Leaf Production (leaf + production)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Ozone exposure over two growing seasons alters root-to-shoot ratio and chemical composition of birch (Betula pendula Roth)

K. Yamaji
Abstract Physiological and chemical responses of 17 birch (Betula pendula Roth) clones to 1.5,1.7 × ambient ozone were studied in an open-field experiment over two growing seasons. The saplings were studied for growth, foliar visible injuries, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll, carotenoid, Rubisco, total soluble protein, macronutrient and phenolic concentrations in leaves. Elevated ozone resulted in growth enhancement, changes in shoot-to-root (s/r) ratio, visible foliar injuries, reduced stomatal conductance, lower late-season net photosynthesis, foliar nutrient imbalance, changes in phenolic composition, and reductions in pigment, Rubisco and soluble protein contents indicating accelerated leaf senescence. Majority of clones responded to ozone by changing C allocation towards roots, by stomatal closure (reduced ozone uptake), and by investment in low-cost foliar antioxidants to avoid and tolerate ozone stress. A third of clones, showing increased s/r ratio, relied on inducible efficient high-cost antioxidants, and enhanced leaf production to compensate ozone-caused decline in leaf-level net photosynthesis. However, the best ozone tolerance was found in two s/r ratio-unaffected clones showing a high constitutive amount of total phenolics, investment in low-cost antioxidants and N distribution to leaves, and lower stomatal conductance under ozone stress. The results highlight the importance of phenolic compounds in ozone defence mechanisms in the birch population. Depending on the genotype, ozone detoxification was improved by an increase in either efficient high-cost or less efficient low-cost antioxidative phenolics, with close connections to whole-plant physiology. [source]

Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration and defoliation on the growth of Themeda triandra

S. J. E. Wand
Abstract The effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (700 ,mol mol,1) on defoliated (three clippings at 3-week intervals) and undefoliated plants were determined for the C4 grass Themeda triandra, Forsk. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased leaf regrowth following defoliation, and total leaf production was greatest in this treatment. Shoot biomass of undefoliated plants was also increased under the elevated CO2 concentration treatment. The primary effect of the elevated CO2 concentration in both defoliated and undefoliated plants was an increase in individual leaf length and mass of dry matter, linked to a higher leaf water content and increased photosynthetic rates at the canopy level. Photosynthetic down-regulation at the leaf level occurred, but this was compensated for by increased assimilation rates and greater canopy leaf area at the elevated CO2 concentration. Increases in leaf and sheath growth of defoliated plants in the elevated CO2 concentration treatment were lost following a final 3-week reversion to ambient CO2 concentration, but occurred in plants exposed to the elevated CO2 concentration for the final 3-week period only. In conclusion, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration increases shoot growth via increased leaf extension, which is directly dependent on stimulation of concurrent photosynthesis. CO2 responsiveness is sustained following moderate defoliation but is reduced when plants experience reduced vigour as a result of maturation or high frequency of defoliation. [source]

Setting management limits for the production and utilization of herbage for out-of-season grazing

Three experiments were carried out on perennial ryegrass-dominant swards to provide a basis for recommendations for the limits to (a) building up and timing of utilization of a herbage ,bank' for out-of-season grazing and (b) duration and intensity of early spring grazing in the United Kingdom and Ireland. In experiment 1, the effect of regrowth interval (from 7 September, 20 October, 17 November or 15 December) in autumn on herbage accumulation, leaf turnover and on subsequent spring growth was investigated. Swards regrown from early September reached maximum herbage mass (about 3 t ha,1 DM) and leaf lamina content in mid-November, by which time senescence rate exceeded rate of production of new leaves. New leaf production and senescence rates were greater in swards remaining uncut until December than in those cut in October or November. Time of defoliation up to December had no effect on spring herbage mass in the subsequent spring. Defoliating in March reduced herbage mass in late May by less than 20%. Experiment 2 investigated the progress in herbage growth and senescence in swards regrowing from different times in late summer and autumn to produce herbage for utilization beyond the normal grazing season. Treatments in a randomized block design with three replicates were regrowths from 19 July, 8 August, 30 August and 20 September. Based on a lower ceiling of leaf and total herbage mass being reached with progressively later regrowths, beyond which leaf senescence generally exceeded leaf production and herbage mass declined, it was concluded that currently recommended rotation lengths for this period should extend from 3 weeks in late July to 8 weeks for swards previously grazed in mid-September. In both experiments, leaf senescence commenced earlier (by one leaf-age category) than previously published estimates and so brought forward the time at which senescence rates balanced leaf growth rates. In experiment 3, designed to evaluate the effect of daily grazing period and intensity in early spring on herbage regrowth, dairy cows grazed successive plots (replicates) for 2 or 4 h each day at two intensities (target residual heights of 5 or 7 cm) in March to mid-April. Regrowth rate was similar in all treatments including the ungrazed control, despite soil moisture content being relatively high on occasions. Tiller density was significantly reduced in May by grazing plots in early or mid-April. It is concluded that in autumn there are limits to which rotation lengths should be extended to produce herbage for out-of-season grazing owing to attainment of ceiling yields. Although utilization in early spring may reduce herbage availability in spring, out-of-season utilization need not reduce herbage growth rates in early spring. [source]

Effects of simulated browsing on growth and leaf chemical properties in Colophospermum mopane saplings

Edward M. Kohi
Abstract Browsing intensity influences a plant's response to herbivory. Plants face a trade-off between investment in the production of secondary compounds and investment in growth. To elucidate this trade-off, we simulated four browsing intensities (0%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on mopane saplings, Colophospermum mopane (J. Kirk ex Benth.) J.Léonard, in a greenhouse experiment. This showed that, with increasing defoliation intensity, plants change their investment strategy. At intermediate levels of defoliation (50%), mopane saplings increased the synthesis of condensed tannins, so that tannin concentrations followed a hump-shaped relation with defoliation intensity, with significantly higher tannin concentration at intermediate defoliation levels. When defoliated heavily (75% and 100%), tannin concentrations dropped, and plants were carbon stressed as indicated by a reduced growth rate of the stem diameter, and leaf production and mean individual leaf mass were reduced. This suggests that, at intermediate defoliation intensity, the strategy of the plants is towards induced chemical defences. With increasing defoliation, the relative costs of the secondary metabolite synthesis become too high, and therefore, the plants change their growing strategy. Hence, browsers should be able to benefit from earlier browsing by either adopting a low or a relatively high browsing pressure. Résumé La réponse d'une plante à sa consommation dépend de l'intensité de ce phénomène. Les plantes sont confrontées à un compromis entre un investissement dans la production de composants secondaires et un investissement dans leur croissance. Pour élucider ce compromis, nous avons simulé quatre intensités de consommation (0%, 50%, 75% et 100%) sur des jeunes mopanes, Colophospermum mopane (J. Kirk ex Benth.) J.Leonard, lors d'expériences sous serre. Ceci a montré que, lorsque la défoliation s'intensifie, les plantes changent leur stratégie d'investissement. À des niveaux de défoliation intermédiaires (50%), les jeunes plants de mopanes augmentaient la synthèse de tanins condensés, de sorte que les concentrations en tanins suivaient une courbe en cloche (hump-shaped) selon l'intensité de la défoliation; elles étaient significativement plus élevées aux niveaux de défoliation intermédiaires. Lorsque les plantes sont fortement défoliées (75% et 100%), leurs concentrations en tanins chutent, et elles sont en stress carbone comme le montre le taux de croissance réduit du diamètre du tronc; la production de feuilles et la masse moyenne de feuilles par individu sont aussi réduites. Cela suggère que, quand l'intensité de défoliation est intermédiaire, la stratégie des plants va vers une défense chimique induite. Lorsque la défoliation augmente, le coût relatif de la synthèse du métabolite secondaire devient trop élevé et le plant change de stratégie de croissance. Donc, les herbivores qui les consomment devraient pouvoir bénéficier d'une consommation antérieure en adoptant une pression de consommation faible ou relativement élevée. [source]

Phenology of fine roots and leaves in forest and grassland

Diego F. Steinaker
Summary 1The phenology of temperate vegetation is advancing in association with climate warming. Most phenology data, however, comes from flowers and tree leaves. We tested the generality of results from shoot phenology by expanding data collection in two new directions. We related forest leaf phenology to root phenology, and to phenology in a second habitat, grassland. 2We measured leaf and root phenology simultaneously in aspen forest and adjacent native grassland. Root growth accounts for 80,90% of productivity in these habitats. Seasonal variation in soil moisture and temperature were also measured. 3Forest leaf production was greatest about 45 days before peak root production, resulting in a significant negative correlation between leaf and root production in forest. Grassland leaf production was greatest about 15 days before peak root production, and grassland leaf and root production were significantly positively correlated. The duration of root production was 40% greater than that of shoot production. 4Forest leaf production increased significantly with increasing soil moisture, but not temperature. In contrast, the production of forest roots, grassland roots and grassland leaves increased significantly with soil temperature. 5Synthesis. The most commonly measured aspect of phenology, forest leaves, is out of step with the majority of production in forest, as well as phenology in grassland. The invasion of grassland by woody vegetation is characterized by a decoupling of root and shoot phenology, a result that has not been reported previously. Given the global nature of woody plant encroachment, this decoupling may influence our general understanding of productivity and carbon sequestration in response to warming. [source]

Grazing history versus current grazing: leaf demography and compensatory growth of three alpine plants in response to a native herbivore (Ochotona collaris)

Eliot J. B. McIntire
Summary 1 We measured leaf births, leaf deaths and leaf length of three alpine perennial species, Kobresia myosuroides, Erigeron humilis and Oxytropis nigrescens, from sites with different grazing histories (strong or weak) in response to two levels of current season grazing (present or absent) by collared pikas (Ochotona collaris), a small lagomorph, in the south-west Yukon. 2 All three species appeared to tolerate the removal of 58,61% of summer leaf production under natural conditions. Grazing history, which was defined by the location of plants located either < 2 m or > 6 m from boulderfields with a history of occupation by pikas, was the most significant factor determining shifts in leaf births and leaf deaths following herbivory. 3 The only detectable influence of current season herbivory for any measured species was a reduction of leaf length of Kobresia. 4 A comparison of historically grazed with historically ungrazed plants indicated several changes in leaf demography and morphology. Kobresia leaves were generally shorter and had higher rates of production of new leaves. Oxytropis had higher rates of new leaf production. Erigeron had fewer leaf births throughout the summer, but showed a large and highly significant delay in the timing of leaf senescence. 5 These responses can be largely understood as strategies to avoid the predictable intensive late season foraging that is characteristic of pikas. Morphological mechanisms allow these species to tolerate and, more importantly for the herbivore, persist under heavy and chronic grazing. [source]

Mutualism, hybrid inviability and speciation in a tropical ant,plant

Abstract Although biotic interactions are particularly intricate in the tropics, few studies have examined whether divergent adaptations to biotic interactions lead to speciation in tropical organisms. Ant,plant mutualisms are widespread in the tropics. Within Leonardoxa africana, two subspecies present contrasting defences against herbivores. Young leaves of subsp. africana are defended by mutualistic ants, whereas subsp. gracilicaulis satiates herbivores by synchronized leaf production. Subsp. africana possesses hollow internodes and many large foliar nectaries, housing and feeding ants. We detected no genetic introgression between the two subspecies in the contact zone between them. F1 hybrids were present. They were intermediate in phenotype, expressing reduced, nonfunctional but costly myrmecophilic traits. However, they suffered more herbivory than their parents. Hybrids remained small, failing to reach reproductive size, probably due to their maladapted defence phenotype. Hence, there could be a direct link between adaptation to mutualism and reproductive isolation: biotic interactions could be a driver of tropical diversity. [source]

Modelling the relationship between sexual reproduction and rhizome growth in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
Sebastiano Calvo
Abstract The relationship between flowering and growth performance of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile in meadows distributed along the south-eastern coast of Sicily (Italy) was investigated by means of a statistical model (generalized linear mixed model) combined with the lepidochronological analysis. Over a 28-year period, 67 floral stalk remains were observed. The highest flowering index was recorded in lepidochronological year 1998 (10.1%) and the Inflorescence Frequency per age showed a clear decrease corresponding to 15-year-old shoots. The sexual reproductive event had positive effects on rhizome elongation (cm year,1) and leaf production (no. leaves year,1) in the same flowering year, whilst no effect on the rhizome production (mg year,1) was observed. Rhizome growth variables showed significant negative lagged responses in the two years following flowering. On the whole, we calculated that the effect exerted by flowering, in terms of loss on rhizome elongation and production, was about 27% and 38%, respectively. Although it has been demonstrated that recovery from the stress induced by sexual reproduction is limited to the two years after flowering, the magnitude of the reproductive cost may become quite considerable especially in comparison with the whole lifespan of individual shoots. [source]

Why does elevated CO2 affect time of flowering?

An exploratory study using the photoperiodic flowering mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana
Summary ,,Evidence is accumulating that the effect of CO2 on time of flowering involves interactions with photoperiod, but the basis for this interaction is unclear. Here, which components of the photoperiod flowering pathway account for this interaction in Arabidopsis thaliana were examined. ,,Ten mutants deficient in particular loci in the photoperiod pathway, as well as the wild type, were grown under short and long days at either ambient or elevated CO2. Leaf number at flowering and the number of days required for induction of flowering were determined. ,,Elevated CO2 interacted with both the photoreceptors and the subsequent transduction reactions in the photoperiod pathway. The direction and magnitude of the effects varied with photoperiod. Elevated CO2 also affected flowering by increasing rate of leaf production. ,,The net effect of elevated CO2 on time of flowering varies because CO2 has a complex array of effects on different elements of the developmental pathway leading to flower induction that may either hasten or delay flowering depending upon the influence of other environmental factors such as photoperiod. [source]

Linking above-ground and below-ground effects in autotrophic microcosms: effects of shading and defoliation on plant and soil properties

OIKOS, Issue 3 2000
Juha Mikola
Although factors affecting plant growth and plant carbon/nutrient balance , e.g., light availability and defoliation by herbivores , may also propagate changes in below-ground food webs, few studies have aimed at linking the above-ground and below-ground effects. We established a 29-week laboratory experiment (,one growing season) using autotrophic microcosms to study the effects of light and defoliation on plant growth, plant carbon/nutrient balance, soil inorganic N content, and microbial activity and biomass in soil. Each microcosm contained three substrate layers , mineral soil, humus and plant litter , and one Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides seedling. The experiment constituted of the presence or absence of two treatments in a full factorial design: shading (50% decrease in light) and artificial defoliation (approximately 50% decrease in leaf area in the beginning of the growing season). At the end of the experiment a range of above-ground and below-ground properties were measured. The shading treatment reduced root and shoot mass, root/shoot ratio and leaf production of the seedlings, while the defoliation treatment significantly decreased leaf mass only. Leaf C and N content were not affected by either treatment. Shading increased NO 3,N concentration and decreased microbial biomass in humus, while defoliation did not significantly affect inorganic N or microbes in humus. The results show that plant responses to above-ground treatments have effects which propagate below ground, and that rather straightforward mechanisms may link above-ground and below-ground effects. The shading treatment, which reduced overall seedling growth and thus below-ground N use and C allocation, also led to changes in humus N content and microbial biomass, whereas defoliation, which did not affect overall growth, did not influence these below-ground properties. The study also shows the carbon/nutrient balance of N. solandri var. cliffortioides seedlings to be highly invariant to both shading and defoliation. [source]

Plasticity to soil water deficit in Arabidopsis thaliana: dissection of leaf development into underlying growth dynamic and cellular variables reveals invisible phenotypes

ABSTRACT Genetic variability in the plasticity of leaf area expansion in response to water deficit has been reported in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the objective was to identify the underlying dynamic and cellular processes involved in this variability. Twenty-five accessions were subjected to identical soil water deficit treatments. In all accessions, the plasticity of leaf production was low compared with that of individual leaf expansion. A subset of accessions was selected for further dissection of individual leaf expansion into its underlying variables: the rate and duration of leaf expansion and epidermal cell number and area. In all accessions, water deficit had opposite effects on the rate and duration of leaf expansion. The accumulation of these effects was reflected in changes in final leaf area. At the cellular level, moderate water deficits had opposite effects on cell number and cell size, but more severe ones reduced both variables. The importance of these opposing effects is highlighted by the behaviour of the accession An-1, for which the compensation between the decrease in leaf expansion rate and the increase in the duration of expansion is total. This dynamic plasticity in response to water deficit is not detectable when only final measurements are done. [source]

Lesions in the mRNA cap-binding gene ABA HYPERSENSITIVE 1 suppress FRIGIDA -mediated delayed flowering in Arabidopsis

Isabel C. Bezerra
Summary Recessive mutations that suppress the late-flowering phenotype conferred by FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and which also result in serrated leaf morphology were identified in T-DNA and fast-neutron mutant populations. Molecular analysis showed that the mutations are caused by lesions in the gene encoding the large subunit of the nuclear mRNA cap-binding protein, ABH1 (ABA hypersensitive1). The suppression of late flowering is caused by the inability of FRI to increase FLC mRNA levels in the abh1 mutant background. The serrated leaf morphology of abh1 is similar to the serrate (se) mutant and, like abh1, se is also a suppressor of FRI -mediated late flowering although it is a weaker suppressor than abh1. Unlike se, in abh1 the rate of leaf production and the number of juvenile leaves are not altered. The abh1 lesion affects several developmental processes, perhaps because the processing of certain mRNAs in these pathways is more sensitive to loss of cap-binding activity than the majority of cellular mRNAs. [source]

Effect of banana bunchy top virus infection on morphology and growth characteristics of banana

C.R.R. Hooks
Abstract Field experiments were conducted in Oahu, Hawaii, to investigate the effects of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) infection on growth and morphology of banana (Musa acuminata). The time interval between aphid inoculation of BBTV and the initial appearance of disease symptoms (i.e. incubation period) was also determined. Plants infected with BBTV showed a significant reduction in petiole size (i.e. length and distance), plant canopy and height, leaf area, pseudostem diameter and chlorophyll content compared with control plants. Growth differences between virus-infected and control plants were not observed until 40,50 days after the plants were inoculated with viruliferous aphids. Other growth parameters such as petiole width and leaf production were not statistically different between infected and control plants. The incubation period of banana bunchy top disease or appearance of symptoms ranged from 25 to 85 days after aphid inoculation. However, PCR assays provided earlier detection of BBTV in banana plants compared with visual symptoms. [source]

Seasonal variations in production and development of leather leaf fern leaves,

Summary Production and development of leatherleaf fern leaves were studied using containerised plants growing in a shade house. Leaf development was partitioned into seven arbitrary development stages; the time needed for leaves to progress through each developmental stage was used to measure days required to reach maturity. Measurements were made twice each week throughout 1997. Means and variances with in emergence rates of new leaves and time needed for new leaves to pass through six leaf development stages were calculated for 26 14-day periods throughout the year and compared with degree days, solar radiation, soil temperature, and daylight hours accumulated during the periods. Leaf production rates ranged from 0.15,0.73 leaves day,1 plant,1. The average time from emergence to maturity was 22.6 days. Both leaf production and development rates varied greatly with the seasons, and were strongly associated with the weather variables measured, but significant cyclic rate fluctuations unrelated to weather were also detected. Leaf emergence rates were more strongly related to average soil temperature, whereas leaf development rates to maturity were more strongly related to solar radiation and degree days. [source]

Seedling Mortality and Herbivory Damage in Subtropical and Temperate Populations: Testing the Hypothesis of Higher Herbivore Pressure Toward the Tropics

BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2010
Ek Del-Val
ABSTRACT Herbivory rates are generally thought to be higher in tropical than in temperate forests. Nevertheless, tests of this biogeographic prediction by comparing a single plant species across a tropical-temperate range are scarce. Here, we compare herbivore damage between subtropical and temperate populations of the evergreen tree Aextoxicon punctatum (Olivillo), distributed between 30° and 43° S along the Pacific margin of Chile. To assess the impact of herbivory on Olivillo seedlings, we set up 29 experimental plots, 1.5 × 3 m: 16 in forests of Fray Jorge National Park (subtropical latitude), and 13 in Guabún, Chiloé Island (temperate latitude). Half of each plot was fenced around with chicken wire, to exclude small mammals, and the other half was left unfenced. In each half of the plots we planted 16 seedlings of Olivillo in December 2003, with a total of 928 plants. Seedling survival, leaf production and herbivory by invertebrates were monitored over the next 16 mo. Small mammal herbivores killed ca 30 percent of seedlings in both sites. Nevertheless, invertebrate herbivory was greater in the temperate forest, thus contradicting the expected trend of increasing herbivore impact toward the tropics. Seedling growth was greater in subtropical forest suggesting better conditions for tree growth or that higher invertebrate herbivory depressed seedling growth in the temperate forest. Invertebrate herbivory increased toward temperate latitudes while small mammal herbivory was similar in both sites. We suggest that comparison of single species can be useful to test generalizations about latitudinal patterns and allow disentangling factors controlling herbivory patterns across communities. Abstract in Spanish is available at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/btp [source]