Another Male (another + male)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Doublecortin as a marker of adult neuroplasticity in the canary song control nucleus HVC

Jacques Balthazart
Abstract It is established that in songbirds the size of several brain song control nuclei varies seasonally, based on changes in cell size, dendritic branching and, in nucleus HVC, the incorporation of newborn neurons. In the developing and adult mammalian brain, the protein doublecortin (DCX) is expressed in postmitotic neurons and, as a part of the microtubule machinery, required for neuronal migration. We recently showed that in adult canaries, DCX-immunoreactive (ir) cells are present throughout the telencephalon, but the link between DCX and the active neurogenesis observed in songbirds remained uncertain. We demonstrate here that DCX labels recently born cells in the canary telencephalon and that, in parallel with changes in HVC volume, the number of DCX-ir cells is increased specifically in the HVC of testosterone-treated males compared with castrates, and in castrated testosterone-treated males paired with a female as compared with males paired with another male. The numbers of elongated DCX-ir cells (presumptive migrating neurons) and round multipolar DCX-ir cells (differentiating neurons) were also affected by the sex of the subjects and their photoperiodic condition (photosensitive vs photostimulated vs photorefractory). Thus, in canaries the endocrine state, as well as the social or photoperiodic condition independently of variation in steroid hormone action, affects the number of cells expressing a protein involved in neuronal migration specifically in brain areas that incorporate new neurons in the telencephalon. The DCX gene may be one of the targets by which testosterone and social stimuli induce seasonal changes in the volume of song nuclei. [source]

Response of territorial males to the threat of sneaking in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus): a field study

Steven C. Le Comber
Abstract Alternative mating tactics are found in many species, and may have important implications for population genetics and speciation. The existence of such alternative mating tactics is well-documented in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, and sneaking and egg-stealing may occur in a significant proportion of matings under natural conditions. Sneaking can impose high costs on territorial males, both in terms of reduced reproductive output and caring for unrelated offspring. We ask whether territorial males adjust their behaviour in response to the risk of sneaking. In a field study of three-spined sticklebacks on the Isle of Arran, Scotland, territorial males were presented with glass bottles containing either a male, a female or neither, to address whether territorial males were more aggressive to other males in the presence of a female, and whether territorial males courted females less in the presence of another male. Behavioural observations showed that territorial males did not behave more aggressively towards rival males in the presence of a female, but did reduce their rate of courtship towards females in the presence of rival males. We conclude that territorial males adopt behavioural strategies that may reduce their risk of reproductive parasitism. [source]


Caroline E. Davies
Abstract In this study of the ontogeny of vocal behavior in captive bearded seals, Erignathus barbatus, (three males and three females), only males exhibited vocal displays. The onset of display behavior coincided with sexual maturity. Males exhibited three types of dive displays associated with the performance of vocalizations. Vocalizing individuals were frequently attended by another male that maintained passive muzzle contact with the vocalizing male. These interactions were non-aggressive and might play a role in the establishment of a social hierarchy or they might allow the attendee to obtain "near-field" vocal information from the displaying male. Captive males' vocalizations resembled those of males in the wild. However, display dives were shorter, and fewer vocalization types were documented among the captive males compared to bearded seals in the wild. The capacity of the captive males for producing well-formed, long calls with large frequency changes was also significantly less than for wild males. These capacities will likely develop further as the males grow older. Individual capacity for vocal production appears to develop gradually, showing plasticity in form development over time. [source]

Acoustic mimicry and disruptive alternative calling tactics in an Australian bushcricket (Caedicia; Phaneropterinae; Tettigoniidae; Orthoptera): does mating influence male calling tactic?

Abstract Male calling and searching tactics are described for a duetting Australian bushcricket, Caedicia sp. 12 (Phaneropterinae; Tettigoniidae; Orthoptera). The repertoire of Caedicia sp. 12 consists of the calling song and, by nonduetting males, a series of calling tactics that include short-click calling, disruptive over-singing and a call mimicking the entire duet. Nonduetting males respond to the production of a duet by another male and a female with short-click calls that mimic the female call at the conclusion of a duet. By manipulating the male's mating history, it is found that this form of calling behaviour is more likely to occur within the male's 6-day postmating refractory period; the low cost tactic allows males to re-mate during spermatophore replenishment. Males also produce disruptive calls in response to a duet, where the male may over-sing the duetting male's signal or produce a call that appears to mimic the entire duet; the male produces a calling song followed by a short signal that has the same latency as the female's reply within a duet. Males also over-sing crucial elements of the duetting-male's song that are normally critical for the female's conspecific recognition. There is no evidence that females search for the duetting male partner, but males unable to enter a duet will search for the call of a responding female. Searching by males is more common when these males are producing disruptive calls. Alternative male calling tactics are discussed as a set of conditional strategies for securing unmated females. [source]