Learning Activities (learning + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

How American Children Spend Their Time

Sandra L. Hofferth
The purpose of this article is to examine how American children under age 13 spend their time, sources of variation in time use, and associations with achievement and behavior. Data come from the 1997 Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The results suggest that parents' characteristics and decisions regarding marriage, family size, and employment affect the time children spend in educational, structured, and family activities, which may affect their school achievement. Learning activities such as reading for pleasure are associated with higher achievement, as is structured time spent playing sports and in social activities. Family time spent at meals and time spent sleeping are linked to fewer behavior problems, as measured by the child's score on the Behavior Problems Index. The results support common language and myth about the optimal use of time for child development. [source]

A retrospective study of shared learning on the BMedSci Dental Technology course at The University of Sheffield

Giuseppe Cannavina
The aim of this study was to identify the level of shared learning on a Bachelor of Medical Science in Dental Technology (BMedSci) course at the University of Sheffield, School of Clinical Dentistry. A summative evaluation of the course was carried out, using semi-structured nominal group interviews. BMedSci students, BDS students and recent graduates were questioned and their answers analysed to identify shared learning activities. The results revealed that different levels of shared learning opportunities occurred within the different departments which delivered the course modules. Shared learning was viewed favourably by the students. It has the potential to maximise the use of resources and offers the opportunity for developing an integrated dental team. [source]

Learning in interactive work situations: It takes two to tango; why not invite both partners to dance?

Hanneke Koopmans
Learning that arises from interactions at work is the focus of this study. More specifically, the concrete activities of adult learners and their interaction partners were of interest because such learning activities largely determine the quality of learning outcomes. The results of the study are summarized in the form of a typology of interactive learning behaviors for adult learners (that is, workers) and their interaction partners at work. The similarities and differences among three occupational groups, teachers, financial service professionals, and police officers groups,were examined, and explanations were sought based on the nature of work and power. The results can help adult learners and their interaction partners enter into a more equal, dyadic, and reciprocal learning process and thereby contribute to a critical human resource development perspective. [source]

Understanding the roles of online meetings in a net-based course

O. Berge
Abstract It is argued elsewhere that online learning environments constitute new conditions for carrying out collaborative learning activities. This article explores the roles of a series of online meetings in such an environment. The online meetings are arranged as part of a net-based course on object-oriented programming, and constitute a recurring shared experience for the participants throughout the semester. Through an activity theoretical analysis, we find that the meetings mediate the learners' actions towards the construction and maintenance of a community of practice. Our finding has implications for the standardization of digital learning resources. This is an issue that will challenge designers of research-oriented learning environments, should they attempt to move their systems into wider adoption. We suggest that an awareness of the internal systemic connections among the components of the course design we studied is of importance when considering redesign, with respect to the reuse and standardization of learning resources. [source]

Collaborative learning in mobile work

J. Lundin
Abstract, Moving towards more communication intensive organisations, where work tends to be mobile, understanding how to support learning in such work becomes increasingly important. This paper reports on a study of a customer relations team, where work is performed co-located, distributed as well as mobile. Collaborative learning within in this team is explored so as to inform the design of IT support. In the results four instances of collaborative learning important in the studied team were identified: walking into collaborative learning, travelling to meetings, articulating practice and sharing without articulating. These issues are discussed and how they affect the design of collaborative learning activities for mobile knowledge workers. [source]

Promoting creative thinking through the use of ICT

S. Wheeler
Abstract A great deal has been written about the use of web-based technologies such as the Internet in promoting learning in education. In schools, research has focused primarily on social interaction and group work, student achievement levels and curriculum development. Very little study seems to have been brought to bear upon the promotion of creative thinking by the use of online technologies, and this paper attempts to contribute to this field of study. This paper reports on a pilot study which has investigated the creative impact of information and communication technology (ICT) in a rural primary school in South-west England. The school is unique because it provides a personal networked computer for each of its 41 Year 6 students (aged 10,11 years). A small group of students were interviewed about the learning activities they engaged in over the year, and this paper reports on initial findings with a special emphasis on creative working and thinking (n = 6). A model of creativity is presented with three discrete but related modes of activity , problem solving, creative cognition, and social interaction. The paper provides new findings about the nature of creativity in the context of computer based learning environments. [source]

Survey of the learning activities of Australasian radiation oncology specialist trainees

T Holt
Summary Trainee radiation oncologists must master a substantial body of skills and knowledge to become competent specialists. The resources available to support this are limited. We surveyed the 90 registrars enrolled in the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Surgeons (RANZCR) radiation oncology training programme to obtain a range of information about their learning activities (with a significant focus on part 1 teaching). Responses were received from 59 registrars (66% of those eligible). Trainees reported spending a median 2.5 h per week (range 0,10 h) in formal teaching activities. With regard to part 1 exam preparation, 83% reported having had physics teaching , the median quality was 5/7; 88% had radiobiology teaching , the median quality was 4/7; 52% had anatomy teaching , the median quality was 3/7. Registrars training within the RANZCR radiation oncologists training programme perceive their own clinical learning environment as generally good; however' 50% of respondents felt that more teaching was needed for part 1 subjects. This compared with only 19% of respondents who felt that more teaching was required for part 2 exam preparation. Innovative solutions, such as centralized web-based teaching, may help to address weaknesses in part 1 teaching. With increasing demands on radiation oncologists and trainees it will be important to monitor learning environments. [source]

Metacognitive engagement during field-trip experiences: A case study of students in an amusement park physics program

Wendy S. Nielsen
Abstract This article reports on a study that investigated students' metacognitive engagement in both out-of-school and classroom settings, as they participated in an amusement park physics program. Students from two schools that participated in the program worked in groups to collectively solve novel physics problems that engaged their individual metacognition. Their conversations and behavioral dispositions during problem-solving were digitally audio-recorded on devices that they wore or placed on the tables where groups worked on the assigned physics problems. The students also maintained reflection journals on the strategies they employed to manage their own understanding as well as learning processes. Prior to the amusement park physics discourse, the students completed a specially developed questionnaire instrument. This provided signposts of the students' metacognitive engagement during group problem-solving at the park and subsequent related physics learning tasks back in the classroom. This data, added to field notes arising from observations, and formal and informal interviews during post-visit learning activities provided the data corpus on the students' metacognitive engagement. Analysis of this data revealed three types of metacognitive engagement during group learning tasks: collaborative and consensus-seeking, highly argumentative, and eclectic, resulting from high levels of dissonance. In both cases, evidence of individual students' deeper understandings, which manifested through students' cognitive and social behaviors, demonstrated the invocation of metacognition to varying degrees. The novel physics problems tackled by the students created situations where discrepancies between their prior knowledge and the direct experiences enabled them to explicate their thinking through dispositions of behavior. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 46: 265,288, 2009 [source]

Enhancing students' understanding of the concept of chemical bonding by using activities provided on an interactive website

Marcel Frailich
Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of a web-based learning environment in enhancing 10th grade high-school students' understanding of the concept of chemical bonding. Two groups participated in this study: an experimental group (N,=,161) and a comparison one (N,=,93). The teachers in the experimental group were asked to implement four activities taken from a website, all dealing with the concept of chemical bonding. Computer-based visual models are utilized in all the activities in order to demonstrate bonding and the structure of matter, and are based on student-centered learning. The study incorporated both quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative research consisted of achievement questionnaires administered to both the experimental and comparison groups. In contrast, the qualitative research included observations and interviews of students and teachers. Importantly, we found that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group significantly, in the achievement post-test, which examines students' understanding of the concept of chemical bonding. These results led us to conclude that the web-based learning activities which integrated visualization tools with active and cooperative learning strategies provided students with opportunities to construct their knowledge regarding the concept of chemical bonding. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 46: 289,310, 2009 [source]

Appraising and assessing reflection in students' writing on a structured worksheet

Barbel Pee
Background A variety of teaching and learning techniques intended to engage students in reflection are either in use or are being developed in medical and dental education. In line with evidence-based practice in education, research is needed to appraise the utility and effectiveness of these techniques, so that they may be used with confidence. Aim To assess whether students completing a `reflective' learning activity based on a structured worksheet really were reflecting. Method, A qualitative, multi-method approach was taken. Worksheets completed by students were examined for evidence of reflection by researchers using two sets of criteria for the assessment of reflection derived from the literature, and by peer judges using their own criteria. The opinions of students completing the activity, regarding its acceptability and utility, were elicited by a questionnaire incorporating a 5-point Likert scale. Results Results from all methods suggest that students completing the activity were reflecting. Students' opinions of the activity were mainly positive. Conclusion, The methods employed may be of use to educators wishing to appraise reflective learning activities or, possibly, to assess student reflection. [source]

Perceptions of Effective and Ineffective Nurse,Physician Communication in Hospitals

NURSING FORUM, Issue 3 2010
F. Patrick Robinson PhD
PROBLEM., Nurse,physician communication affects patient safety. Such communication has been well studied using a variety of survey and observational methods; however, missing from the literature is an investigation of what constitutes effective and ineffective interprofessional communication from the perspective of the professionals involved. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse and physician perceptions of effective and ineffective communication between the two professions. METHODS., Using focus group methodology, we asked nurses and physicians with at least 5 years' acute care hospital experience to reflect on effective and ineffective interprofessional communication and to provide examples. Three focus groups were held with 6 participants each (total sample 18). Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded into categories of effective and ineffective communication. FINDINGS., The following themes were found. For effective communication: clarity and precision of message that relies on verification, collaborative problem solving, calm and supportive demeanor under stress, maintenance of mutual respect, and authentic understanding of the unique role. For ineffective communication: making someone less than, dependence on electronic systems, and linguistic and cultural barriers. CONCLUSION., These themes may be useful in designing learning activities to promote effective interprofessional communication. [source]

The correlates and influences of career-related continuous learning: Implications for management professionals

Kevin D. Kuznia
Management personnel are increasingly aware that career success depends on the ability to continuously learn and adapt to the environment. However, scant attention has been paid to how learning activities contribute to managerial success. This study examines the degree to which involvement in career-related continuous learning affects managerial career success. Career success as defined in this study comprises both objective (ascendancy) and subjective (organizational commitment, professional commitment, career satisfaction) elements. Five hypotheses are tested using linear regression modeling. Results indicate that as individuals increase participation in career-related continuous learning, their managerial career success increases as well. [source]

Considerations in the identification, assessment, and intervention process for deaf and hard of hearing students with reading difficulties

Donna Gilbertson
Problematic assessment and intervention issues present substantial challenges when making educational decisions for deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) students who are experiencing reading difficulties. These students present a diverse set of language acquisition skills, hearing ability, and orientation to early school learning activities that are different from the hearing student population. Given the importance of selecting assessment approaches that lead to effective interventions for D/HH students, three assessment procedures for identification of at-risk children and learning disabilities within the D/HH population are examined. Assessments reviewed are teacher referral, norm-referenced testing, and student response to intervention. Challenges to each process and the need for additional assessment and empirically validated treatment options are discussed. Finally, a case example is presented to illustrate a framework that may help school psychologists promote early identification of learning problems and outline interventions that meets a D/HH child's unique needs by focusing on reading outcomes in the curriculum. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Maternal Characteristics and Maternal Limit-Setting Styles

Elizabeth A. LeCuyer-Maus
In a longitudinal study of 126 mothers and toddlers during toddlerhood, maternal limit-setting styles were assessed at 12, 24, and 36 months in relation to selected maternal characteristics. Mothers using teaching-based limit-setting styles at 12 months reported more optimal relationship histories of care and overprotection/control in their own families of origin. The main contributor to a maternal teaching-based limit-setting style in this sample was years of formal education, followed by a more multicausal conceptualization of how children develop. Thus, while years of formal education appear to facilitate the use of a teaching-based limit-setting style, formal education is not the only way to develop these skills. Maternal conceptualization of development may be amenable to intervention through a number of alternative learning activities. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different types of educational and learning opportunities on current maternal behavior, with the goal of optimizing socialization skills related to the development of toddler self-regulation. [source]

Alternatives to the Conference Status Quo: Summary Recommendations from the 2008 CORD Academic Assembly Conference Alternatives Workgroup

Annie T. Sadosty MD
Abstract Objective:, A panel of Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) members was asked to examine and make recommendations regarding the existing Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) EM Program Requirements pertaining to educational conferences, identified best practices, and recommended revisions as appropriate. Methods:, Using quasi-Delphi technique, 30 emergency medicine (EM) residency program directors and faculty examined existing requirements. Findings were presented to the CORD members attending the 2008 CORD Academic Assembly, and disseminated to the broader membership through the CORD e-mail list server. Results:, The following four ACGME EM Program Requirements were examined, and recommendations made: 1The 5 hours/week conference requirement: For fully accredited programs in good standing, outcomes should be driving how programs allocate and mandate educational time. Maintain the 5 hours/week conference requirement for new programs, programs with provisional accreditation, programs in difficult political environs, and those with short accreditation cycles. If the program requirements must retain a minimum hours/week reference, future requirements should take into account varying program lengths (3 versus 4 years). 2The 70% attendance requirement: Develop a new requirement that allows programs more flexibility to customize according to local resources, individual residency needs, and individual resident needs. 3The requirement for synchronous versus asynchronous learning: Synchronous and asynchronous learning activities have advantages and disadvantages. The ideal curriculum capitalizes on the strengths of each through a deliberate mixture of each. 4Educationally justified innovations: Transition from process-based program requirements to outcomes-based requirements. Conclusions:, The conference requirements that were logical and helpful years ago may not be logical or helpful now. Technologies available to educators have changed, the amount of material to cover has grown, and online on-demand education has grown even more. We believe that flexibility is needed to customize EM education to suit individual resident and individual program needs, to capitalize on regional and national resources when local resources are limited, to innovate, and to analyze and evaluate interventions with an eye toward outcomes. [source]

The quality of questions and use of resources in self-directed learning: Personal learning projects in the maintenance of certification

T. Horsley PhD
Abstract Introduction: To engage effectively and efficiently in self-directed learning and knowledge-seeking practices, it is important that physicians construct well-formulated questions; yet, little is known about the quality of good questions and their relationship to self-directed learning or to change in practice behavior. Methods: Personal learning projects (PLPs) submitted to the Canadian Maintenance of Certification program were examined to include underlying characteristics, quality of therapeutic questions (population, intervention, comparator, outcome [PICO] mnemonic), and relationships between stage of change and level of evidence used to resolve questions. Results: We assessed 1989 submissions (from 559 Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada [RCPSC]). The majority of submissions were by males (69.2%) aged 40,59 (59.4%) with an average of 24.3 (range 6,58, SD 11.1) years since graduation. The most frequent submissions were treatment (36.6%) and diagnosis (22.3%) questions. Half of all questions described ,2 components (PICO), and only 3.7% of questions included all 4 components. Cross tabulations indicated only 1 significant trend for the use of narrative reviews and the outcome "integrating new knowledge' (P < .000). Discussion: Self-directed learning skills comprise an important strategy for specialists maintaining or expanding their expertise in patient care, but an important obstacle to answering patient care questions is the ability to formulate good ones. Engagement in most major learning activities is stimulated by management of a single patient: formal accredited group learning events are of limited value in starting episodes of self-directed learning. Low levels of evidence used to address learning projects. Future research should determine how best to improve the quality of questions submitted and whether or not these changes result in increased efficiencies, more appropriate uses of evidence, and increased changes in practice behaviors. [source]

Making self-assessment more effective

Robert M. Galbraith MD
Abstract Self-assessment has been held out as an important mechanism for lifelong learning and self-improvement for health care professionals. However, there is growing concern that individual learners often interpret the results inaccurately. This idea has led to skepticism that self-assessment in its current form can ever be truly useful for lifelong professional development. We examine the proposal that self-assessment can and should be made more effective. First, relevance should be improved. The process should be tied more explicitly to the individual's actual practice profile, rather than being loosely relevant to broader constructs around the permitted scope of practice (eg, certification or licensure). In addition, self-assessment should include not only knowledge and reasoning but also what is done every day in practice, thereby broadening from competence in simulated settings to performance in real settings. Second, the impact of self-assessment should be substantially strengthened by periodic external validation of self-assessment results, together with goals set as a result and plans for further improvement. This offers to the individual the very tangible benefit of satisfying external mandates (eg, licensure and certification). In addition, impact should be reinforced by linking the results of self-assessment to subsequent learning activities including Continuing Medical Education (CME). Although these enhancements individually may not cure all of what ails self-assessment, they might ensure greater effectiveness for the purposes of lifelong learning. [source]

Self-assessment and continuing professional development: The Canadian perspective

FRCPC, Ivan Silver MD
Abstract Introduction: Several recent studies highlight that physicians are not very accurate at assessing their competence in clinical domains when compared to objective measures of knowledge and performance. Instead of continuing to try to train physicians to be more accurate self-assessors, the research suggests that physicians will benefit from learning programs that encourage them to reflect on their clinical practice, continuously seek answers to clinical problems they face, compare their knowledge and skills to clinical practice guidelines and benchmarks, and seek feedback from peers and their health care team. Methods: This article describes the self-assessment learning activities of the College of Family Physicians of Canada Maintenance of Proficiency program (Mainpro®) and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Maintenance of Certification program. (MOC) Results: The MOC and the Mainpro® programs incorporate several self-evaluation learning processes and tools that encourage physicians to assess their professional knowledge and clinical performance against objective measures as well as guided self-audit learning activities that encourage physicians to gather information about their practices and reflect on it individually, with peers and their health care team. Physicians are also rewarded with extra credits when they participate in either of these kinds of learning activities. Discussion: In the future, practice-based learning that incorporates self-assessment learning activities will play an increasingly important role as regulators mandate that all physicians participate in continuing professional development activities. Research in this area should be directed to understanding more about reflection in practice and how we can enable physicians to be more mindful. [source]

Step-by-step: A model for practice-based learning

FRCPC, Gabrielle M. Kane MB
Abstract Introduction: Innovative technology has led to high-precision radiation therapy that has dramatically altered the practice of radiation oncology. This qualitative study explored the implementation of this innovation into practice from the perspective of the practitioners in a large academic radiation medicine program and aimed to improve understanding of and facilitate the educational process of this change. Methods: Multiprofession staff participated in a series of seven focus groups and nine in-depth interviews, and the descriptive data from the transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results: Practitioners believed that there had been a major effect on many aspects of their practice. The team structure supported the adoption of change. The technology changed the way the practices worked. Learning new skills increased workload and stress but led to a new conception of the discipline and the generation of new practice-based knowledge. When the concepts were examined longitudinally, a four-step process of learning was identified. In step 1, there was anxiety as staff acquired the skills to use the technology. Step 2 involved learning to interpret new findings and images, experiencing uncertainty until new perspectives developed. Step 3 involved questioning assumptions and critical reflection, which resulted in new understanding. The final step 4 identified a process of constructing new knowledge through research, development, and dialogue within the profession. Discussion: These findings expand our understanding of how practice-based learning occurs in the context of change and can guide learning activities appropriate to each stage. [source]

International medical graduates: Learning for practice in Alberta, Canada

Jocelyn Lockyer PhD
Abstract Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization,listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone interviews with a theoretical sample of 19 IMG physicians were analyzed using a grounded theory constant comparative approach to develop categories, central themes, and a descriptive model. Results: The physicians described two types of learning: learning associated with studying for Canadian examinations required to remain and practice in the province and learning that was required to succeed at clinical work in a new setting. This second type of learning included regulations and systems, patient expectations, new disease profiles, new medications, new diagnostic procedures, and managing the referral process. The physicians "settled" into their new setting with the help of colleagues; the Internet, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and computers; reading; and continuing medical education programs. Patients both stimulated learning and were a resource for learning. Discussion: Settling into Alberta, Canada, physicians accommodated and adjusted to their settings with learning activities related to the clinical problems and situations that presented themselves. Collegial support in host communities appeared to be a critical dimension in how well physicians adjusted. The results suggest that mentoring programs may be a way of facilitating settlement. [source]

Continuing professional development for veterinarians

Continuing professional development for veterinarians is expected to commence in the year after graduation and continue until retirement. The World Organisation for Animal Health standard for veterinary services is based on principles of an ethical, organisational and technical nature, and a mix of regulation, self-regulation and quality assurance approaches are used. Few jurisdictions have made a minimum requirement of continuing professional development, measured in hours or units, mandatory in 2004, however, there is an increasing expectation of veterinarians to keep a personal record of their continuing professional development activities. Such records might assist in defending complaints about professional misconduct, and provide a basis for planning and monitoring personal professional growth. Continuing professional development can be obtained by a variety of means through structured and unstructured learning activities. The rapid advances in communication technologies and ready access to available electronic databases at the beginning of the 21st century is rapidly changing the way students learn in veterinary schools and how they will acquire continuing professional development during their careers. Universities, governments, professional associations and special interest groups all have roles to play in the delivery of continuing professional development to the veterinary profession and to ensure a structure is in place to monitor improvements in the delivery of quality veterinary services. [source]

Computer-mediated discussion, self-efficacy and gender

ShinYi Lin
In the context of hybrid instruction, this study was designed to explore whether gender has an influence on learners' preferences for synchronous or asynchronous modes of computer-mediated communication, and whether this decision impacts learners' self-efficacy (SE) towards knowledge acquisition. The participants were 180 teacher-education students (151 females and 29 males) enrolled in a hybrid (blend of traditional classroom instruction and online learning activities) foundations course at a United States research university with a proportionally high percentage of full-time commuters and/or distance enrolees. The findings showed that, regardless of gender, two-thirds of the participants preferred asynchronous modes over synchronous ones. In addition, gender was weakly related to the participants' SE in both modes. Linear regression indicated that SE, in turn, was weakly related to academic performance. The implications of these findings for instructional practice are discussed. [source]

Employees' choices in learning how to use information and communication technology systems at work: strategies and approaches

Eija Korpelainen
The purpose of this paper is to promote the understanding of how employees learn to use information and communication technology (ICT) systems at work. The elements of a learning activity in the context of ICT use are identified from the literature. In particular, approaches to learning, learning strategies and problem-solving strategies are reviewed. The empirical part of the study examines how employees choose to start learning how to use ICT systems, and how they choose to learn while solving problems related to system use. The data were collected using qualitative semi-structured interviews with 39 employees in three organizations. The interviewees usually preferred to learn how to use ICT quickly and without investing too much effort. The interviewees preferred informal learning and problem-solving strategies. The most commonly used strategies were to try things out alone or together with peers, or to ask for help from peers. The main conclusions of the study are that the users' learning intentions affect the kind of learning support they need and that ICT learning is best approached as a learning activity strongly rooted in collaboration and the social context. [source]

Global Government Health Partners' Forum 2006: eighteen months later

J. Foster rn
FOSTER J., GUISINGER V., GRAHAM A., HUTCHCRAFT L. & SALMON M. (2010) Global Government Health Partners' Forum 2006: eighteen months later. International Nursing Review57, 173,179 Background:, The challenge of global health worker shortages, particularly among nurses, has been the topic of numerous forums over the last several years. Nevertheless, there has been little attention given to the roles of government chief nursing and medical officers as key partners in addressing health worker shortages. This partnership and its potential impact on the adequacy of the global health workforce was the focus of the most recent Global Government Health Partners (GGHP) Forum held in November 2006 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. This forum was uniquely designed to create a context for government chief nursing officers and chief medical officers to engage in a joint learning and planning experience focused on positioning their leadership to impact health workforce issues. Aim:, This article describes an 18-month follow-up evaluation of the outcomes of the GGHP. The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the impact of the forum experience on the actions of participants based on the country-level plans they produced at the forum. This important feedback is intended to inform the design of future partnered global forums and gain insights into the utility of forum-based action plans. The evaluation process itself has served as an opportunity for the engagement of university faculty, students and staff in a global service learning experience. Conclusion:, The outcomes of this evaluation indicate that important progress has been made by countries whose leadership was involved in the forum, and was also an important learning activity for those participating in the conduct of the study. [source]

Putting the pieces together: teaching undergraduate research from a theoretical perspective

Marjorie C. Dobratz DNSc RN
Problem/purpose.,Baccalaureate graduates are expected to utilize research across a wide variety of practice settings. While the literature reports a variety of teaching approaches, few studies examine baccalaureate students' comprehension of research content. Teaching techniques that focus on a conceptual or theoretical approach may foster research comprehension. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate teaching/learning outcomes of an undergraduate nursing research course designed from a conceptual or theoretical approach. Procedure/findings.,Two classes of senior baccalaureate nursing students (n = 47) at a private institution, whose curriculum was based on the Roy adaptation model, were surveyed in 1990 and 1991 at the end of their undergraduate research course. The survey tool consisted of seven three-point Likert scale questions, four open-ended questions, and one unstructured comment. Findings showed that 72% strongly agreed that they would continue to read nursing articles in their practice field, 57% disagreed that they were intimidated by research language, and 55% agreed that they trusted their ability to use and utilize nursing research in practice. The most helpful learning activity was the research critique (34%) followed by group work (28%). The support of the teacher and Instructor's use of own research examples was also seen as most helpful (36%), while abstract cards (8%) were least helpful. Nonetheless, 23% requested more group activities, 13% wanted more class examples, and 11% asked for more time to comprehend definitions. Implications.,Students who approached research from the perspective of a nursing conceptual framework indicated that they put the pieces of the research puzzle together by working in groups, being supported by the Instructor, and learning from a variety of teaching methods. [source]

Community-based individual knowledge construction in the classroom: a process-oriented account

C.-K. Looi
Abstract This paper explores the process of knowledge convergence and knowledge sharing in the context of classroom collaboration in which students do a group learning activity mediated by a generic representation tool. In analysing the transcript of the interactions of a group, we adapt the group cognition method of Stahl and the uptake analysis methodology of Suthers to understand how the members of the group did meaning making in their interactions, and how individual members did uptakes of their interactions and applied their new shared knowledge or understanding in new situations. The transcript is taken from our school-based research using the Group Scribbles software technology which provides representation spaces for individual, group or class work to support collaborative practices. Our work contributes toward a methodology for explaining a process-oriented account of a small group interaction through face-to-face communication over external shared representations. [source]

Adapting and personalizing the communication in a synchronous communication tool

A. Gogoulou
Abstract In this paper, we present a synchronous text-based communication tool, referred to as Adaptive Communication Tool (ACT), which provides capabilities for adaptation and personalization. ACT supports both the free and the structured form of dialogue. The structured dialogue is implemented by two types of Scaffolding Sentence Templates (SST); i.e. sentence openers or communicative acts. The capability of adaptation is considered in the sense of making suggestions for the supported form of dialogue and SST type and providing the most meaningful and complete set of SST with respect to the learning outcomes addressed by the collaborative learning activity and the model of collaboration followed by the group members. Also, ACT enables learners to have control on the adaptation by selecting the form of dialogue and the SST type they prefer to use and enriching the provided SST set with their own ones in order to cover their communication needs. The results from the formative evaluation of the tool showed that (i) the proposed dialogue form, SST type and the provided set of SST cover students' communication needs, (ii) the capability of personalizing the communication by selecting the desired communication means as well as by enriching the provided SST set satisfied students, and (iii) students used adequately both types of SST resulting into on-task and coherent dialogues. [source]

Towards valid measures of self-directed clinical learning

Tim Dornan
Aim, To compare the validity of different measures of self-directed clinical learning. Methods, We used a quasi-experimental study design. The measures were: (1) a 23-item quantitative instrument measuring satisfaction with the learning process and environment; (2) free text responses to 2 open questions about the quality of students' learning experiences; (3) a quantitative, self-report measure of real patient learning, and (4) objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and progress test results. Thirty-three students attached to a single firm during 1 curriculum year in Phase 2 of a problem-based medical curriculum formed an experimental group. Thirty-one students attached to the same firm in the previous year served as historical controls and 33 students attached to other firms within the same module served as contemporary controls. After the historical control period, experimental group students were exposed to a complex curriculum intervention that set out to maximise appropriate real patient learning through increased use of the outpatient setting, briefing and supported, reflective debriefing. Results, The quantitative satisfaction instrument was insensitive to the intervention. In contrast, the qualitative measure recorded a significantly increased number of positive statements about the appropriateness of real patient learning. Moreover, the quantitative self-report measure of real patient learning found high levels of appropriate learning activity. Regarding outpatient learning, the qualitative and quantitative real patient learning instruments were again concordant and changed in the expected direction, whereas the satisfaction measure did not. An incidental finding was that, despite all attempts to achieve horizontal integration through simultaneously providing community attachments and opening up the hospital for self-directed clinical learning, real patient learning was strongly bounded by the specialty interest of the hospital firm to which students were attached. Assessment results did not correlate with real patient learning. Conclusions, Both free text responses and students' quantitative self-reports of real patient learning were more valid than a satisfaction instrument. One explanation is that students had no benchmark against which to rate their satisfaction and curriculum change altered their tacit benchmarks. Perhaps the stronger emphasis on self-directed learning demanded more of students and dissatisfied those who were less self-directed. Results of objective, standardised assessments were not sensitive to the level of self-directed, real patient learning. Despite an integrated curriculum design that set out to override disciplinary boundaries, students' learning remained strongly influenced by the specialty of their hospital firm. [source]

Appraising and assessing reflection in students' writing on a structured worksheet

Barbel Pee
Background A variety of teaching and learning techniques intended to engage students in reflection are either in use or are being developed in medical and dental education. In line with evidence-based practice in education, research is needed to appraise the utility and effectiveness of these techniques, so that they may be used with confidence. Aim To assess whether students completing a `reflective' learning activity based on a structured worksheet really were reflecting. Method, A qualitative, multi-method approach was taken. Worksheets completed by students were examined for evidence of reflection by researchers using two sets of criteria for the assessment of reflection derived from the literature, and by peer judges using their own criteria. The opinions of students completing the activity, regarding its acceptability and utility, were elicited by a questionnaire incorporating a 5-point Likert scale. Results Results from all methods suggest that students completing the activity were reflecting. Students' opinions of the activity were mainly positive. Conclusion, The methods employed may be of use to educators wishing to appraise reflective learning activities or, possibly, to assess student reflection. [source]

Evaluating Peer Review in an Introductory Instructional Design Course

Nicholas H. Woolf
ABSTRACT A peer review process, in which students reviewed other students' projects in a graduate introductory instructional design course, was evaluated. Peer review was experienced by these students as a learning activity about the process of instructional design (ID). The role of traditional ID models in representing ID as overly procedural-ized was mitigated, and the value, inter-personal processes, and affective aspects of formative evaluation were recognized. The effectiveness of peer review was influenced by the culture of the course in which it was embedded and by the structure of the process itself. Peer review is proposed as an authentic and efficient means to introduce graduate students to the strategic knowledge needed to apply ID skills. Recommendations are made to increase the effectiveness of peer review. [source]