Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of L

  • Dicentrarchu labrax l
  • acid l
  • acids l
  • amino acid l
  • amino acids l
  • annua l
  • api mellifera l
  • aromatic l
  • c l
  • carpio l
  • cathepsin l
  • cell l
  • cie l
  • containing l
  • cyprinus carpio l
  • de l
  • dietary l
  • et de l
  • et l
  • g c l
  • g l
  • gadus morhua l
  • group l
  • groups l
  • high l
  • hunter l
  • inhibitor l
  • l l
  • labrax l
  • length l
  • ligand l
  • lower l
  • may l
  • mellifera l
  • mg c l
  • mg l
  • mg n l
  • mg o2 l
  • mm l
  • mmol l
  • mol l
  • morhua l
  • n l
  • ng l
  • nl l
  • nmol l
  • o2 l
  • p l
  • pmol l
  • protein l
  • pure l
  • que l
  • salar l
  • salmo salar l
  • sativa l
  • sur l
  • triticum aestivum l
  • u l
  • width l
  • zea may l
  • zeolite l

  • Terms modified by L

  • l ammonium acetate
  • l bioreactor
  • l borate buffer
  • l capacity
  • l cell
  • l concentration
  • l crystal
  • l day
  • l diet
  • l genotype
  • l group
  • l h
  • l increase
  • l inhibitor
  • l kcl
  • l kg
  • l l
  • l ligand
  • l line
  • l m
  • l min
  • l mol
  • l phase
  • l protein
  • l range
  • l ratio
  • l scale
  • l solution
  • l system
  • l tank
  • l v
  • l value
  • l volume

  • Selected Abstracts

    Enantioselective determination of thyroxine enantiomers by ligand-exchange CE with UV absorbance and ICP-MS detection

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 10 2009
    Jianzhen Kang
    Abstract A simple CE method has been developed for the separation and determination of thyroxine (T4) enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was based on ligand-exchange mechanism using a Cu(II)/L -proline complex as chiral selector. The effects of different parameters affecting separation such as chiral selector concentration, organic additive, buffer pH and temperature were investigated. A baseline separation of the two enantiomers was obtained at a Cu(II)/L -proline ratio of 1:8 in a borate buffer (15,mmol/L, pH 9.6) containing 10%,v/v acetonitrile. Under the optimized conditions, precision linearity range and detection limits of the developed enantioselective CE method were evaluated and compared using two different detection systems: conventional UV detection at 226,nm and iodine (127I)specific detection ("chiral speciation") with ICP-MS. Both methodologies show adequate analytical performance characteristics with detection limits around 0.30,,g/mL for each enantiomer of T4. Finally, a levothroid pharmaceutical formulation sample was successfully analyzed using both developed methods CE-UV and CE-ICP-MS. [source]

    Acclimation Strategy of a Biohydrogen Producing Population in a Continuous-Flow Reactor with Carbohydrate Fermentation

    Q. Ren
    Abstract Poor startup of biological hydrogen production systems can cause an ineffective hydrogen production rate and poor biomass growth at a high hydraulic retention time (HRT), or cause a prolonged period of acclimation. In this paper a new startup strategy was developed in order to improve the enrichment of the hydrogen-producing population and the efficiency of hydrogen production. A continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and molasses were used to evaluate the hydrogen productivity of the sewage sludge microflora at a temperature of 35,°C. The experimental results indicated that the feed to microorganism ratio (F/M ratio) was a key parameter for the enrichment of hydrogen producing sludge in a continuous-flow reactor. When the initial biomass was inoculated with 6.24,g of volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L, an HRT of 6,h, an initial organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.0,kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3,×,d) and an feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) ratio of about 2,3,g COD/(g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) per day) were maintained during startup. Under these conditions, a hydrogen producing population at an equilibrium state could be established within 30,days. The main liquid fermentation products were acetate and ethanol. Biogas was composed of H2 and CO2. The hydrogen content in the biogas amounted to 47.5,%. The average hydrogen yield was 2.01,mol/mol hexose consumed. It was also observed that a special hydrogen producing population was formed when this startup strategy was used. It is supposed that the population may have had some special metabolic pathways to produce hydrogen along with ethanol as the main fermentation products. [source]

    Chronic copper toxicity in the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa at different salinities

    Mariana M. Lauer
    Abstract Chronic Cu toxicity was evaluated in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa. Male and female copepods were exposed (6 d) separately to different combinations of Cu concentration and water salinity (5, 15, and 30 ppt) using different routes of exposure (waterborne, waterborne plus dietborne, and dietborne). After exposure, groups of one male and three female copepods were allowed to reproduce for 24,h. In control copepods, egg production augmented with increasing water salinity. However, egg hatching rate did not change. Copper exposure reduced egg production and hatching rate in all water salinities tested, but the reproductive response was dependent on the route of Cu exposure. Median effective concentration (EC50) values for egg production after waterborne exposure were 9.9, 36.8, and 48.8,µg/L dissolved Cu at water salinities of 5, 15, and 30 ppt, respectively. For waterborne plus dietborne exposure, they were significantly higher (40.1, 63.7, and 109.9,µg /L, respectively). After dietborne exposure, approximately 40% decrease in egg production was observed, independently of Cu concentration and water salinity tested. At water salinities of 5 and 30 ppt, egg hatching rate reduced after waterborne exposure, together or not with the dietborne exposure. At water salinity of 15 ppt, Cu toxicity was only observed after dietborne exposure. Data indicate that egg production is a more reliable reproductive endpoint to measure chronic Cu toxicity in copepods than egg hatching rate in a wide range of water salinities. They also suggest that both water salinity and route of Cu exposure should be taken into account in the development of a chronic biotic ligand model version for estuarine and marine environments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2297,2303. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Toxicity of brominated volatile organics to freshwater biota

    Monique T. Binet
    Abstract As part of a larger study investigating the fate and effects of brominated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated groundwaters discharging to surface waters, the toxicity of 1,2 dibromoethene (DBE) and 1,1,2-tribromoethene (TriBE) to freshwater aquatic biota was investigated. Their toxicity to bacteria (Microtox®), microalgae (Chlorella sp.), cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), duckweed (Lemna sp.) and midges (Chironomus tepperi) was determined after careful optimization of the test conditions to minimize chemical losses throughout the tests. In addition, concentrations of DBE and TriBE were carefully monitored throughout the bioassays to ensure accurate calculation of toxicity values. 1,2-Dibromoethene showed low toxicity to most species, with concentrations to cause 50% lethality or effect (LC/EC50 values) ranging from 28 to 420,mg/L, 10% lethality or effect (LC/EC10 values) ranging from 18 to 94,mg/L and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from 22 to 82,mg/L. 1,1,2-Tribromoethene was more toxic than DBE, with LC/EC50 values of 2.4 to 18,mg/L, LC/EC10 values of 0.94 to 11,mg/L and NOECs of 0.29 to 13,mg/L. Using these limited data, together with data from the only other published study on TriBE, moderate-reliability water quality guidelines (WQGs) were estimated from species sensitivity distributions. The proposed guideline trigger values for 95% species protection with 50% confidence were 2,mg/L for DBE and 0.03,mg/L for TriBE. The maximum concentrations of DBE and TriBE in nearby surface waters (3 and 1,µg /L, respectively) were well below these WQGs, so the risk to the freshwater environment receiving contaminated groundwater inflows was considered to be low, with hazard quotients <1 for both VOCs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1984,1993. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Impact of a benzoyl urea insecticide on aquatic macroinvertebrates in ditch mesocosms with and without non-sprayed sections,

    Theo C.M. Brock
    Abstract The long-term response, including recovery, of aquatic macroinvertebrates to short-term insecticide exposure may be affected by the presence of uncontaminated refuges in the stressed ecosystem. Experimental ditches were used to study the influence of non-sprayed ditch sections regarding the ecotoxicological effects on and the recovery of macroinvertebrates following treatment with the insecticide lufenuron. The treatment regimes differed in the proportion of the ditch (0, 33, 67, and 100% of surface area) that was sprayed to reach a lufenuron concentration of 3 ,/L in the water column of the sprayed ditch section. The magnitude and duration of effects on macroinvertebrates, and on arthropods in particular, were higher when a larger proportion of the ditch was treated. Initially, more pronounced responses were observed for bivoltine and multivoltine insects and macrocrustaceans than for univoltine and semivoltine arthropods. Most macroinvertebrate arthropods showed delayed responses, with maximum treatment-related effects observed two to six weeks after lufenuron application. This latency of effects can be explained by the mode of action of lufenuron, involving inhibition of chitin synthesis, which affects arthropod molting and metamorphosis. The observed effects were short-lived only in those ditches where 33% of the surface area was sprayed. In the ditches where 67 and 100% of the surface area was sprayed, some insects and macrocrustaceans showed long-term effects. In the 100% sprayed ditches in particular, the treatment-related reduction in arthropods resulted in indirect effects, such as an increase in snails, and later in an increase in the ephemeropteran Cloeon dipterum, probably because of an increase in periphyton, and release from competition and predation. Effects that are most likely indirect also were observed for Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, and the flatworm Mesostoma sp. [source]

    Stress response of yeast candida intermedia to Cr(VI)

    Polona Jamnik
    Abstract Stress response of yeast Candida intermedia ZIM 156 exposed to chromium(VI) was investigated. Yeast cells were treated with Cr(VI) in concentrations of 50, 100, 300 and 500 ,M in the mid-exponential growth phase. Monitoring of some bioprocess parameters during growth, specifically pO2, showed that Cr(VI) addition, specifically in concentration of 100 and partially 50 ,mol/L, increased metabolism intensity, which is connected to induced stress responses. Furthermore, oxidation of 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescin indicated increased intracellular oxidant level, specifically at 100 ,M Cr(VI) concentration. Antioxidant defense systems were further investigated. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activity was not increased in the cells exposed to the both Cr(VI) concentrations, which indicate that catalase and superoxide dismutase do not participate in cell defense systems. In contrast intracellular glutathione content in reduced form increased significantly in the cells exposed to 100 ,mol Cr(VI)/L. Therefore, we demonstrated that glutathione plays an important role in the stress response of C. intermedia to Cr(VI). © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:316,323, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10093 [source]

    Severe chronic neutropenia in Chinese children in Hong Kong

    TF Leung
    Objective: Severe chronic neutropenia (SCN) is a rare and heterogeneous disorder in children. The epidemiology, clinical features and outcomes of SCN in Chinese children were reviewed. Methodology: A retrospective analysis of case records was undertaken for 18 children with SCN managed during a 12-year period in a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Results: The median (range) age of the patients at initial presentation was 6.5 months (4 days,19 months). The initial and lowest median absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) were 0.29 × 109 /L and 0.06 × 109 /L, respectively. Patients with congenital SCN had significantly fewer neutrophils in peripheral blood at diagnosis. Only five subjects received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment. All children were free from serious infection on follow up for 51 months. Only one child suffered from long-term infection-related morbidity. One patient with chronic neutropenia was subsequently shown to have common variable immunodeficiency. Conclusions: Most children with SCN in our series had favourable clinical outcomes. Our results support the recommendation that G-CSF should be used only in those with recurrent or severe infections. [source]

    A spectroscopic survey of EC4, an extended cluster in Andromeda's halo,

    M. L. M. Collins
    ABSTRACT We present a spectroscopic survey of candidate red giant branch stars in the extended star cluster, EC4, discovered in the halo of M31 from our Canada,France,Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam survey, overlapping the tidal streams, Streams ,Cp' and ,Cr'. These observations used the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope to obtain spectra around the Caii triplet region with ,1.3 Å resolution. Six stars lying on the red giant branch within two core radii of the centre of EC4 are found to have an average vr=,287.9+1.9,2.4 km s,1 and ,v,corr = 2.7+4.2,2.7 km s,1, taking instrumental errors into account. The resulting mass-to-light ratio for EC4 is M/L = 6.7+15,6.7 M,/L,, a value that is consistent with a globular cluster within the 1, errors we derive. From the summed spectra of our member stars, we find EC4 to be metal-poor, with [Fe/H]=,1.6 ± 0.15. We discuss several formation and evolution scenarios which could account for our kinematic and metallicity constraints on EC4, and conclude that EC4 is most comparable with an extended globular cluster. We also compare the kinematics and metallicity of EC4 with Streams ,Cp' and ,Cr', and find that EC4 bears a striking resemblance to Stream ,Cp' in terms of velocity, and that the two structures are identical in terms of both their spectroscopic and photometric metallicities. From this, we conclude that EC4 is likely related to Stream ,Cp'. [source]

    The H, luminosity function and star formation rate up to z , 1

    L. Tresse
    Abstract We describe ISAAC/ESO-VLT observations of the H,,6563 Balmer line of 33 field galaxies from the Canada,France Redshift Survey (CFRS) with redshifts selected between 0.5 and 1.1. We detect H, in emission in 30 galaxies and compare the properties of this sample with the low-redshift sample of CFRS galaxies at z, 0.2. We find that the H, luminosity, L(H,), is tightly correlated to M(BAB) in the same way for both the low- and high-redshift samples. L(H,) is also correlated to L([O ii],3727), and again the relation appears to be similar at low and high redshifts. The ratio L(lsqb;O ii])/L(H,) decreases for brighter galaxies by as much as a factor of 2 on average. Derived from the H, luminosity function, the comoving H, luminosity density increases by a factor 12 from ,z,= 0.2 to ,z,= 1.3. Our results confirm a strong rise of the star formation rate (SFR) at z < 1.3, proportional to (1 +z)4.1±0.3 (with H0= 50 km s,1 Mpc,1, q0= 0.5). We find an average SFR(2800 Å)/SFR (H,) ratio of 3.2 using the Kennicutt SFR transformations. This corresponds to the dust correction that is required to make the near-ultraviolet data consistent with the reddening-corrected H, data within the self-contained, I -selected CFRS sample. [source]

    Velocity dispersions of dwarf spheroidal galaxies: dark matter versus MOND

    Ewa L.
    We present predictions for the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and compare them to observations in the case of the Fornax dwarf. The predictions are made in the framework of standard dynamical theory of spherical systems with different velocity distributions. The stars are assumed to be distributed according to Sérsic laws with parameters fitted to observations. We compare predictions obtained assuming the presence of dark matter haloes (with density profiles adopted from N -body simulations) with those resulting from Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). If the anisotropy of velocity distribution is treated as a free parameter, observational data for Fornax are reproduced equally well by models with dark matter and with MOND. If stellar mass-to-light ratio of 1 M,/L, is assumed, the required mass of the dark halo is , two orders of magnitude larger than the mass in stars. The derived MOND acceleration scale is . In both cases a certain amount of tangential anisotropy in the velocity distribution is needed to reproduce the shape of the velocity dispersion profile in Fornax. [source]

    Enantioselective Synthesis of 2,3-Dihydro-1H -benzo[b]azepines: Iridium-Catalyzed Tandem Allylic Vinylation/Amination Reaction,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 8 2010
    Hu He
    So bekommt man Azacyclen: Der [{Ir(cod)Cl}2]/L -Komplex ist ein effizienter Katalysator für die Tandemreaktion aus allylischer Vinylierung und asymmetrischer allylischer Aminierung von (E)- 2 mit ortho -Aminostyrolderivaten 1, bei der die Titelverbindungen 3 mit ausgezeichneter Enantioselektivität entstehen. cod=1,5-Cyclooctadien, DABCO=1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan. [source]

    The effect of Eucommia ulmoides leaf supplementation on the growth performance, blood and meat quality parameters in growing and finishing pigs

    Sung Dae LEE
    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eucommia ulmoides leaf (EUL) supplementation on the growth performance, blood and meat quality parameters in growing and finishing pigs. Ninety gilts (L × LW × D, 20 kg initialBW) were housed 10 per pen in a front-open building with three replicate pens per treatment. Experimental treatment was started from the beginning of the growing stage (20 ± 3 kg) by supplementing EUL at 0(C), 3(T1) and 5% (T2) to the growing and finishing diet. Pigs were slaughtered by electrical stunning at 105 ± 3 kg live weight. Average daily feed intake (ADFI, kg/day) decreased (P < 0.05) by addition of EUL in growth performance, average daily gain (ADG, kg/day) was lower (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. In hematology, leukocytes (WBC, 103/mm3) decreased (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. Erythrocytes (RBC, 106/mm3), hemoglobin (HGB, g/dL) and hematocrit (HCT, %) increased (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. Platelet (PLT, 103/mm3) was lower (P < 0.05) in T2 than in C and T1. In biochemical composition of serum, total protein (g/dL), r-GTP (,/L), total cholesterol (mg/dL) and triglycerides (mg/dL) were lower (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. On longissimus dorsi muscle, crude protein was higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in C. Crude ash was higher (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. Yellow to blue color scale (CIE b*) in meat color was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 than in C. CIE b* in back fat color was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 than in the other treatments. In sensory evaluation scores for fresh meat, the values of meat color, fat color, drip loss and marbling were not significantly affected by addition of EUL. In cooked meat, the values of chewiness and overall acceptability were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 and T2 than in C. The results indicate that the addition of EUL affected growth performance, blood parameters and meat quality parameters in growing and finishing pigs. [source]

    Smooth, undisturbed dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Perseus cluster core: Implications for dark matter content

    Sj. Penny
    Abstract Using deep HST/ACS observations of the core of the Perseus Cluster, we identify a large population of dwarf elliptical galaxies down to MV = ,12. All these dwarfs are remarkably smooth in appearance, showing no evidence for internal features that could be the result of tidal processes or star formation induced by the cluster potential. Based on these observations and the relatively large sizes of these dwarfs, we argue that at least some must have a large dark matter component to prevent their disruption by the cluster potential. We further derive a new method to quantify the dark matter content of cluster dSphs without the use of kinematics, which are impossible to obtain at these distances. We find that mass-to-light ratios for dwarfs in the core of the Perseus Cluster are comparable to those found for Local Group dSphs, ranging between M,/L, , 1 and 120. This is evidence that dwarf spheroidals reside in dark matter subhalos that protect them from tidal processes in the cores of dense clusters (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Susceptibility of immature stages of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neurop., Chrysopidae) to pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog

    T.-Y. Chen
    Effects of pyriproxyfen (Knack), a juvenile analog, at three concentrations (10, 50 and100 mg [AI]/l), on survival and development of all immature stages of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister), were determined in the laboratory. Pyriproxyfen significantly reduced the survival rates when eggs, first and third instars were treated, but not when the second instars and pupae were treated. When eggs were treated, the two higher concentrations reduced the eggs viability by 33.3,50%, and only 0.0,6.7% developed to adults. The lowest concentration of pyriproxyfen (10 mg [AI]/l) caused high mortality on third instars, not on other stages, indicating the third instar was the most vulnerable stage. Pyriproxyfen had significant effects on development for all immature C. rufilabris that successfully developed to adults with variations among the developmental stages and concentrations. The overall developmental duration from eggs to adults when eggs, first, and third instars were treated were 2.6,4.2, 2.4,4.1 respectively, and 6.0,7.1 d longer than those in water control, respectively. However, the overall developmental durations from eggs to adults were 0.5,1.2 d shorter than in water control when the second instars were treated with pyriproxyfen. The compatibility of pyriproxyfen with natural enemies in integrated pest management programs is discussed. [source]

    High-performance liquid chromatographic resolution of 1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-formyl)- piperazine enantiomers after chiral derivatization

    Zhiqiong Chen
    Abstract Chiral separation of racemic mixtures is of the greatest importance to the pharmaceutical industry, as the isomers of a given racemate may exhibit substantially different pharmacological effects, not to mention possibly differing toxicity behaviour. A novel chiral separation method is developed for the determination of 1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-formyl)piperazine (BFP) enantiomers. The indirect resolution is performed by applying precolumn derivatization with the chiral reagent 2,3,4,6-tetra- O -acetyl-,-D-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate (GITC). The resulting diastereoisomers are separated on a reversed-phase ODS column with methanol-potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.02mol/L, 50:50) as mobile phase. UV detection is at 250 nm. The effect of mobile phase composition upon resolution and analysis time is investigated. Two diastereoisomers show nearly base-line separation under optimal chromatographic conditions. The presented study provides a simple and accurate method for the enantiomeric quality control and the optical purity assay of BFP. [source]

    Disseminated cutaneous Fusarium moniliforme infections in a leukemic child

    Ching-Chi Chi MD
    A 5-year-old boy had a 10-month remission of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) after chemotherapy. Re-induction chemotherapy was performed for relapse of ALL. Thereafter, he suffered from an episode of neutropenic fever with pneumonia. One week following control of the condition with antibiotics, a 1 × 1-cm, red, painful nodule appeared on the left thigh, which was initially suspected to be Pseudomonas infection. Parenteral ceftazidime and amikacin were administered, but persistent high fever, mild cough, and a few painful erythematous papulonodules on the face and lower extremities appeared several days later (Fig. 1). These lesions increased insidiously in diameter up to 2,5 cm with central necrosis. Hemogram showed neutropenia with a shift to the left [white blood cell (WBC) count, 2.1 × 109/L; neutrophil count, 0.21 × 109/L]. A skin biopsy showed heavy growth of hyaline branching septate hyphae in the deep dermis and subcutis, together with fat necrosis (Fig. 2). Invasion of molds into vessels and sweat glands was also seen. A culture from a lesion yielded Fusarium moniliforme, but no fungi were isolated from blood specimens. Only mild infiltrations on bilateral lower lung fields were detected by chest roentgenography. The skin lesions gradually healed and the fever subsided 2 weeks after the initiation of therapy with amphotericin B 30 mg and itraconazole 200 mg daily. Figure 1. A few painful erythematous papulonodules appeared on the face and lower extremities Figure 2. Skin biopsy showed heavy growth of hyaline branching septate hyphae in the deep dermis and subcutis along with fat necrosis (hematoxylin and eosin, ×400) Meanwhile, relapse of leukemia was detected by hemogram showing atypical leukocytosis (WBC count of 24,400 × 109/L, with blast cells representing 78%). A course of chemotherapy with cytarabine, mitoxantrone, and VP-16 was prescribed, subsequently resulting in neutropenia (WBC count, < 0.1 × 109/L; neutrophil count, 0/L) and spiking fever. Although the aforementioned antifungal therapy was continued, the centers of the originally healed lesions turned dusky red, swollen, necrotic, and ulcerative. There were more than 10 such ecthymiform lesions. After administration for 22 days, itraconazole was discontinued because of no appreciable effects. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) salvage was used, and the neutropenia gradually subsided 20 days later. In addition, the ecthymiform lesions gradually resolved. Amphotericin B was discontinued 1 week following neutrophil recovery. The patient died of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia sepsis 8 months later. [source]

    Cardiovascular risk evaluation and antiretroviral therapy effects in an HIV cohort: implications for clinical management: the CREATE 1 study

    M. Aboud
    Summary Aims:, The aim of this study is to determine the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile of a large UK HIV cohort and how highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) affects this. Methods:, It is a cross-sectional study within a large inner city hospital and neighbouring district hospital. A total of 1021 HIV positive outpatients representative of the complete cohort and 990 who had no previous CVD were included in CVD risk analysis. We recorded demographics, HAART history and CVD risk factors. CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD) risks were calculated using the Framingham (1991) algorithm adjusted for family history. Results:, The non-CVD cohort (n = 990) was 74% men, 51% Caucasian and 73.1% were on HAART. Mean age was 41 ± 9 years, systolic blood pressure 120 ± 14 mmHg, total cholesterol 4.70 ± 1.05mmol/l, high-density lipoprotein-C 1.32 ± 0.48 mmol/l and 37% smoked. Median CVD risk was 4 (0,56) % in men and 1.4 (0,37) % in women; CHD risks were 3.5 (0,36) % and 0.6 (0,16) %. CVD risk was > 20% in 6% of men and 1% of women and > 10% in 12% of men and 4% of women. CVD risk was higher in Caucasians than other ethnicities; the risk factor contributing most was raised cholesterol. For patients on their first HAART, increased CHD risk (26.2% vs. 6.5%; odds ratio 4.03, p < 0.001) was strongly related to the duration of therapy. Conclusions:, Modifiable risk factors, especially cholesterol, and also duration of HAART, were key determinants of CVD risk. Discussion:, Regular CHD and/or CVD risk assessment should be performed on patients with HIV, especially during HAART therapy. The effect of different HAART regimens on CHD risk should be considered when selecting therapy. [source]

    Assessment of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in idiopathic myelofibrosis

    Francisco Cervantes
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to contribute to a better characterization of the immunological profile of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IM) at presentation by analysing the blood lymphocyte subsets and their possible correlations with other disease features. Absolute blood lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets were assessed in 31 IM patients, compared with those from 34 healthy individuals, and correlated with the patients' main clinical, hematological and bone marrow histologic features. The mean lymphocyte count of the IM patients was 1.1 (SD 0.6)×109/L, versus 1.6 (SD 0.49)×109/L in controls (p=0.0006), with 24 of the 31 patients (77.4%) showing lymphocytopenia (<1.5×109/L). IM patients had significantly lower counts of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD3,/CD56+ cells, and significantly higher CD3+/CD56+ lymphocyte counts. Although no significant differences were found between patients and controls with regard to CD19+/CD5+ cell counts, increased CD5+ B-cell lymphocytes were observed in three IM patients. In one of the latter patients, Ig gene rearrangement analysis of the heavy chain gene demonstrated such a subpopulation to be clonal, but the patient did not develop features of chronic lymphoid leukemia during a 5-yr follow-up. No correlation was found between the patients' blood lymphocyte counts and other disease features. We conclude that most IM patients have absolute lymphopenia, decreased T cells and increased cytotoxic T cells at diagnosis, and 10% of them show an increased CD5+ B-cell subpopulation. [source]

    Effects of Larval Stocking Density on Laboratory-Scale and Commercial-Scale Production of Summer Flounder Paraliehthys dentatus

    Nicholas J. King
    Experiments 1 and 2 at commercial scale tested the densities of 10 and 60 larvae/L, and 10, 20, and 30/L, respectively. The laboratory scale experiment tested the densities of 10, 20, 30, and 40 larvae/L. Experiments were carried out in two separate filtered, flow-through seawater systems at URI Narragansett Bay Campus (laboratory-scale), and at GreatBay Aquafarms, Inc. (commercial-scale). At both locations, the larvae were raised in a "greenwater" culture environment, and fed rotifers and brine shrimp nauplii according to feeding regimes established for each location. Water temperature was maintained at 21C (± 2) and 19C (± 1) for the duration of laboratory and commercial experiments, respectively. Experiments 1 and 2 at the commercial location were terminated at 42 and 37 d post hatch (dph), respectively, and the laboratory experiment lasted 34 DPH. Larvae initially stocked at 10/L grew to an average length of 14.3 and 14.4 mm, and were significantly larger (P < 0.05) than those stocked at 30/L (13.1 mm) and 60/L (11.7 mm) in commercial scale experiments I and 2, respectively. At laboratory scale, no significant differences in length were detected, although mean total length tended to decrease with increasing stocking density (average length of 14.2, 13.3, 12.7, and 12.7 mm for treatments of 10, 20, 30, and 40/L, respectively). Final survival percentage was not affected by stocking density in either commercial experiment, and was 61 and 40% for treatments of 10 and 60/L in Experiment 1, respectively, and 62, 59, and 56% for Experiment 2, respectively. Similarly, there was no significant difference in final survival percentage among treatments in the laboratory experiment, which averaged 59, 55, 56, and 37% for treatments of 10, 20, 30, and 40L. respectively. Since larval length was not different between the intermediate densities (20 and 30 Iarvae/L), and because high-density rearing can produce a much greater numerical yield per tank, we recommend a density of 30 larvaen as an optimal stocking density for the hatchery production of summer flounder. [source]

    Interferon-alpha therapy in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Bunyamin Dikici
    AbstractBackground: Acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) represents the most frequent hemorrhagic diathesis in childhood. Up to 30% of patients with ITP are regarded as refractory to standard therapy. The rare mortality from acute ITP in childhood is almost exclusively due to intracranial hemorrhage. This complication occurs in less than 1% of ITP patients. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ,-interferon (IFN-,) in eight patients whom did not respond to conventional therapy. Method: In spite of conventional therapies, the patient whose platelet count could not be increased to 50`109/L were accepted as refractory ITP. Eight of these patients whose platelet count lower than 20`109/L were included in the prospective cohort study. Interferon alpha 2b 5 MU/m2 was administered subcutaneously three times a week, totalling 12 times in a month. According to the platelet count on the 28th day of therapy, we grouped the patients into three categories. After 60 days, the survey was re-evaluated according to the platelet count. Results: The mean age of children was 3.5±2.5 (ranged between 3.5 and 9) years. Six of them were boys and two were girls. There was no response in one patient, partial response in one, and good response in six patients on the 28th day of therapy. The maximum rise in platelet count was observed from 7 to 14 days after the initiation of interferon. The median platelet count which was 15±5`109/L before therapy, raised to 60±12`109/L after therapy. However, on the 60th day of therapy, there were only two patients who had a platelet count over 100`109/L. Conclusion: In our study, we did not observe the long-term benefit of IFN-, therapy in refractor ITP in childhood. However, in good responding patients, platelet levels were increased in a short time. Alpha-interferon may be alternative therapy for patients whom had a platelet count below 20`109/L and not responding to standard therapy, or for patients whom immunosuppressive therapy is contraindicated. [source]

    ,, T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia with spontaneous remission

    Tsutomu Shichishima
    Abstract T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a clonal disorder with an indolent clinical course. In July 1995, a 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because his anemia had progressed. He had a white blood cell count of 3.9 × 109/L with 75% lymphocytes, which were intermediate to large and had almost round nuclei and azurophilic granules, and anemia with a red blood cell count (RBC) of 2.69 × 1012/L, hemoglobin (Hb) of 9.5 g/dL, and hematocrit (Hct) of 28.3%. Electron microscopic examination showed that most of the lymphocytes had a parallel tubular array and dense core granules in their cytoplasm. Flow cytometry and Southern blotting of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) genes using the peripheral blood species showed monoclonal proliferation of LGLs with a CD3+, TCR,,+, CD4,, CD8,, CD16+, CD56,, CD57,, HLA-DR+ phenotype, and a TCR , gene rearrangement, respectively, suggesting that the patient was diagnosed as having ,, T-cell LGL leukemia. He had no symptoms, organomegaly, or skin lesions. About 1.5 years after diagnosis, the anemia gradually improved with disappearance and appearance of a rearranged band in the TCR-, gene and TCR-, gene, respectively. About 7 years after diagnosis, the anemia improved completely with a RBC of 5.01 × 1012/L, Hb of 14.8 g/dL, and Hct of 44.3%, and he was in complete remission without TCR-, and -, gene rearrangements. He had received no therapy. This is the first report of spontaneous remission of ,, T-cell LGL leukemia. Am. J. Hematol. 75:168,172, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Regulatory T cells and their prognostic value for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Jan Boucek
    Abstract Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important regulators of anti-cancer immune responses, and an increase in Treg frequency was observed in the blood of cancer patients. Blood samples from 112 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma antigen (HNSCC) were obtained at the time of tumour diagnosis, and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3+; CD3,CD16+CD56+; CD4+; CD8+; CD19+; CD4+CD45RA+) with emphasis on Treg counts (CD3+CD4+CD25+), complete blood count and tumour markers (squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]; CEA; ,-1-antitrypsin [AAT]; Cyfra 21,1; C-reactive protein [CRP]) were analysed. The data were grouped according to TNM classification, and their significance for the course of the disease at an interval of 1 year after the end of the therapy was determined. The percentage of CD8+ cells increased and the CD/D8 ratio decreased with tumour grade. The ratio of B lymphocytes decreased in patients with locoregional metastases (11.25%versus 9.22%). Treg (15.2%) and CD4+ cells (45.3%) increased, while NK cells (11.8%) decreased in HNSCC patients compared to controls (9.0%, 38.1% and 15.8%, respectively). The data obtained at time of diagnosis were used to assess the significance of tumour markers (SCC, Cyfra 21,1 and AAT) for evaluation of prognosis. The erythrocyte counts (4.64 × 1012/l versus 4.45 × 1012/l) and haemoglobin levels (14.58 g/dl versus 14.05 g/dl) decreased, while Treg counts (8.91%versus 15.70%) increased in patients with early recurrence. Our results show that examination of these parameters could be helpful for prognostication in HNSCC patients and aid improvement of treatment strategy. [source]

    Determination of peripheral blood stem cells by the Sysmex SE-9500

    Liming Peng
    The Sysmex SE-9500 automated haematology analyser provides an estimate of immature cells, referred to as ,haematopoietic progenitor cells' (HPC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and usefulness of the SE-9500 HPC parameter as compared with the CD34 + cell count and to determine whether the HPC count was of value in predicting the optimal harvesting time for peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). Studies were performed on 112 samples from 21 patients with haematological malignancies and 13 healthy donors undergoing progenitor cell mobilisation. Coefficients of variation for the HPC count were 30%, 23.8%, 12.4% and 8.3% respectively for samples with low (4 × 106/l), medium (13 × 106/l), high (250 × 106/l) and very high (2413 × 106/l) counts. There was good linearity for HPC measurement in both peripheral blood (PB) and purified CD34 + cell suspensions (r > 0.995), and no detectable carryover was observed. There was an acceptable correlation between HPC and CD34 + cell counts for PB samples (r=0.669) and for CD34 + cell suspensions (r=0.859). Analysis of purified CD34 + cells using the SE-9500 HPC mode revealed that they appear both in the blast cell area and the immature granulocyte area of the analyser cell display. Quantitation of CD34 + cells and HPC during PBSC mobilisation showed good agreement between these parameters with regard to the optimal time for PBSC harvesting. These findings suggest that HPC counting with the Sysmex SE-9500 may be clinically useful for optimising the timing of PBSC collection. [source]

    Changes in immunological and virological parameters in HIV-1 infected subjects following leukapheresis

    M.R. Boulassel
    Abstract In order to assess immune responses during HIV-1 therapeutic immunization, a large number of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are needed. Clinical tolerance and safety, as well as changes in immunological and virological parameters, were assessed, following leukapheresis in HIV-1 infected subjects with CD4+ cell count >200 × 106/l. PBMC were collected using a Fenwal CS3000 cell separator in 29 subjects with mean CD4+ cell counts of 503 × 106/l (range 172,1,119) and viral load of 2.5 log10 copies/ml (range <1.7,5.4). Twenty-four (83%) subjects were on antiretroviral therapy while 5 (17%) were untreated. The blood volume processed was 7 L over a period of 3 hours. A mean value (± standard error) of 82 ± 26 × 109/l lymphocytes was collected by a single apheresis in a mean volume of 200 ± 1.8 ml, containing 9.0 ± 1.3 × 109/l CD4+ and 10.2 ± 1.3 × 109/l CD8+ cells. The leukapheresis procedures were well tolerated and no immediate or delayed side effects were observed within 90 days of follow-up. No changes from blood pre-leukapheresis values were detected for white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes, CD8+, CD34+, naive and memory CD4+ cell counts immediately after, 1 h, 7 days, or within 90 days after leukapheresis. However, absolute CD4+ cell counts and percentage significantly increased from pre-leukapheresis values after 1 h (530 ± 43 vs. 700 ± 75 cell × 106/l; 32.6 ± 1.6 vs. 36.9 ± 1.9%; P < 0.001 for both paired t -tests) before returning to pre-leukapheresis levels on day 7. No significant changes in viral load from pre-leukapheresis levels in treated or untreated subjects were detected at any time points. We conclude that leukapheresis in HIV-1 infected subjects with CD4+ cell counts >200 × 106/l is safe and induces a transient increase in the absolute and percentage of CD4+ cell count without enhancing viral replication. J. Clin. Apheresis 18:55,60, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    T cell receptor usage in patients with non-progressing HIV infection

    SUMMARY It is still unclear why some patients with HIV progress more slowly than others to developing full blown AIDS. In this study using flow cytometry we have investigated the TCRBV repertoire of peripheral blood T lymphocytes in 17 long-term non-progressing HIV patients (LTNP) to determine if there is a biased usage of T cell receptor V gene products. Patients were identified from hospital records and entered into the study. Three colour flow cytometry was used to determine the expression of the TCRBV3S5, BV5S1, BV5S2, BV5S3, BV6S1, BV7S1, BV9, BV11, BV12, BV13, BV14, BV16, BV17, BV18, BV20, BV21S3, BV22, and BV23 by CD8 and CD4 positive cells isolated from the peripheral blood of patients and controls. Increases in the absolute numbers of CD8+ T cells expressing TCRBV2 and 8 were observed in the HIV-LTNP population (P < 0·05 in both cases). No differences were seen in numbers of CD8+ T cells expressing other TCRBV or in any TCRBV within the CD4+ T cell popu-lation. At follow up (1,2 years later), those patients in which CD4 levels were below 500 × 106/l were those initially found to have lower levels of TCRBV8 +ve CD8 cells. A significant increase in the absolute numbers of T cells coexpressing the gamma delta (,,) T cell receptor and CD8 were also seen in the HIV-LTNP patients compared with controls (P = 0·002). The increase in CD8+ T cells in the HIV-LTNP patients may be interpreted as either an antigen specific, or group of antigen specific responses to viral antigen, or less likely a viral superantigen. A low level of TCRBV8, CD8+ T cells might be predictive of a more rapid disease progression and might indicate a protective role for this population in HIV infected patients. The increase in ,,T cells bearing the CD8 coreceptor suggests a role for this cell type in the response to HIV infection. [source]

    Allopurinol safely and effectively optimizes tioguanine metabolites in inflammatory bowel disease patients not responding to azathioprine and mercaptopurine

    Summary Background :,Many non-responders to azathioprine or mercaptopurine (6-mercaptopurine) have high normal thiopurine methyltransferase activity and preferentially metabolize mercaptopurine to produce 6-methylmercaptopurine instead of the active 6-tioguanine (6-tioguanine) metabolites. Aim :,To describe the use of allopurinol in mercaptopurine/azathioprine non-responders to deliberately shunt metabolism of mercaptopurine towards 6-tioguanine. Methods :,Fifteen thiopurine non-responders whose metabolites demonstrated preferential metabolism towards 6-methylmercaptopurine are described. Subjects were commenced on allopurinol 100 mg po daily and mercaptopurine/azathioprine was reduced to 25,50% of the original dose. Patients were followed clinically and with serial 6-tioguanine and 6-methylmercaptopurine metabolite measurements. Results :,After initiating allopurinol, 6-tioguanine levels increased from a mean of 185.73 ± 17.7 to 385.4 ± 41.5 pmol/8 × 108 red blood cells (P < 0.001), while 6-methylmercaptopurine decreased from a mean of 10 380 ± 1245 to 1732 ± 502 pmol/8 × 108 RBCs (P < 0.001). Allopurinol led to a decrease in white blood cell from a mean of 8.28 ± 0.95 to 6.1 ± 0.82 × 108/L (P = 0.01). Conclusions :,The addition of allopurinol to thiopurine non-responders with preferential shunting to 6-methylmercaptopurine metabolites appears to be an effective means to shift metabolism towards 6-tioguanine. [source]

    Risk factors for severe infection in patients with hairy cell leukemia: a long-term study of 73 patients

    Ghandi Damaj
    Abstract Although the survival of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) has been improved by the therapeutic introduction of interferon , and purine analogs, it is still worsened by complications such as severe infections. In this long-term study, we identified factors influencing patient outcomes in 73 patients with HCL. Median age at diagnosis was 53 yr and the gender ratio (M/F) was 2.3. At the time of HCL diagnosis, 60 patients (82%) were symptomatic and 22 of these had an infection. After a median follow-up of 13 yr, eight patients had died of secondary cancer (n = 2), HCL progression (n = 1) and age-related complications (n = 5). The 10-yr overall survival (OS), progression-free survival and relapse rates were 91 ± 3%, 14 ± 5% and 87 ± 5%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, age >53 yr was the only factor adversely influencing OS and secondary cancer incidence, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 9.30 (95%CI, 1.15,76.6; P = 0.037) and 2.80 (95%CI, 1.05,7.71; P = 0.04), respectively. Eleven patients developed severe infections. Absolute lymphocyte count (<1 × 109/L) at diagnosis was the only factor influencing the occurrence of severe infections, with an adjusted HR of 4.01 (P = 0.007). Strikingly, we did not observe any significant correlation between neutrophil or monocyte counts and the incidence of infection. We confirmed long-term survival in HCL but found a high incidence of infection , even late in the course of the disease. The absolute lymphocyte count at diagnosis is a risk factor for the occurrence of severe infections. In addition to careful monitoring of infections, prompt initiation of anti-HCL treatment should be considered in patients with low lymphocyte counts. [source]

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: epidemiology and implications for patients

    Marc Michel
    Abstract The age-adjusted prevalence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is estimated to be 9.5 per 100 000 persons in the USA while its annual incidence is estimated to be 2.68 per 100 000 in Northern Europe (at a cut-off platelet count of <100 × 109/L). The mean age of adults at diagnosis in Europe is 50 yrs and the incidence of ITP increases with age. Both the treatments used to treat patients with ITP and the disease itself can impact on patient health-related quality of life (HRQoL). As the incidence of ITP in Europe rises, especially in the elderly, the number of patients with a decreased HRQoL is increasing. Literature searches and focus groups have aided the development of a conceptual model to assess HRQoL. In this model, low platelet counts and the associated symptoms of ITP in addition to the side effects of treatment are proposed as the main determinants of a negatively impacted HRQoL. Primary conceptual domains of HRQoL, affected in patients with ITP, include emotional health, functional health, work, social and leisure activities and reproductive health. As treatment benefits are likely to improve these domains, the conceptual model could be used for better management of patients, taking into account HRQoL. The short-form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36) and the ITP Patient Assessment Questionnaire (ITP-PAQ) are validated measures of HRQoL which can provide a comprehensive assessment of numerous factors to help evaluate decisions about patient management. Future clinical trials investigating treatment options for ITP should assess HRQoL using these validated questionnaires. [source]

    Aberrant increase in the immature platelet fraction in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: a marker of karyotypic abnormalities associated with poor prognosis

    Naomi Sugimori
    Abstract Objectives:, Some patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) show a marked increase in the percentage of immature platelet fraction (IPF%) despite the absence of severe thrombocytopenia. To determine the significance of such an unbalanced increase in the IPF%, we investigated the IPF% and other laboratory findings of 51 patients recently diagnosed with MDS. Method:, Subjects consisted of 80 healthy males, 90 healthy females, and 51 patients with MDS and 20 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The IPF and IPF% were determined using a Sysmex XE-2100 system loaded with IPF Master software (XE IPF Master, Sysmex). Platelet counts were measured simultaneously. Results:, IPF% and platelet counts of these patients ranged from 1.1% to 25.1% (median, 5.3%) and from 6 to 260 × 109/L (median, 71 × 109/L), respectively. Twelve patients showed platelet counts more than 50 × 109/L with 10% or more IPF%. All of the 12 patients had chromosome abnormalities including monosomy 7 and complex abnormalities involving 7 or 5q. In the other 39 patients who did not show the aberrant IPF% increase, chromosomal abnormalities were seen only in seven patients and none of them had chromosome 7 abnormalities. The IPF% of two patients increased to more than 10% in association with the appearance of monosomy 7. Conclusions:, These findings suggest that a high IPF% in MDS patient may be a marker for karyotypic abnormalities with a poor prognosis, including chromosome 7 abnormalities. [source]

    Rapid infusion of rituximab with or without steroid-containing chemotherapy: 1-yr experience in a single institution

    Antonio Salar
    Abstract:, We assessed the feasibility of a rapid infusion of rituximab with or without steroid-containing chemotherapy. Inclusion criteria: previous infusion of rituximab without grade 3 or 4 toxicity, lymphoid cells <5 × 109/L and rituximab dose of 375 mg/m2. Seventy patients were treated with a total of 319 rapid rituximab infusions [126 (40%) with and 193 (60%) without steroids]. Overall, rapid infusion of rituximab was well tolerated , there were no grade 3 or 4 adverse events. Only, three patients developed symptoms, all grade 1. In conclusion, rituximab administration in a 90-min infusion schedule is well tolerated and safe, both in patients who are administered steroids and in patients who are not. [source]