L-histidine Decarboxylase (l-histidine + decarboxylase)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Multiple sites of L-histidine decarboxylase expression in mouse suggest novel developmental functions for histamine

Kaj Karlstedt
Abstract Histamine mediates many types of physiologic signals in multicellular organisms. To clarify the developmental role of histamine, we have examined the developmental expression of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA and the production of histamine during mouse development. The predominant expression of HDC in mouse development was seen in mast cells. The HDC expression was evident from embryonal day 13 (Ed13) until birth, and the mast cells were seen in most peripheral tissues. Several novel sites with a prominent HDC mRNA expression were revealed. In the brain, the choroid plexus showed HDC expression at Ed14 and the raphe neurons at Ed15. Close to the parturition, at Ed19, the neurons in the tuberomammillary (TM) area and the ventricular neuroepithelia also displayed a clear HDC mRNA expression and histamine immunoreactivity (HA-ir). From Ed14 until birth, the olfactory and nasopharyngeal epithelia showed an intense HDC mRNA expression and HA-ir. In the olfactory epithelia, the olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) were shown to have very prominent histamine immunoreactivity. The bipolar nerve cells in the epithelium extended both to the epithelial surface and into the subepithelial layers to be collected into thick nerve bundles extending caudally toward the olfactory bulbs. Also, in the nasopharynx, an extensive subepithelial network of histamine-immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen. Furthermore, in the peripheral tissues, the degenerating mesonephros (Ed14) and the convoluted tubules in the developing kidneys (Ed15) showed HDC expression, as did the prostate gland (Ed15). In adult mouse brain, the HDC expression resembled the neuronal pattern observed in rat brain. The expression was restricted to the TM area in the ventral hypothalamus, with the main expression in the five TM subgroups called E1,E5. A distinct mouse HDC mRNA expression was also seen in the ependymal wall of the third ventricle, which has not been reported in the rat. The tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns of HDC and histamine presented in this work indicate that histamine could have cell guidance or regulatory roles in development. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

L-histidine decarboxylase as a probe in studies on histamine

Takehiko Watanabe
Abstract Because the Falck-Hillarp formaldehyde fluorescence method, which was superbly applied to identify catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons, is not applicable to histamine, the first author (T.W.) developed an antibody to L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) for identification of the histaminergic neuron system in the brain. The anti-HDC antibody was of great use for mapping the location and distribution of this histaminergic neuron system. (S)-,-fluoromethylhistidine, a specific and potent irreversible inhibitor of HDC, was also very useful in studies on functions of the neuron system. The activity of HDC is increased by various agents, treatments, and physiological conditions. We found new compounds that increased HDC activity (i.e., tetradecanoylphobol acetate (TPA), other tumor promoters, and staphylococcal enterotoxin A); and using mast cell-deficient mutant (W/Wv) mice, we obtained evidence that this increase occurred in macrophages. To further characterize the mechanism of increases in HDC activity, the second author (H.O.) cloned human HDC cDNA and a human HDC gene. In studies on the regulation mechanism of the HDC gene, which is expressed only in limited types of cells such as mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells in the stomach, cells in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the brain, and macrophages, CpG islands in the promoter region of the HDC gene were found to be demethylated in cells expressing the gene, whereas they are methylated in other cells that do not express the HDC gene. In collaboration with many other researchers, we developed HDC knockout mice. The resulting research is producing a lot of interesting findings in our laboratory as well as in others. In summary, HDC has been and will be useful in studies on functions of histamine. 2002 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Chem Rec 2: 369,376, 2002: Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/tcr.10036 [source]

Expression of non-mast cell histidine decarboxylase in tumor-associated microvessels in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas,

APMIS, Issue 12 2008
Histamine is produced by mast cells and many other types of cells. The role of histamine released from mast cells in promoting tumor angiogenesis has been intensively studied; however, the role of non-mast cell histamine in regulating tumor angiogenesis has been largely ignored. In this study, tissue specimen sections from 43 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and normal esophageal biopsies from 17 heath individuals obtained from a high incidence area of north China were used to assess changes in microvessel density (MVD) and non-mast cell L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) (the only rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the formation of histamine from L-histidine) expression in the tumor microenvironment by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, the cellular characterization of non-mast cell HDC-positive cells in microvessels was examined by double IHC combined with HDC/CD34 and HDC/PCNA antibodies. These IHC analyses revealed a significantly increased HDC-positive MVD in ESCC as compared with normal controls, which accounted for ,61% of CD34-labeled general MVD in ESCC. Furthermore, IHC in serial sections and double IHC showed that most of these HDC-positive cells were CD34-positive endothelial cells in microvessels with an increased proliferative capacity. Thus, our results suggest that non-mast cell histamine expressed in endothelial cells of microvessels could be an additional cellular source and might play a role in regulating angiogenesis in ESCC. [source]

Inhibition of scratching behaviour caused by contact dermatitis in histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice

M. Seike
Abstract:, A neuronal system dedicated to itch consists of primary afferent and spinothalamic projection neurons. Histamine is thought to be one of the main mediators for the transmission of itch sensation. However, there are little available information on the role of histamine in scratching behaviour and sensory transmission of atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema. In the present study, the role of histamine in scratching behaviour and neural conduction of sensation in the chronic eczema model was investigated by using l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene knockout mice lacking histamine. The chronic contact dermatitis was induced with daily application of diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP) on a hind paw of HDC (+/+) and HDC (,/,) mice for 2 months. The observation of scratching behaviour and the hot-plate test were performed in both mice. Histological studies were performed in the skin and spinal cord tissues. Histological examination revealed that both HDC (+/+) and HDC (,/,) mice displayed the similar extent of inflammatory cell infiltration, hyperplastic epidermis and newly spreading of neuronal processes in the skin tissue. Scratching behaviour was exclusively induced in HDC (+/+) mice, whereas it was barely observed in HDC (,/,) mice. The expression of c-Fos was specifically upregulated in HDC (+/+) mice in lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn following repeated DCP application. Scratching behaviour in chronic contact dermatitis in mice was thought mainly mediated with histamine. The afferent pathway of sensation in chronic contact dermatitis model may connect with the central nervous system through lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn. [source]