess their clinical behaviour and standards, resulting in doubts over a key expectation of effective self-regulation in the health professions. Participation by students in the assessment process has been shown to increase the understanding of assessment criteria in written assessment tasks. How this might transfer to the clinical setting is the focus of this study. This paper is part of an ongoing investigation of the impact on learning of a series of activities that provides students with opportunities to discuss and apply criteria and standards associated with self-assessment in clinical dentistry. Our aim was to evaluate whether participation in these assessment activities improved the ability of first-year dental students to recognise behaviours demonstrated by ,peers' in videos of clinical scenarios and to relate these to the assessment criteria. Materials and methods:, A series of three workshops in conjunction with weekly clinical assessment activities in Semesters 1 and 2 were use to support first-year students' learning of clinical assessment criteria. The design of the workshops was based on the principles of social constructivist theories of learning and the concept of tacit knowledge. Accordingly workshop activities were planned around videos that were specifically constructed to illustrate procedures and behaviours typical of those observed by staff and tutors in the first year of the dental course at The University of Adelaide, Australia. First-year students viewed the videos prior to and after the workshops and recorded observed behaviours that related to the assessment criteria that were used in their clinical practice course. Student learning outcomes were assessed 10,14 weeks after the initial workshop and again up to 42 weeks later. To check whether learning resulted from repeated viewing of the videos without formal discussion, a reference group of third-year students who did not attend the workshops also viewed the videos two times, separated by 12 weeks, and recorded observations in the same way. Results:, There was no consistent evidence that repeat viewing of the videos in isolation resulted in improved recognition of ,peer' behaviours by third-year dental students. Results for the first-year students indicated that the workshops and clinical assessment activities had a significantly positive effect on the ability of students to identify ,peer' behaviours related to the criteria used for clinical assessment. In particular, students' recognition in others of knowledge and professional behaviours improved significantly. This improvement was retained over the year and students were able to recognise these behaviours in other scenarios relevant to their year level. Conclusions:, This early exposure to the process of clinical assessment, coupled with ongoing self-assessment and tutor feedback throughout first year, improved the ability of first-year students to identify and apply some key assessment criteria to observed ,peer' behaviour, and this ability was retained over time. [source]


    Students' clinical experience on outreach placements

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2010
    M. Smith
    Abstract Primary care outreach placements increasingly feature in UK undergraduate dental curricula. The profile of clinical work undertaken on placement may differ from traditional hospital-based programmes and between outreach settings. An appreciation of any differences could inform curriculum development. Objective:, To compare the profiles of clinical work experienced on a traditional hospital-based programme and outreach placements in different settings. Setting:, One dental hospital and eight existing primary care block placements in England. Subjects and methods:, Subjects were four cohorts of senior dental students in one UK dental school. Departmental records provided data on students' clinical experience in different settings and their achievement of placement learning objectives. Descriptive statistics for groups were compared. Main outcome measures:, (1) Counts of patients encountered and of clinical procedures completed in the following categories: simple plastic restorations, endodontics, cast restorations, dentures, extractions and children's dentistry. (2) Student perceptions of placement learning reported via Likert scales. Results:, Outreach students encountered twice as many patients and typically completed about three times as much clinical work as students in the hospital, e.g. 44 cf 16 simple plastic restorations, seven cf two endodontic procedures. There were variations in profiles by setting. For example, amalgam being more likely to be used on outreach especially in the General Dental Service; more children's dentistry in community services and more extractions in Dental Access Centres. Students reported learning outcomes generally being achieved (average 94%) although with some variation by setting. Conclusion:, Dental outreach training greatly increases the quantity of students' clinical experience in everyday dentistry compared to a hospital-based programme. Placements also increase awareness of service delivery and develop clinical skills. There are appreciable variations between outreach settings possibly reflecting their purposes. Multiple contrasting outreach placements for each student might increase the uniformity of learning experiences. [source]


    The development of a primary dental care outreach course

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2008
    P. Waterhouse
    Abstract The aim of this work was to develop the first north-east based primary dental care outreach (PDCO) course for clinical dental undergraduate students at Newcastle University. The process of course design will be described and involved review of the existing Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) degree course in relation to previously published learning outcomes. Areas were identified where the existing BDS course did not meet fully these outcomes. This was followed by setting the PDCO course aims and objectives, intended learning outcomes, curriculum and structure. The educational strategy and methods of teaching and learning were subsequently developed together with a strategy for overall quality control of the teaching and learning experience. The newly developed curriculum was aligned with appropriate student assessment methods, including summative, formative and ipsative elements. [source]


    The influence of context on students' approaches to learning: a case study

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2005
    J. Kieser
    Abstract This paper gives an account of a small-scale longitudinal study that examined changes in conceptions and approaches to learning as 14 students experience a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum for the first time. The course in oral biology aimed to encourage conceptual understanding of the topic and improve student learning through its PBL curriculum and assessment method. Those who entered the course with a surface approach and fragmented conception of learning left with a deep-learning approach, cohesive conception and quality learning outcomes. There were no observable changes in the students who started the course with a deep-learning approach and cohesive conception, except for two who reported surface approaches and fragmented conceptions at the end. These two students also achieved the lowest examination scores. To help explain these findings we examine the wider context for student learning including student motivation. [source]


    Learner-control vs. program-control instructional multimedia: a comparison of two interactions when teaching principles of orthodontic appliances

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2005
    M. Aly
    Abstract Background:, Many studies have compared computer assisted learning (CAL) to more traditional learning formats and have shown CAL to be as effective as or superior to the alternative resources. However, there are only scarce attempts to show which style of CAL leads to the best learning outcomes in orthodontics. Aim:, To compare the effectiveness of a learner-control (group A) vs. program-control (group B) multimedia learning environment courseware packages regarding knowledge, understanding and transfer of content when applied to teaching principles of orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. Methods:, Pre- and post-test assessments of undergraduate dental students (n = 30) who either studied a learner-control multimedia learning environment courseware package (n = 15) or a program-control version (n = 15) on equivalent material of the orthodontic appliances curriculum. Both groups were evaluated by means of multiple-choice questions covering knowledge, understanding and application. A one-way ANOVA was carried out in order to check for statistical difference between the two groups. The P -value was set at 0.05. Results:, There was no difference in prior knowledge between both groups at baseline. Although, both groups significantly improved their scores after having studied the course, no significant difference was found between both groups in relation to answers to questions about knowledge, understanding and application. Conclusions:, In this study, the learner-control instructional multimedia program was found to be as effective as the program-control version when teaching principles of the orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. The focus needs to be on improving the value of CAL. Comparative evaluations of how different CAL approaches compare with or complement one another are certainly needed. [source]


    A student learning perspective on teaching and learning, with implications for problem-based learning

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2004
    Michael Prosser
    Over the last 20 years or so, there has been a substantial development in our understanding of how and what university students learn in their courses (here meaning a component of a programme) and programmes of study. This research has shown that rather than there being a direct connection between the way teachers teach and design their courses, and the quality of their students' learning outcomes, the relationship is indirect. The way students perceive and understand their learning context and the way they approach their learning in relationship to these perceptions have been found to be major intervening factors between teachers' teaching and students' learning outcomes. Their perceptions are, in turn, constituted in relation to their prior experiences of teaching and learning and what is designed for them to learn. In this paper, some of the key findings of this research and how it can be related to a problem-based learning (PBL) perspective in higher education are outlined. In particular, it is argued that the variation in students' perceptions and understanding of what PBL is about is fundamental to the way they approach their studies and to their learning outcomes. [source]


    Education for Self-Support: Evaluating Outcomes Using Transformative Learning Theory,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2001
    Suzanne Christopher
    This paper describes the use of transformative learning theory to evaluate a family-empowerment project focusing on life skills. The project was designed in response to welfare reform in Montana. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 34 participants. Results revealed evidence of transformative learning outcomes such as an empowered sense of self and new connectedness with others. Respondents also spoke of factors built into the program designed to foster transformative learning. Implications are presented. [source]


    Using e-Journals to Assess Students' Language Awareness and Social Identity During Study Abroad

    FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS, Issue 1 2010
    Julia Aguilar Stewart
    Abstract: This article reports on a study that explored the use of e-journals to understand through students' personal narratives what factors (gender, living situation, classroom dynamic, social network) may have influenced their learning during the study abroad semester. Pretests on language measures were compared with posttest results, and information was gleaned from students' journal entries to assess possible relationships between a student's language gains and the development of his or her social identity during study abroad. In view of the call for more targeted assessment of program goals and learning outcomes by accrediting bodies in higher education, e-journals are proposed as a means of closely following students' progress and the factors that may be affecting their learning in the study abroad context. [source]


    Exploring the Uses and Usefulness of ACTFL Oral Proficiency Ratings and Standards in College Foreign Language Departments

    FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS, Issue 4 2003
    John M. Norris PhD
    In particular, college foreign language departments have increasingly adopted oral proficiency ratings as a way of establishing standards for language or graduation requirements. In the study reported here, the authors explored the intended uses of proficiency-based standards in foreign language departments and reviewed the research on which specific ACTFL-level standards are based. They then examined the results of more than 100 SOPIs administered across all levels of instruction within one German foreign language department. The findings suggest that recommended proficiency standards may underestimate the potential and actual achievements of German language learners and miss other valued learning outcomes. The implications of these findings for the valid use of oral proficiency ratings in collegiate settings are discussed. [source]


    Credits, Qualifications and the Fluttering Standard

    HIGHER EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2001
    Paul H. Bridges
    The primary function of credit is to help assess the equivalence of learning and to facilitate student transfer within and between institutions. Recently, attention has focused on the role credit may have in defining the academic standards of qualifications. Some recently proposed qualifications frameworks are one-dimensional in that they have levels as the only measurable parameter. Such 'frameworks, are not true frameworks because there is no basis for differentiating the qualifications at each level. Other frameworks are two-dimensional, using credits and levels as the two parameters. Where the award of credit for a module reflects the satisfactory completion of all the designated learning outcomes at a specified level, there is a clear basis for relating credit to academic standards. In this situation, plotting the credit requirements for qualifications onto a framework that comprises levels and credits makes an important contribution towards understanding the relative standards of the qualifications. [source]


    Active versus passive teaching styles: An empirical study of student learning outcomes

    HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2009
    Norbert Michel
    This study compares the impact of an active teaching approach and a traditional (or passive) teaching style on student cognitive outcomes. Across two sections of an introductory business course, one class was taught in an active or "nontraditional" manner, with a variety of active learning exercises. The second class was taught in a passive or "traditional" manner, emphasizing daily lectures. Although the active learning approach does not appear to have improved overall mastery of the subject, we did find evidence that active learning can lead to improved cognitive outcomes in class-specific materials. The discussion emphasizes the role of delivery style on learning outcomes. [source]


    Toward development of a generalized instrument to measure andragogy

    HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2009
    Elwood F. Holton III
    Andragogy has emerged as one of the dominant frameworks for teaching adults during the past 40 years. A major and glaring gap in andragogy research is the lack of a measurement instrument that adequately measures both andragogical principles and process design elements. As a result, no definitive empirical test of the theory has been possible. The purpose of this article is to report on initial attempts to develop a survey instrument that corrects this shortcoming in the andragogy research literature. The instrument developed for this study was part of a comprehensive examination of andragogical principles and process design elements and their effect on student satisfaction and learning outcomes in a postsecondary education setting. It was administered to 404 adults enrolled in an adult-oriented postgraduate degree program. Exploratory factor analysis revealed promising scales to measure five of the six andragogical principles and six of the eight process design elements. This instrument is the most successful attempt to date to measure andragogical principles and elements. It holds promise for advancing research on andragogy, and subsequently advancing the field of HRD by explaining affective and cognitive responses to andragogical instructional strategies across a spectrum of learning environments. Additional implications for future research to strengthen the instrument are also discussed. [source]


    Learning in interactive work situations: It takes two to tango; why not invite both partners to dance?

    HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2006
    Hanneke Koopmans
    Learning that arises from interactions at work is the focus of this study. More specifically, the concrete activities of adult learners and their interaction partners were of interest because such learning activities largely determine the quality of learning outcomes. The results of the study are summarized in the form of a typology of interactive learning behaviors for adult learners (that is, workers) and their interaction partners at work. The similarities and differences among three occupational groups, teachers, financial service professionals, and police officers groups,were examined, and explanations were sought based on the nature of work and power. The results can help adult learners and their interaction partners enter into a more equal, dyadic, and reciprocal learning process and thereby contribute to a critical human resource development perspective. [source]


    Invited reaction: Informal learning and the transfer of learning: How managers develop proficiency

    HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2003
    Victoria J. Marsick
    Enos, Kehrhahn, and Bell have made an important contribution to measuring informal learning and its transfer as proficiency in a set of company-identified managerial skills. Measurement of informal learning is at the crux of research that seeks to link learning outcomes to other indicators of effective performance. The ability to show how informal learning affects managerial proficiency also would help practitioners build a better business case for planning and supporting informal learning. A drawback to the research methodology employed in this study is reliance on self-report, which the authors note but do not fully discuss. Questions also arise about the nature of skills measured and the nature of managerial work in what appears to be a period of transition in the company they examined. I conclude with some thoughts on alternative lenses for considering implications for practice. [source]