L Capacity (l + capacity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and phenol removal in methanogenic and partially-aerated methanogenic conditions in a fluidized bed bioreactor

Claudio Garibay-Orijel
Abstract A fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was operated for more than 575 days to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and phenol (Phe) from a synthetic toxic wastewater containing 80 mg L,1 of TCP and 20 mg L,1 of Phe under two regimes: Methanogenic (M) and Partially-Aerated Methanogenic (PAM). The mesophilic, laboratory-scale FBBR consisted of a glass column (3 L capacity) loaded with 1 L of 1 mm diameter granular activated carbon colonized by an anaerobic consortium. Sucrose (1 g COD L,1) was used as co-substrate in the two conditions. The hydraulic residence time was kept constant at 1 day. Both conditions showed similar TCP and Phe removal (99.9 + %); nevertheless, in the Methanogenic regime, the accumulation of 4-chlorophenol (4CP) up to 16 mg L,1 and phenol up to 4 mg L,1 was observed, whereas in PAM conditions 4CP and other intermediates were not detected. The specific methanogenic activity of biomass decreased from 1.01 ± 0.14 in M conditions to 0.19 ± 0.06 mmolCH4 h,1 gTKN,1 in PAM conditions whereas the specific oxygen uptake rate increased from 0.039 ± 0.008 in M conditions to 0.054 ± 0.012 mmolO2 h,1 gTKN,1, which suggested the co-existence of both methanogenic archaea and aerobic bacteria in the undefined consortium. The advantage of the PAM condition over the M regime is that it provides for the thorough removal of less-substituted chlorophenols produced by the reductive dehalogenation of TCP rather than the removal of the parent compound itself. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

A dietary energy level of 14.6 MJ kg,1 and protein-to-energy ratio of 20.2 g MJ,1 results in best growth performance and nutrient accretion in silver barb Puntius gonionotus fingerlings

Abstract Five iso-nitrogenous (300 g protein kg,1 diet) and iso-lipidic (80 g kg,1 diet) semi-purified experimental diets with variable energy levels of 10.5 (D-1), 12.5 (D-2), 14.6 (D-3), 16.7 (D-4) and 18.8 (D-5) MJ kg,1 diets were fed to Puntius gonionotus fingerlings (average weight 1.79 ± 0.02 g) in triplicate groups (15 healthy fishes per replicate) for a period of 90 days to assess the optimum dietary energy level and protein-to-energy ratio (P/E). Fifteen flow-through cement tanks of 100 L capacity with a flow rate of 0.5 L min,1 were used for rearing the fish. Maximum specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, protein productive value, RNA : DNA ratio, whole body protein content, digestive enzyme activity and minimum feed conversion ratio was found in fish-fed diet D-3 with 14.6 MJ kg,1 energy level. There were no improvements in all these parameters with the further rise in dietary energy level. Hence, it may be concluded that the optimum dietary gross energy level for maximum growth and nutrient utilization of silver barb is 14.6 MJ kg,1 diet with a resultant P/E ratio of 20.2 g protein MJ,1 diet, when the dietary protein and lipid are maintained at optimum requirement levels of 300 and 80 g kg,1 diet, respectively, for this species. [source]

Protein requirements of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry cultured at different salinities

Edvino Larumbe-Morán
Abstract Effect of isolipidic (62.7 ± 5.0 g kg,1) diets with protein levels of 204.6 (T20), 302.3 (T30), 424.6 (T40) or 511.0 g kg,1 (T50) on growth and survival in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus 1758) fry cultured for 70 days at one of four salinities (0, 15, 20 and 25 g L,1) was evaluated. A bifactorial (4 × 4) design was used with 16 treatments run in triplicate and 20 fry (0.25 ± 0.04 g) per replicate under semi-controlled conditions. Four independent, recirculating systems (one per salinity level) were used, each one with 12 circular tanks (70 L capacity), filters and constant aeration. The different salinities had no significant effect on growth. Weight gain improved significantly as dietary protein content increased, although organisms fed the T50 diet had a lower growth rate. Survival was highest (98.33%) in the T50/15 (protein/salinity levels) treatment and lowest (71.0%) in the T20/20 treatment, with no pattern caused by the variables. The T40/25, T40/20 and T50/0 treatments produced the most efficient growth and feed utilization values while the T20 treatments at all the salinities resulted with the lowest performance. With the exception of the T50 treatments, a non-significant tendency to increased weight gain was observed as water salinity increased, suggesting that the salinity of the culture environment does not influence dietary protein requirements in Nile tilapia O. niloticus fry. [source]

A preliminary evaluation of physiological filtration variables for Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Anadara tuberculosa (Sowerby, 1833) in shrimp aquaculture effluents

Emilio Peña-Messina
Abstract This study examined the main filtration variables [filtration rate (FR), clearance rate (CR) and assimilation efficiency (AE)] of the Cortez oyster, Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951), and the mud cockle, Anadara tuberculosa (Sowerby, 1833), in shrimp aquaculture effluents at three different flux velocities (1.5, 3 and 4.5 L h,1) using a 36-respirometer system, each with a 0.5 L capacity. Under inverted photoperiod conditions, free variations in the environmental parameters were allowed to mimic effluent conditions during a pair of 12-h trials. The FRs for both species (0.124, 0.328 and 0.402 L h,1 for the Cortez oyster; 0.093, 0.189 and 0.345 L h,1 for the mud cockle) were relatively low as compared with those reported for similar or related species. The CRs were higher for the Cortez oyster (20.04, 52.92 and 64.70 L h,1) than for the mud cockle (10.96, 22.95 and 42.12 L h,1); in both cases, the values were in the range reported previously for the last species. The AE for both mollusks (over 92% for the Cortez oyster and over 95% for the mud cockle) was very high and greater than that found by other authors for the same or related species. The three filtration variables were better at higher effluent flux velocities. These preliminary results strongly suggest that both species are good candidates to be considered for bioremediation of aquaculture effluents. [source]

Carbohydrate level in the diet of silver barb, Puntius gonionotus (Bleeker) fingerlings: effect on growth, nutrient utilization and whole body composition

Kedar Nath Mohanta
Abstract Five iso-nitrogenous (300 g crude protein kg,1 diet) semi-purified diets with graded levels of carbohydrate at 220 (D-1), 260 (D-2), 300 (D-3), 340 (D-4) and 380 (D-5) g kg,1 diet were fed ad libitum to Puntius gonionotus fingerlings (average weight 0.59±0.01 g) in triplicate groups (20 fish replicate,1) for a period of 90 days to determine the effect of the dietary carbohydrate level on the growth, nutrient utilization, digestibility, gut enzyme activity and whole-body composition of fish. Fifteen flow-through cement tanks of 100 L capacity with a flow rate of 0.5 L min,1 were used for rearing the fish. The maximum weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, RNA:DNA ratio, whole-body protein content, protease activity, protein and energy digestibility and minimum feed conversion ratio (FCR) were found in the D-2 group fed with 260 g carbohydrate kg,1 diet. The highest protein and energy retention was also recorded in the same group. However, from the second-order polynomial regression analysis, the maximum growth and nutrient utilization of P. gonionotus fingerlings was 291.3,298.3 g carbohydrate kg,1 diet at a dietary protein level of 300 g kg,1 with a protein/energy (P/E) ratio of 20.58 ,20.75 g protein MJ,1. [source]

Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in milk by UV treatment

J. Donaghy
Abstract Aims:, To determine the effect of UV radiation on the viability of two strains of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) inoculated into milk. Methods and Results:,Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in a ultra heat treated milk matrix was subjected to increasing doses of UV-C radiation from 0 to 1836 mJ ml,1 using a pilot-scale UV reactor (20 l capacity). Survival of Map was monitored by culture on Herrold's egg yolk medium, Middlebrook 7H10 medium and the FASTPlaqueTBÔ phage assay. Differences in sensitivity to UV treatment were observed between strains, however, at 1000 mJ ml,1 a Map kill rate of 0·1,0·6 log10 was achieved regardless of strain used or method employed to enumerate Map. Although the inactivation trend was similar on the culture and phage assay, the former gave a consistently higher viable count. Conclusions:, The use of UV radiation alone does not represent an alternative to current pasteurization regimes for a large reduction in viable Map in milk. Significance and Impact of the Study:, To the authors' knowledge the work here represents the first pilot-scale UV treatment process used to assess UV efficacy to inactivate Map in milk. The results are similar to those obtained with a laboratory-scale process indicating the difficulties associated with UV treatment of an opaque liquid and the recalcitrance of Map towards inimical treatments. [source]

Investigation on different levels of in vitro,in vivo correlation: gemfibrozil immediate release capsule

Mohammad-Reza Rouini
Abstract Gemfibrozil is a practically water-insoluble, high-dose drug. It represents a typical drug with dissolution rate controlled bioavailability. The aim of this study was to select a dissolution condition for gemfibrozil immediate release capsules, resulting in the best in vitro/in vivo correlation (IVIVC). Five 300,mg gemfibrozil products, including the innovator and four generic products were selected. In vitro dissolution test methods with a standard paddle, round-bottomed vessel of 1,l capacity, and potassium phosphate buffer as the dissolution medium (referred to as conditions I, II and III, respectively) were developed. The products were administered to 12 healthy volunteers and thereby different pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Correlations between the in vitro and in vivo calculated parameters were investigated. Of the single point parameters investigated, the best results were seen in the relation between the percent dissolved in 10, 20 and 45,min and the time to 90% dissolution from the in vitro side and the AUCs and Cmax from the in vivo side. The correlation between MRT and MDT was also investigated, and no significant correlation was found in the three above-mentioned conditions. The Wagner-Nelson method was used to calculate the percent remaining to be absorbed. Superimposition of the percent in vivo absorption and the in vitro dissolution curves was used to investigate a multiple point correlation. A remarkable superimposition between in vivo and in vitro curves in conditions I and II was observed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]