Leaf Morphology (leaf + morphology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Influences of habitat complexity on the diversity and abundance of epiphytic invertebrates on plants

FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
Hiromi Taniguchi
SUMMARY 1. The compound influence of habitat complexity and patch size on stream invertebrate assemblages associated with submerged macrophytes was investigated through field sampling of two natural macrophyte species with contrasting leaf morphologies (complex, Ranunculus yezoensis; simple, Sparganium emersum) and an experiment with two artificial plants with different levels of morphological complexity. 2. The artificial plant experiment was designed to separate the effects of habitat area (patch size) and habitat complexity, thus enabling a more rigorous assessment of complexity per se than in previous studies where only a single patch size was used. Simple and complex artificial plants were established with five different patch sizes corresponding to the range found in natural plants. 3. Invertebrates occurred on both complex and simple forms of natural and artificial plants at similar abundances with dipterans and ephemeropterans being predominant. Taxon richness was higher on structurally complex Ranunculus than on simple Sparganium and was similarly higher on the complex artificial plant than on the simple one, over the entire range of habitat patch sizes. Thus, architectural complexity affected the taxon richness of epiphytic invertebrates, independently of habitat scale. 4. On the natural plants there was no difference in the abundance (both number of individuals and biomass) of invertebrates between simple and complex forms, while on artificial plants more invertebrates occurred on complex than on simple forms. The amount of particulate organic matter, >225 ,m (POM) and chlorophyll a showed mixed patterns on natural and artificial plants, suggesting that the availability of these resources is not an overriding proximate factor controlling invertebrate abundance on plants. The difficulty of extrapolating from experimental results involving use of artificial plants is discussed, especially when considering the relationship between habitat structure and the occurrence of epiphytic invertebrates on natural plants. [source]


Possible causes of morphological variation in an endemic Moroccan groundsel (Senecio leucanthemifolius var. casablancae): evidence from chloroplast DNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Max Coleman
Abstract Genetic variation was assessed in Senecio leucanthemifolius var. casablancae (Compositae), a Moroccan Atlantic coast endemic, in order to examine possible causes of atypical leaf morphology in three populations south of the known range. Evidence for introgression from S. glaucus ssp. coronopifolius and/or divergence was investigated with molecular markers. Both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chloroplast (cp) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) differentiated the species well. Some evidence that hybridization may have occurred between the two species was provided by cpDNA markers. However, biparentally inherited RAPD markers failed to provide any support for the hypothesis that intermediate leaf morphologies in atypical populations arose through hybridization. Consequently, they are most likely to have arisen via divergence caused by drift and/or selection. Genetic distances among populations of S. leucanthemifolius were significant in all but one case. Isolation by distance was indicated by a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographical distances (r = 0.68, P = 0.01, Mantel test). These results suggest that long-distance achene dispersal is rare, despite the presence of a well-developed pappus. The observed loss of pappus at achene maturity may explain this unexpected result. Due to the morphological distinction of var. casablancae from other varieties of S. leucanthemifolius, we suggest elevation to species rank and treatment of the atypical material at infraspecific rank. [source]


Herbivory patterns in mature sugar maple: variation with vertical canopy strata and tree ontogeny

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
SEAN C. THOMAS
1. Although leaf morphology and chemistry show profound changes as trees age, the consequences of such changes to herbivory have received little attention, particularly late in the ontogeny of canopy trees. 2. Using a mobile aerial lift for canopy access, patterns of leaf damage were evaluated in canopy-dominant mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) trees ranging from ,20 to 70 cm in diameter, corresponding to an age range of ,40,180 years. 3. Herbivore damage patterns varied in relation to both vertical canopy position (among upper-, mid-, and lower-canopy positions) and with tree size. Damage types attributable to herbivores active on leaf surfaces, including leaf skeletonizers and leaf cutters (both principally Lepidoptera), and leaf stippling inducers (Hemiptera) showed decreases with tree size, and with increasing height in the canopy. In contrast, leaf damage from the most abundant gall-forming arthropod in the system, the eriophyid mite Vasates aceriscrumena, increased markedly with tree size. 4. The results indicate that herbivory patterns vary with both canopy stratum and with tree size in sugar maple, and that the relative strength of vertical stratification and tree ontogeny effects are similar in magnitude. The predominant patterns are of a decrease in herbivory with increasing height in the canopy and with tree size, but certain galling arthropods exhibit the reverse trends. [source]


Rhodomyrtophyllum reticulosum (Rossm.) Knobloch & Z. Kva,ek , ein bedeutendes eozänes Florenelement im Tertiär Mitteleuropas

FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 1-2 2003
U. Glinka Dipl.-Biol.
Nach kritischer Überprüfung blattepidermaler und blattmorphologischer Merkmalskomplexe an Blättern und Blattresten von RhodomyrtophyllumRüffle & Jähnichen aus dem Weißelster-Becken und seiner Randgebiete in Mitteldeutschland (Raum Halle,Leipzig,Borna,Altenburg,Zeitz,Zwickau und Ostthüringen) wird nachgewiesen, dass es sich bei den Blattresten um Vertreter einer einzigen Art handelt. Die Untersuchungen stützen sich auf 465 Fossilien aus meist kohlig- oder tonig-schluffiger Facies. In einer erweiterten Diagnose wird neben Grundformen mit typischen Charakteristiken die morphologische und blattanatomische Variationsbreite angeführt, die in den natürlichen Grenzen einer Species liegt. Untersuchungen an Blättern weiterer Fundorte in Europa kommen zum gleichen Ergebnis. An Arten von 21 Gattungen rezenter Myrtaceae erfolgen detaillierte Untersuchungen der Blattmorphologie und vor allem der Epidermisstruktur, die markante Ähnlichkeiten zur fossilen Sippe zeigen, was besonders bei Arten der Gattungen SyzygiumGaertn. und Eugenia L. erkennbar ist. Rhodomyrtophyllum reticulosum (Rossm.) Knobloch & Z. Kva,ek , a significant Eocene floral element in the Tertiary of Central Europe The leaf remains of RhodomyrtophyllumRüffle & Jähnichen from the Eocene occurring in the Weißelster Basin in central Germany (area Halle,Leipzig,Borna,Altenburg,Zeitz,Zwickau and Eastern Thuringia) have been proven to belong to a single species. This has been documented by analysing gross morphology and epidermical structure of 465 fossil leaves and leaf fragments from coal sand coal-silt facies. An emended diagnosis characterises besides basic forms with typical gross morphology and leaf anatomy, also extreme specimens within the limits of natural variability of Rhodomyrtophyllumreticulosum. These results correspond with studies from other European localities. Furthermore, detailed analyses of leaf morphology and epidermal structure of 21 recent species of the Myrtaceae are given. These demonstrate analogies of the fossil taxon studied especially among representatives of SyzygiumGaertn. and Eugenia L. [source]


Possible causes of morphological variation in an endemic Moroccan groundsel (Senecio leucanthemifolius var. casablancae): evidence from chloroplast DNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
Max Coleman
Abstract Genetic variation was assessed in Senecio leucanthemifolius var. casablancae (Compositae), a Moroccan Atlantic coast endemic, in order to examine possible causes of atypical leaf morphology in three populations south of the known range. Evidence for introgression from S. glaucus ssp. coronopifolius and/or divergence was investigated with molecular markers. Both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chloroplast (cp) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) differentiated the species well. Some evidence that hybridization may have occurred between the two species was provided by cpDNA markers. However, biparentally inherited RAPD markers failed to provide any support for the hypothesis that intermediate leaf morphologies in atypical populations arose through hybridization. Consequently, they are most likely to have arisen via divergence caused by drift and/or selection. Genetic distances among populations of S. leucanthemifolius were significant in all but one case. Isolation by distance was indicated by a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographical distances (r = 0.68, P = 0.01, Mantel test). These results suggest that long-distance achene dispersal is rare, despite the presence of a well-developed pappus. The observed loss of pappus at achene maturity may explain this unexpected result. Due to the morphological distinction of var. casablancae from other varieties of S. leucanthemifolius, we suggest elevation to species rank and treatment of the atypical material at infraspecific rank. [source]


Nutrient limitation and morphological plasticity of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea in contrasting wetland environments

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 3 2008
Terry Bott
Summary ,,Plasticity of leaf nutrient content and morphology, and macronutrient limitation were examined in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea subsp. purpurea, in relation to soil nutrient availability in an open, neutral pH fen and a shady, acidic ombrotrophic bog, over 2 yr following reciprocal transplantation of S. purpurea between the wetlands. ,,In both wetlands, plants were limited by nitrogen (N) but not phosphorus (P) (N content < 2% DW,1, N : P < 14) but photosynthetic quantum yields were high (FV/FM > 0.79). Despite carnivory, leaf N content correlated with dissolved N availability to plant roots (leaf N vs , r2 = 0.344, P < 0.0001); carnivorous N acquisition did not apparently overcome N limitation. ,,Following transplantation, N content and leaf morphological traits changed in new leaves to become more similar to plants in the new environment, reflecting wetland nutrient availability. Changes in leaf morphology were faster when plants were transplanted from fen to bog than from bog to fen, possibly reflecting a more stressful environment in the bog. ,,Morphological plasticity observed in response to changes in nutrient supply to the roots in natural habitats complements previous observations of morphological changes with experimental nutrient addition to pitchers. [source]


Phosphorus nutrition-mediated effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza on leaf morphology and carbon allocation in perennial ryegrass

NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 2 2005
Agustín A. Grimoldi
Summary ,,The aim of this work was to disentangle phosphorus status-dependent and -independent effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) on leaf morphology and carbon allocation in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). ,,To this end, we assessed the P-response function of morphological components in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants of similar size. ,,AMF (Glomus hoi) stimulated relative P-uptake rate, decreased leaf mass per area (LMA), and increased shoot mass ratio at low P supply. Lower LMA was caused by both decreased tissue density and thickness. Variation in tissue density was almost entirely caused by variations in soluble C, while that in thickness involved structural changes. ,,All effects of AMF were indistinguishable from those mediated by increases in relative P-uptake rate through higher P-supply rates. Thus the relationships between relative P-uptake rate, leaf morphology and C allocation were identical in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. No evidence was found for AMF effects not mediated by changes in plant P status. [source]


Production of cyanophycin, a suitable source for the biodegradable polymer polyaspartate, in transgenic plants

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 2 2005
Katrin Neumann
Summary The production of biodegradable polymers in transgenic plants in order to replace petrochemical compounds is an important challenge for plant biotechnology. Polyaspartate, a biodegradable substitute for polycarboxylates, is the backbone of the cyanobacterial storage material cyanophycin. Cyanophycin, a copolymer of l -aspartic acid and l -arginine, is produced via non-ribosomal polypeptide biosynthesis by the enzyme cyanophycin synthetase. A gene from Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 encoding cyanophycin synthetase has been expressed constitutively in tobacco and potato. The presence of the transgene-encoded messenger RNA (mRNA) correlated with changes in leaf morphology and decelerated growth. Such transgenic plants were found to produce up to 1.1% dry weight of a polymer with cyanophycin-like properties. Aggregated material, able to bind a specific cyanophycin antibody, was detected in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the transgenic plants. [source]


Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aberrant phenotypes in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 6 2009
A. Salmon
Abstract The aberrant phenotype is characterized by the progressive expression of abnormal traits during vegetative growth affecting leaf thickness, shape and/or plant vigour. These striking morphological abnormalities do not appear to be caused by agronomical practices or pathogen infections. Furthermore, the aberrant phenotype, which is observed in 3,20% of cultivated cauliflowers, is not linked to DNA sequence or structural polymorphisms. To detect candidate genes related to the aberrant phenotype, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism on cDNA approach, sampling normal and aberrant F1 hybrid plants several times before and after the expression of the aberrant phenotype. This screen led to the detection of 51 differentially expressed transcripts. Twenty-nine of these were homologous to annotated genes in genomic databases. We identified transcripts, which were differentially expressed before the expression of the aberrant trait with homology to genes involved in various abiotic stress responses. A non-specific lipid transfer protein homologue was also identified and given the role that these proteins play in epicuticular wax formation and leaf morphology, it may be implicated in the abnormal leaf shape phenotypes. [source]


Contributions of disease resistance and escape to the control of septoria tritici blotch of wheat

PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
L. S. Arraiano
The contributions of disease escape and disease resistance to the responses of wheat to septoria tritici leaf blotch (STB) were analysed in a set of 226 lines, including modern cultivars, breeding lines and their progenitors dating back to the origin of scientific wheat breeding. Field trials were located in the important wheat-growing region of eastern England and were subject to natural infection by Mycosphaerella graminicola. STB scores were related to disease-escape traits, notably height, leaf spacing, leaf morphology and heading date, and to the presence of known Stb resistance genes and isolate-specific resistances. The Stb6 resistance gene was associated with a reduction of 19% in the level of STB in the complete set of 226 lines and with a 33% reduction in a subset of 139 lines of semidwarf stature. Greater plant height was strongly associated with reduced STB in the full set of lines, but only weakly in the semidwarf lines. Shorter leaf length was also associated with reduced STB, but, in contrast to earlier reports, lines with more prostrate leaves had more STB on average, probably because they tended to have longer leaves. Several lines, notably cvs Pastiche and Exsept, had low mean levels of STB which could not be explained by either escape traits or specific resistance genes, implying that they have unknown genes for partial resistance to STB. [source]


Modes and mechanisms of speciation in pteridophytes: Implications of contrasting patterns in ferns representing temperate and tropical habitats

PLANT SPECIES BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
Christopher H. Haufler
Abstract Discovering how biological diversification results in species is one of the primary challenges facing evolutionary biologists. In the ferns, evidence indicates that dissimilar speciation modes and mechanisms may differentiate some temperate and tropical groups. The Polypodium sibiricum group contains three related diploid species that all inhabit rock outcrops in temperate forests. Although differing lettle in gross leaf morphology and joined by the distinctive morphological synapomorphy of sporangiasters, these three species have an average interspecific genetic identity developed from isozymic com-parisons of only 0.460. A likely mode of speciation is that periodic glaciation pushed Po. sibiricum populations south and, with the retreat of the glaciers, southern populations persisted, evolved diagnostic traits, and ultimately erected postzygotic barriers to interbreeding. This hypothesis follows a classic allopatric speciation model and interspecific distinctions may have been reinforced through contact mediated by subsequent ice ages. In contrast, a monophyletic group of four diploid, epiphytic Pleopeltis species centered in Mexico has an isozymically-determined average interspecific genetic identity value of 0.849. In spite of this high value, these species show greater morphological discrimination than do the Polypodium species. Although the species ranges overlap, they appear to occupy ecologically discrete habitats. These Pleopeltis species may have originated through adaptation to different ecological zones and developed individual morphologies in the process. The high interspecific genetic identity values among the Pleopeltis species suggest a relatively recent and/or rapid process. These hypotheses should be tested by further biosystematic investigations and the discovery of additional monophyletic assemblages with similar patterns of speciation. [source]


Lesions in the mRNA cap-binding gene ABA HYPERSENSITIVE 1 suppress FRIGIDA -mediated delayed flowering in Arabidopsis

THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
Isabel C. Bezerra
Summary Recessive mutations that suppress the late-flowering phenotype conferred by FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and which also result in serrated leaf morphology were identified in T-DNA and fast-neutron mutant populations. Molecular analysis showed that the mutations are caused by lesions in the gene encoding the large subunit of the nuclear mRNA cap-binding protein, ABH1 (ABA hypersensitive1). The suppression of late flowering is caused by the inability of FRI to increase FLC mRNA levels in the abh1 mutant background. The serrated leaf morphology of abh1 is similar to the serrate (se) mutant and, like abh1, se is also a suppressor of FRI -mediated late flowering although it is a weaker suppressor than abh1. Unlike se, in abh1 the rate of leaf production and the number of juvenile leaves are not altered. The abh1 lesion affects several developmental processes, perhaps because the processing of certain mRNAs in these pathways is more sensitive to loss of cap-binding activity than the majority of cellular mRNAs. [source]


Population divergence in the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. (Fabaceae): microsatellite markers and leaf morphology

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2009
ZHONG-CHENG LIANG
Comparative analyses of the genetic differentiation in microsatellite markers (FST) and leaf morphology characters (QST) of Amphicarpaea edgeworthii Benth. were conducted to gain insight into the roles of random processes and natural selection in the population divergence. Simple sequence repeat analyses on 498 individuals of 19 natural populations demonstrate that a significant genetic differentiation occurs among populations (mean FST = 0.578), and A. edgeworthii is a highly self-fertilized species (mean selfing rate s = 0.989). The distribution pattern of genetic diversity in this species shows that central populations possess high genetic diversity (e.g. population WL with HE = 0.673 and population JG with HE = 0.663), whereas peripheral ones have a low HE as in population JD (0.011). The morphological divergence of leaf shape was estimated by the elliptical Fourier analysis on the data from 11 natural and four common garden populations. Leaf morphology analyses indicate the morphological divergence does not show strong correlation with the genetic differentiation (R = 0.260, P = 0.069). By comparing the 95% confidence interval of QST with that of FST, QST values for five out of 12 quantitative traits are significantly higher than the average FST value over eight microsatellite loci. The comparison of FST and QST suggests that two kinds of traits can be driven by different evolutionary forces, and the population divergence in leaf morphology is shaped by local selections. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 96, 505,516. [source]


Rotafolia songziensis gen. et comb. nov., a sphenopsid from the Late Devonian of Hubei, China

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2005
DE-MING WANG
A sphenopsid from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Xiejingsi Formation, south-western Hubei Province, China, previously named as various species in Sphenophyllum, Hamatophyton, Bowmanites and Sphenophyllostachys, is now reinvestigated and assigned to a new taxon, Rotafolia songziensis gen. et comb. nov. Its ribbed axes are anisotomous and possess slightly expanded nodes. Lateral axes are inserted at nodes on main axes. Whorls of much divided vegetative leaves are attached at nearly right angles to nodes of basal axes, and at acute angles to nodes of terminal axes. There are six leaves per whorl. The terminal strobilus includes a central axis and verticils of fertile units. Each fertile unit consists of a bract and numerous sporangia. The margin of the elongate-cuneate bract bears a distal and many lateral elongate segments. Clusters of elongate sporangia are abaxially attached to the base of the bract at the same level. The axis has an actinostele, composed of a three-ribbed, exarch primary xylem and radial secondary xylem. Although Rotafolia songziensis closely resembles Hamatophyton verticillatum in axis character, leaf morphology and primary xylem type, they are quite different in strobilar structure. Taxonomically, Rotafolia is placed in the order Sphenophyllales by three well-defined characters: 1) whorled appendages; 2) ribbed protosteles; 3) exarch primary xylem maturation. © 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2005, 148, 21,37. [source]


Cuticle micromorphology of leaves of Pinus (Pinaceae) from Mexico and Central America

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 4 2001
SUNG SOO WHANG
Cuticle micromorphology of 34 taxa of Pinus from Mexico and Central America was studied with scanning electron microscopy, and leaf morphology was described. In total, 29 characters, 22 from the inner cuticular surfaces and seven from the outer, were described in detail. These characters have value either for testing infragenerie classifications or for identifying individual taxa. Characters relating to the periclinal wall texture of the epidermal cells, the shape and degree of development of the anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells, the basal and apical shapes of anticlinal epidermal cell walls, the continuity of the epidermal cells, the size ratio of the polar to lateral subsidiary cells, the grooves on subsidiary cells, the cuticular flanges between guard and subsidiary cells, the groove near the bristles and the elevation of the Florin ring ridge and striations on the Florin ring are particularly useful for infrageneric classification. The agreement between these characters and infrageneric classifications is discussed. Characters relating to the end wall shapes of the epidermal cells, the relative length of epidermal cells, the shape of the stomatal apparatus, the texture of guard and lateral subsidiary cell surfaces, the polar extensions, the number of subsidiary cells and epidermal cell layers between stomatal rows, the integrity of stomatal rows, cell numbers between stomata in a row, cuticular flanges between guard cells, bristle flanges and surface textures, epicuticular waxes, striations on Florin rings and stomatal shapes, contain some important information for identifying Mexican pines. The distribution of the states of each character is compared with that of the Asian pines. Cuticular characters are used to help determine the affinities of taxonomically difficult taxa. [source]


Morphometric differentiation between populations of Papaver radicatum (Papaveraceae) in northern Scandinavia

BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 3 2000
EVA SELIN
The pattern of morphological variation was investigated in isolated northern Scandinavian populations of Papaucr radicatum, a perennial species with a disjunct distribution in the Scandinavian mountain range, Iceland and the Farces. Canonical variates analysis and Ward's clustering were applied to data sets from wild-collected seed and capsule material, and from cultivated leaf mated from seven populations of P. radicatum in northern Scandinavia, usually assigned to the sspp. subglobosum, hyperboreum and macrostigma. Automatized image acquisition and shape description techniques were used to describe variation in seed shape. The present study supports the multivariate analyses obtained with the southern Norwegian P. radicatum populations in that some of the assumed subspecies show inter-population variation and are not well delimited. In the analyses of capsule and seed morphology as well as leaf morphology, the populations of the sspp. hyperboreum and macrostigma are grouped together. Previous studies of chromosomal and morphological variation in southern Norwegian P. radicatum suggested that the degree of interracial differentiation was similar between all races regardless of their degree of geographic separation. The pattern of differentiation has been taken as a support of in Situ refugial survival during the Weichselian glaciation. As in similar multivariate analyses of southem Norwegian P. radicatum, the multivariate analyses of northern Scandinavian P. radicatum do not confirm such a scenario. The results rather point to the possibility that populations from the sspp. hyperboreum and macrostigna complex were separated during the post-glacial hypsithemal. The morphologically distinct ssp. subglobosum could have been isolated at an earlier stage. [source]


A Cladistic Analysis of the New World Species of Lotus L. (Fabaceae, Loteae)

CLADISTICS, Issue 3 2000
Ana M. Arambarri
The genus Lotus L. is a monophyletic group diagnosed by the possession of a standard claw with thickened infolded margin, stamens diadelphous, and the style hardened from the base. It comprises approximately 200 species distributed throughout the world. A cladistic analysis of the New World species was performed using 39 morphological and anatomical characters (29 from seed morphology and anatomy, 1 from plant habit, 1 from leaf morphology, 6 from flower morphology, and 2 from fruit morphology). Dorycnium, Edentolotus, Krokeria, and Pedrosia, of the Old World, and 28 species of the New World were considered terminal taxa. Tetragonolobus Scop. was chosen to root the cladograms and Dorycnium Mill. to reroot them. With Tetragonolobus the analysis yielded 15 equally parsimonious trees, each with a length of 74 steps, a consistency index of 0.62, and a retention index of 0.89. The 15 initial trees and the strict consensus tree defined 12 monophyletic groups. All terminal taxa form a monophyletic group diagnosed by the presence of a radicular lobe discernible to conspicuous (character 10); rim aril thick (character 13); stipules absent (character 31); and style simple and nondilated (character 36). The New World species form a monophyletic group on the basis of the seed relationship of length to width in hilar view 1.5:1 to 2:1 (character 5); micropyle linear-deltoid to bifurcate (character 19); and keel erostrate (character 33). Identical monophyletic groups were obtained when Dorycnium was used as root. These results are discussed in the context of data on cytology and morphology. [source]