Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

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  • Selected Abstracts

    Effectiveness of limited cone-beam computed tomography in the detection of horizontal root fracture

    vanç Kamburo
    Root fractures were created in the horizontal plane in 18 teeth by a mechanical force and fragments were relocated. Another 18 intact teeth with no horizontal root fracture served as a control group. Thirty-six teeth were placed in the respective empty maxillary anterior sockets of a human dry skull in groups three by three. Intraoral radiographs were obtained in three different vertical views by utilizing Eastman Kodak E-speed film, CCD sensor, RVG 5.0 Trophy and a PSP sensor Digora, Optime. Cone beam CT images were taken with a unit (3D Accuitomo; J Morita MFG. Corp, Kyoto, Japan). Three dental radiologists separately examined the intraoral film, PSP, CCD and cone beam CT images for the presence of horizontal root fracture. Specificity and sensitivity for each radiographic technique were calculated. Kappa statistics was used for assessing the agreement between observers. Chi-square statistics was used to determine whether there were differences between the systems. Results were considered significant at P < 0.05. Cone beam CT images revealed significantly higher sensitivities (P < 0.05) than the intraoral systems between which no significant differences were found. Specificities did not show any statistically significant differences between any of the four systems. The kappa values for inter-observer agreement between observers (four pairs) ranged between 0.82,0.90 for the 3DX evaluations and between 0.63,0.71 for the different types of intraoral images. Limited cone beam CT, outperformed the two-dimensional intraoral, conventional as well as digital, radiographic methods in detecting simulated horizontal root fracture. [source]

    Nonvisible Insufficient Subcutaneous Reticular Venous Plexus Can Be Observed through the Skin Using a New Illumination Method

    BACKGROUND Insufficient subcutaneous reticular venous plexus (ISRVP) is an overlooked disease because the human eye cannot see many of the insufficient veins. OBJECTIVE To present a total reticular vision (TRV) method that exposes nonvisible ISRVP to normal vision. METHOD & MATERIALS TRV used visual-spectrum white and red light of 700 nm and infrared light of 15 to 850 nm from an ultradigital viewer camera. We studied 124 asymptomatic subjects from the general population without visible ISRVP. Another six patients with ISRVP without other venous pathology were compared with six healthy controls, Very low pressure was applied to the proximal thigh, and minimal volume increments on the medial malleolus were photoplethysmographically registered to validate subcutaneous venous reflux. RESULTS Total reticular vision exposed ISRVP on the lower extremities in 72 of 124 subjects (58%), with observed damaged veins corresponding to more than 90% of nonvisible and 5% of visible portions of ISRVP. Subcutaneous reflux was registered only in patients with ISRVP. CONCLUSION Total reticular vision exposed more than 90% of nonvisible ISRVP, a new pathology, allowing for the study of its relationship with other superficial venous insufficiencies. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]

    Cerebral palsy and newborn care: I, II, and III (1981)

    Fiona Stanley MD
    Another in our series of commentaries on notable papers from the DMCN archives. The full papers are available at Kiely JL, Paneth N, Stein Z, Susser M. Cerebral palsy and newborn care. I: Secular trends in cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1981; 23: 533,38. Kiely JL, Paneth N, Stein Z, Susser M. Cerebral palsy and newborn care. II: Mortality and neurological impairment in low-birthweight infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 1981; 23: 650,59. Kiely JL, Paneth N, Stein Z, Susser M. Cerebral palsy and newborn care. III: Estimated prevalence rates of cerebral palsy under differing rates of mortality and impairment of low-birthweight infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 1981; 23: 801,07. [source]

    Visual function in infants with brain lesions (1994)

    Eugenio Mercuri
    Another in our series of commentaries on notable papers from the DMCN archives. The full paper is available at Pike MG, Holmstrom G, de Vries LS, Pennock JM, Drew KJ, Sonksen PM, Dubowitz LM. Patterns of visual impairment associated with lesions of the preterm infant brain. Dev Med Child Neurol 1994; 36: 849,62. [source]

    The effectiveness of footwear and offloading interventions to prevent and heal foot ulcers and reduce plantar pressure in diabetes: a systematic review

    S. A. Bus
    Abstract Background Footwear and offloading techniques are commonly used in clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of foot ulcers in diabetes, but the evidence base to support this use is not well known. The goal of this review was to systematically assess the literature and to determine the available evidence on the use of footwear and offloading interventions for ulcer prevention, ulcer treatment, and plantar pressure reduction in the diabetic foot. Methods A search was made for reports on the effectiveness of footwear and offloading interventions in preventing or healing foot ulcers or reducing plantar foot pressure in diabetic patients published prior to May 2006. Both controlled and uncontrolled studies were included. Assessment of the methodological quality of studies and data extraction was independently performed by two reviewers. Interventions were assigned into four subcategories: casting, footwear, surgical offloading and other offloading techniques. Results Of 1651 articles identified in the baseline search, 21 controlled studies were selected for grading following full text review. Another 108 uncontrolled and cross-sectional studies were examined. The evidence to support the use of footwear and surgical interventions for the prevention of ulceration is meagre. Evidence was found to support the use of total contact casts and other non-removable modalities for treatment of neuropathic plantar ulcers. More studies are needed to support the use of surgical offloading techniques for ulcer healing. Plantar pressure reduction can be achieved by several modalities including casts, walkers, and therapeutic footwear, but the diversity in methods and materials used limits the comparison of study results. Conclusions This systematic review provides support for the use of non-removable devices for healing plantar foot ulcers. Furthermore, more high-quality studies are urgently needed to confirm the promising effects found in both controlled and uncontrolled studies of footwear and offloading interventions designed to prevent ulcers, heal ulcers, or reduce plantar pressure. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Illusory Theory of Colours: An Anti-Realist Theory

    DIALECTICA, Issue 3 2006
    Barry Maund
    Despite the fact about colour, that it is one of the most obvious and conspicuous features of the world, there is a vast number of different theories about colour, theories which seem to be proliferating rather than decreasing. How is it possible that there can be so much disagreement about what colours are? Is it possible that these different theorists are not talking about the same thing? Could it be that more than one of them is right? Indeed some theorists, e.g. Leo M. Hurvich, D. L. McAdam and K. Nassau, say that the term ,colour' is used to identify a range of different properties, e.g. pigments, properties of light, and sensations. Such a view has its attractions, but it raises the question of what it is that unites these various concepts , what is it that would make them all concepts of colour? What is it that justifies using the same terms, ,yellow', ,blue', ,pink', mauve', and so on? This paper aims to address this question, arguing that its answer supports the conclusion that the best theory of colour is a form of anti-realism: the Illusory theory of colours. There are two parts to this thesis, one negative, the other positive. The negative part is that there are no colours, as they are ordinarily conceived. The positive part is that, nevertheless, the world is such that ,it is as if there are such colours'. Such a theory has important implications. One is that it doesn't fall neatly into the usual taxonomy of philosophical theories. In particular, it does not deserve the label ,eliminativist'. Another is that it allows some space for the views expressed by Hurvich, McAdam and Nassau, but not quite in the sense that they intend. [source]

    Where the Buck Stopped: Harry S Truman and the Cold War

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 5 2003
    James G. Hershberg
    Book reviewed: Arnold A. Offner. Another Such Victory: President Truman and the Cold War, 1945,1953. [source]

    Fine Structural Analysis of the Silk Apparatus in the Funnel-web Spider, Agelena limbata (Araneae: Agelenidae)

    Jong-Gu PARK
    ABSTRACT Silk apparatus of the funnel-web spider, Agelena limbata was located at the ventral end of the abdominal part, and was composed of internal silk glands and external spinnerets. Among the three pairs of spinnerets, the posterior pairs were highly elongated along the body axis. By the light and electron microscopic inspections, it was found that four types of silk glands were connected through the typical spinning tubes of each spinneret. Anterior spinnerets comprise 2 pairs of the ampullate and 125 to 150 pairs (female) or 110 to 114 (male) of pyriform glands. Another 2 pairs of ampullate glands in both sexes, 5 to 8 pairs of tubuliform glands in females, and 20 to 26 pairs (female) or 15 to 17 pairs (male) of aciniform glands were connected on the median spinnerets. Additional 8 to 10 pairs of tubuliforms in female and 41 to 53 pairs (female) or 27 to 32 pairs (male) of aciniform glands were on the posterior spinnerets, respectively. While the ampullate and tubuliform glands were connected with the spigot-type spinning tubes, the pyriform and aciniform glands with that of spool-type tubes. It has been also revealed that the tubuliform glands were only observed in female spiders, however the flagelliform and aggregate glands which had the function of adhesive thread production in orb-web spiders were not observed at both sexes of this spiders. [source]

    Lessons from leeches: a call for DNA barcoding in the lab

    Alexandra E. Bely
    SUMMARY Many evolution of development labs study organisms that must be periodically collected from the wild. Whenever this is the case, there is the risk that different field collections will recover genetically different strains or cryptic species. Ignoring this potential for genetic variation may introduce an uncontrolled source of experimental variability, leading to confusion or misinterpretation of the results. Leeches in the genus Helobdella have been a workhorse of annelid developmental biology for 30 years. Nearly all early Helobdella research was based on a single isolate, but in recent years isolates from multiple field collections and multiple sites across the country have been used. To assess the genetic distinctness of different isolates, we obtained specimens from most Helobdella laboratory cultures currently or recently in use and from some of their source field sites. From these samples, we sequenced part of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Sequence divergences and phylogenetic analyses reveal that, collectively, the Helobdella development community has worked on five distinct species from two major clades. Morphologically similar isolates that were thought to represent the same species (H. robusta) actually represent three species, two of which coexist at the same locality. Another isolate represents part of a species complex (the "H. triserialis" complex), and yet another is an invasive species (H. europaea). We caution researchers similarly working on multiple wild-collected isolates to preserve voucher specimens and to obtain from these a molecular "barcode," such as a COI gene sequence, to reveal genetic variation in animals used for research. [source]

    Acute signalling responses to intense endurance training commenced with low or normal muscle glycogen

    Wee Kian Yeo
    We have previously demonstrated that well-trained subjects who completed a 3 week training programme in which selected high-intensity interval training (HIT) sessions were commenced with low muscle glycogen content increased the maximal activities of several oxidative enzymes that promote endurance adaptations to a greater extent than subjects who began all training sessions with normal glycogen levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute skeletal muscle signalling responses to a single bout of HIT commenced with low or normal muscle glycogen stores in an attempt to elucidate potential mechanism(s) that might underlie our previous observations. Six endurance-trained cyclists/triathletes performed a 100 min ride at ,70% peak O2 uptake (AT) on day 1 and HIT (8 × 5 min work bouts at maximal self-selected effort with 1 min rest) 24 h later (HIGH). Another six subjects, matched for fitness and training history, performed AT on day 1 then 1,2 h later, HIT (LOW). Muscle biopsies were taken before and after HIT. Muscle glycogen concentration was higher in HIGH versus LOW before the HIT (390 ± 28 versus 256 ± 67 ,mol (g dry wt),1). After HIT, glycogen levels were reduced in both groups (P < 0.05) but HIGH was elevated compared with LOW (229 ± 29 versus 124 ± 41 ,mol (g dry wt),1; P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of 5,AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increased after HIT, but the magnitude of increase was greater in LOW (P < 0.05). Despite the augmented AMPK response in LOW after HIT, selected downstream AMPK substrates were similar between groups. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was unchanged for both groups before and after the HIT training sessions. We conclude that despite a greater activation AMPK phosphorylation when HIT was commenced with low compared with normal muscle glycogen availability, the localization and phosphorylation state of selected downstream targets of AMPK were similar in response to the two interventions. [source]

    Fatigue performance of metallic reverse-bent joints

    ABSTRACT Adhesively bonded lap shear joints have been investigated widely and several ideas have been proposed for improving joint strength by reducing bondline stress concentrations. These include application of adhesive fillets at the overlap ends and use of adhesive with graded properties in the overlap area. Another, less common, approach is to deform the substrates in the overlap area in order to obtain a more desirable bondline stress distribution. Previous work carried out by the authors on a number of different substrate materials indicated that a reverse-bent joint geometry is useful for increasing joint strength. Results from static stress analysis and experimental testing demonstrated that significant improvements could be achieved. This paper presents results of further work carried out to assess the fatigue performance of reverse-bent joints. Substrates with different yield and plastic deformation characteristics were used and the effects of different overlap lengths on strength were examined. The results of this research show that the improvements obtained under static tests conditions translate to even higher benefits in fatigue. The paper also explains the failure mechanism of the joints under fatigue loading. [source]

    Cultivation of methanotrophic bacteria in opposing gradients of methane and oxygen

    Ingeborg Bussmann
    Abstract In sediments, methane-oxidizing bacteria live in opposing gradients of methane and oxygen. In such a gradient system, the fluxes of methane and oxygen are controlled by diffusion and consumption rates, and the rate-limiting substrate is maintained at a minimum concentration at the layer of consumption. Opposing gradients of methane and oxygen were mimicked in a specific cultivation set-up in which growth of methanotrophic bacteria occurred as a sharp band at either c. 5 or 20 mm below the air-exposed end. Two new strains of methanotrophic bacteria were isolated with this system. One isolate, strain LC 1, belonged to the Methylomonas genus (type I methantroph) and contained soluble methane mono-oxygenase. Another isolate, strain LC 2, was related to the Methylobacter group (type I methantroph), as determined by 16S rRNA gene and pmoA sequence similarities. However, the partial pmoA sequence was only 86% related to cultured Methylobacter species. This strain accumulated significant amounts of formaldehyde in conventional cultivation with methane and oxygen, which may explain why it is preferentially enriched in a gradient cultivation system. [source]

    Promoters of crystal protein genes do not control crystal formation inside exosporium of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. finitimus strain YBT-020

    Fang Ji
    Abstract Most Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystals separate from spores after sporulation. A special phenomenon called spore-crystal association (SCA) occurs in a few subspecies (e.g. ssp. finitimus) where enclosed crystals are associated with spores. In this study, the involvement of crystal protein gene promoters in SCA was investigated. Two crystal protein genes, cry26Aa and cry28Aa, were isolated from subspecies finitimus strain YBT-020, and each or both were then transferred to acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain BMB171 and the plasmid-cured derivative of strain YBT-020. SCA was not observed with any recombinant strain, implying that the crystal protein genes are not sufficient to cause SCA. When the typical crystal protein gene cry1Ca was introduced into strain YBT-020, free bipyramidal crystals formed in addition to SCA. Recombinant genes containing the promoter of cry26Aa or cry28Aa fused with the coding sequence (CDS) of cry1Ca were introduced into strain YBT-020, and the typical cry1Ca phenotype was observed. Another two fusion genes consisting of the promoter of cry1Ca and the CDS of cry26Aa or cry28Aa were also transferred to strain YBT-020. Only enclosed crystals formed. These results indicate that the promoters of the crystal protein genes are not the key factor determining the crystal location in strain YBT-020. [source]

    Union Wage Setting and Capital Income Taxation in Dynamic General Equilibrium

    Thomas Aronsson
    This paper concerns the effects of capital income taxation in a dynamic general equilibrium framework with union wage setting, when households face taxes related to both labor and capital. One purpose is to characterize the general equilibrium solution. Another is to study the effects of increased capital income taxation , in terms of the responses in real wages, employment, capital stock, output and consumption , and relate these behavioral responses to the overall tax structure. We also derive a cost,benefit rule for the purpose of analyzing the welfare effects of a small shift from labor income taxation to capital income taxation. [source]

    Evolution of maxillofacial brown tumors after parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism

    Jaime Alonso Reséndiz-Colosia MD
    Abstract Background. Brown tumor occasionally affects the facial bones. Clinically, these lesions can be mistaken for a neoplasm. Opinions are divided on the course of management of the bony lesions once parathyroidectomy has been carried out. Methods. We treated 22 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa cystica and observed their clinical and biochemical recovery. Results. Fifteen patients (68.2%) had brown tumors in mandible, and 7 (31.8%) in maxilla. After parathyroidectomy, 21 patients had normal total serum calcium values. All brown tumors presented a spontaneous progressive regression; in 18cases, regression was total, with a mean time period of 10months. Two patients had partial regression after nearly 2years. Another 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions. After successful parathyroid surgery, the bony lesions tended to regress spontaneously, either partially or completely. However, if the lesion is disfiguring or symptomatic, surgical excision may be indicated. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2008 [source]

    A study of the effect of a resistive heat moisture exchanger (trachinaze) on pulmonary function and blood gas tensions in patients who have undergone a laryngectomy: A randomized control trial of 50 patients studied over a 6-month period

    Andrew Simpson Jones MD
    Abstract Background. Previous work from this department has shown that resistive tracheostomy filters increase the partial pressure of oxygen in capillary blood and also provide a significant amount of heat/moisture exchange. Until now it has not been shown whether there is any long-term beneficial effect and in particular whether raised tissue oxygenation is maintained using a practical filter device. Methods. We carried out a 6-month randomized control trial including 50 laryngectomees. Twenty-five patients were treated with the Liverpool Heat Moisture Exchange device incorporating an airway resistor (Trachinaze). Another 25 patients were treated with a placebo device. Relevant subjective and objective data were collected before and at the end of the study. The objective measurements were capillary oxygen tension (which parallels blood arterial tension), carbon dioxide tension, FEV1, FVC, and PIF. Patients were reviewed at intervals throughout the study. Data were analyzed using the Mann,Whitney U test and the paired t test to test the difference between the active device and placebo at 6 months. Results. Subjective lower airway parameters, including cough, number of chest infections, mucus production, and shortness of breath at rest, were significantly improved in the active group compared with the placebo group. The objective parameters FEV1, FVC, and PIF were not significantly different. Capillary oxygen tension, however, was highly significantly raised in the active group at 6 months. Conclusions. Trachinaze is highly superior to placebo at improving subjective pulmonary parameters, including shortness of breath. It is also superior in its ability to maintain an increased peripheral tissue oxygen tension over a 6-month period. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 000,000, 2003 [source]

    Enhancement of condensation on a vertical plate (2nd report, prediction of condensation on a dispersed finned surface)

    Rencai Chu
    Abstract In this study, a prediction model for condensation heat transfer on a vertical dispersed finned surface was proposed, utilizing the Adamek-Webb model for condensation heat transfer outside a horizontal finned tube. The prediction model was based on two main experimental observation results. One is the phenomena of the condensate retention at the bottom of each row of the dispersed fin. Another is the offset phenomena of the condensate flow between each row of the dispersed fin. Given the results by the present model, it is predicted that the dependence of the condensation heat transfer coefficient for the dispersed finned surface on the fin pitch is controlled mainly by the dispersed fin length, not the total fin length. On the contrary, for a different fin pitch, the effect to the condensation heat transfer by dispersing the fin is different. From comparison with the experiment results, it is confirmed that the present model was able to predict the condensation with extremely good precision when the fin pitch was larger. Further, when the fin pitch was smaller, the predicted values were higher than the experimental values, but the tendency of the condensation heat transfer with dispersing the fin was nearly predicted. In addition, this condensing model can predict the experimental values with an error of 25% at the maximum in a range of fin pitch 0.6 mm to 1 mm. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/htj.20288 [source]

    High frequency of exon deletions and putative founder effects in French Canadian Lynch syndrome families,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 8 2009
    George Chong
    Abstract Lynch syndrome is one of the most common autosomal dominantly inherited cancer syndromes. Mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 account for greater than 98% of reported mutations in Lynch syndrome families. It has been reported that large genomic deletions in MLH1 and MSH2 are a frequent cause of Lynch syndrome in certain populations. Using a multimodal approach, we have identified mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 in French Canadian families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria for Lynch syndrome and who displayed abnormal staining for at least one of the Lynch syndrome proteins. Mutations were identified in 28 of our 29 French Canadian probands (97%). A total of 18 distinct mutations (nine in MLH1, seven in MSH2, two in MSH6) were identified, of which six (33%) were genomic exon deletions. Another four (22%) resulted in exon deletions in cDNA alone. Three (17%) are novel mutations. Five of these 18 mutations were detected in more than one distinct family (four in MLH1, one in MSH2) and haplotype analysis suggests the possibility of founder effects. Fifteen of the 29 (52%) families carried one of these five putative founder mutations. These findings may simplify genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in French Canadians. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Stubborn Reliance on Intuition and Subjectivity in Employee Selection

    The focus of this article is on implicit beliefs that inhibit adoption of selection decision aids (e.g., paper-and-pencil tests, structured interviews, mechanical combination of predictors). Understanding these beliefs is just as important as understanding organizational constraints to the adoption of selection technologies and may be more useful for informing the design of successful interventions. One of these is the implicit belief that it is theoretically possible to achieve near-perfect precision in predicting performance on the job. That is, people have an inherent resistance to analytical approaches to selection because they fail to view selection as probabilistic and subject to error. Another is the implicit belief that prediction of human behavior is improved through experience. This myth of expertise results in an overreliance on intuition and a reluctance to undermine one's own credibility by using a selection decision aid. [source]

    A comparison of congestion control and time slot algorithms in Internet transmission performance

    Chyan Yang
    Abstract The characteristics of TCP and UDP lead to different network transmission behaviours. TCP is responsive to network congestion whereas UDP is not. This paper proposes two mechanisms that operate at the source node to regulate TCP and UDP flows and provide a differential service for them. One is the congestion-control mechanism, which uses congestion signal detected by TCP flows to regulate the flows at the source node. Another is the time-slot mechanism, which assigns different number of time slots to flows to control their flow transmission. Based on the priority of each flow, different bandwidth proportions are allocated for each flow and differential services are provided. Simulation results show some insights of these two mechanisms. Moreover, we summarize the factors that may impact the performance of these two mechanisms. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Two cases of generalized lichen nitidus treated successfully with narrow-band UV-B phototherapy

    You Chan Kim MD
    Background, Narrow-band ultraviolet (UV) phototherapy has not been used in the treatment of lichen nitidus. Aim, To report two cases of generalized lichen nitidus successfully treated with narrow-band UV-B phototherapy. Methods, A 7-year-old girl presented with a persisting, asymptomatic, papular eruption refractory to topical steroid for 3 months. Another 10-year-old boy presented with an asymptomatic papular eruption present for 6 months. The histopathologies of both lesions were consistent with lichen nitidus. The lesions were treated with narrow-band UV-B phototherapy. Results, The lesions of the patients were almost completely cleared after the 30th and the 17th irradiation, respectively. Conclusions, Narrow-band UV-B may be an effective alternative therapy for the treatment of generalized lichen nitidus unresponsive to common therapies. [source]

    Cholinesterase inhibitors in advanced Dementia with Lewy bodies: increase or stop?

    Sanjeet Pakrasi
    Abstract Introduction There is little data on stopping cholinesterase inhibitors in Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Equally, it is not known if increasing the dose of cholinesterase inhibitors may help neuropsychiatric symptoms in advanced DLB. Method We conducted an open label trial with donepezil involving 16 patients with LBD when the dose was reduced and treatment stopped over 4 weeks. Another 7 patients were given a trial of an increased dose of donepezil (15,mg) to resolve re-emergent neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results The slow discontinuation protocol was well tolerated in advanced DLB. Five of the seven patients given a trial of a higher dose of donepezil were rated as clinically improved after 12 weeks treatment. Conclusion Cholinesterase inhibitors can be discontinued slowly in advanced DLB. Increasing the dose of donepezil may be of benefit to some patients with DLB who experience a recurrence in their neuropsychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    BCR/ABL p210, p190 and p230 fusion genes in 250 Mexican patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

    R.M. Arana-Trejo
    There are two major forms of the BCR/ABL fusion gene, involving ABL exon 2, but including different exons of BCR gene. The transcripts b2a2 or b3a2 code for a p210 protein. Another fusion gene leads to the expression of an e1a2 transcript, which codes for a p190 protein. Another, less common fusion gene is c3a2[e19a2], which encodes a p230 protein. The incidence of one or the other rearrangement in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients varies in different reported series. This study was designed to determine the frequency of coexpresion of the p210, p190 and p230 transcripts in 250 Mexican patients with CML. We performed nested and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on bone marrow samples from adult patients and found that all cases were positive for some type of BCR/ABL rearrangement. In 226 (90.4%) patients it was p210, while the remaining 9.6% showed coexpression or one of the transcripts of p190/p210/p230. In 7% of patients with p210 expression there are both isoforms (b3a2/b2a2), presumably the result of alternative splicing. The rate of coexpression of the p190/p210 transcripts was 5%, which is much lower than in other reports. This may be due to the technical factors. These patients had high platelet counts, marked splenomegaly and chromosomal abnormalities in addition to Ph,. Other types of coexpression seen were p210/p230 and p190/p210/p230, in patients with high-risk clinical factors. Our study confirms the occurrence of coexpression of different BCR/ABL transcripts, although the rate (9.6%) was much lower than has been reported in other populations. This may reflect either the sensitivity of the detection techniques used or the possibility of genetic differences between the populations studied. Coexpression may be due to alternative splicing or to phenotypic variation, with clinical courses different from classical CML. [source]

    Cranial deformations in an Iron Age population from Münsingen-Rain, Switzerland

    A. Kutterer
    Abstract The aim of this paper is an examination of cranial fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and deformations in the prehistoric population of Münsingen-Rain (La Tène period, Switzerland). The material consists of 76 skulls. Three cases of craniosynostosis, one scaphocephalic skull with complete obliteration of the sagittal suture and two plagiocephalic skulls were identified. CT scans showed that premature closure of the frontosphenoidal suture caused these plagiocephalies. For three asymmetrically deformed skulls, differential diagnosis indicates torticollis (wry neck). Another four skulls exhibit strongly developed asymmetries of the cranium and mandible, but an aetiological diagnosis was not possible. In order to evaluate the degree of fluctuating asymmetry of the population, landmarks of the skulls were digitally measured in 3D and angle calculations were made. A reference group of 30 skulls was used for comparison. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Local discourse and global competition: production experiences in family workshops of the Brianza

    Simone Ghezzi
    One of the most important consequences of post-Fordist global restructuring has been the ,deterritorialization' of capital and its increasing geographic expansion. Another and quite different view emphasizes the fact that capitalist activity can be organized by means of localized or territorially based systems of specialized production. In this article my purpose is to show how these two disciplinary discourses are actually not mutually exclusive. Developed local economies are not immune from concerns of deterritorialization, nor should their economic achievement gloss over the glitches that are emerging at the local level due to stiffer global competition. These two aspects become immediately apparent as I illustrate the local discourse that emerges among workshop owners within an industrial district of the Brianza in the Italian region of Lombardy. After a discussion about the origin and the characteristics of this regional economy, I illustrate by way of ethnographic examples how innovation and competitiveness within and outside this industrial district mask forms of exploitation and contradictions amidst family-run workshops. In discursive terms, exploitation is articulated in various ways, but two in particular seem to be most recurrent in the narrative of small entrepreneurs of this region. One is the ideology of ,hard work' and the other, more recently heard of, is the ideology of ,high quality product'. In the brief concluding section I will stress the point that these two discourses emerging from exploitative social relations of production are to be viewed as responses to the concerns regarding the possible deterritorialization of some factories and the increasing competition with crossboundary markets. L'une des plus importantes conséquences de la restructuration mondiale post-fordiste a été la ,déterritorialisation' du capital et son expansion géographique croissante. Une autre opinion, tout à fait différente, avance que l'activité capitaliste peut s'organiser grâce à des systèmes localisés,ou liés à un territoire,de production spécialisée. Cet article a pour but de démontrer que ces deux discours disciplinaires ne sont, en fait, pas mutuellement exclusifs. Les économies locales développées ne sont pas à l'abri de problémes de déterritorialisation, pas plus que leurs résultats économiques ne doivent dissimuler les complications locales qui naissent d'une concurrence mondiale plus dure. Ces deux aspects se dégagent immédiatement du discours local émanant d'artisans du district industriel italien de Brianza en Lombardie. Après avoir présenté l'origine et les caractéristiques de cette économie régionale, l'article illustre par des exemples éthnographiques les façons dont innovation et compétitivité internes et externes à ce district masquent des formes d'exploitation et des contradictions au sein d'entreprises familiales. Logiquement, l'exploitation s'articule de manières diverses, mais deux d'entre eles semblent revenir très souvent dans le récit des petits entrepreneurs locaux. L'une tient à l'idéologie du ,dur labeur' et l'autre, plus récente, à celle du ,produit de qualité supérieure'. Une courte conclusion souligne que ces deux discours issus de relations sociales d'exploitation industrielle doivent être considérés comme des réactions aux préoccupations liées à la déterritorialisation de certaines usines et à la concurrence accrue avec des marchés transfrontaliers. [source]

    Mere presence of distractors: Another determining factor for the attentional blink1

    Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
    Abstract: When two visual targets are presented in rapid succession, perception of the second target is deteriorated if the temporal lag between the two targets is short (0,300 ms). This ,attentional blink' (AB) phenomenon has been believed to occur only when the second target is followed by a backward mask or when there is a task switching between two targets. The present study revealed another determining factor for the occurrence of the AB, the presence or absence of a distractor stream. Five experiments examined the effect of possible confounding factors in the extant literature and suggested that the mere presence of a distractor stream affects the processing of targets even when the observers tried to ignore them, resulting in a processing delay. This effect is discussed in a model of AB deficit in terms of decay of the second target's representation. [source]

    Mirrors to One Another: Emotion and Value in Jane Austen and David Hume,by dadlez, e. m.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Correcting the short-term effect of food deprivation in a damselfly: mechanisms and costs

    Melina Campero
    Summary 1Mass at emergence is a life-history trait strongly linked to adult fitness. Therefore, when faced with transient food shortage in the larval stage, mass-correcting mechanisms are common. 2These correcting mechanisms may carry costs with them. On one hand, these costs may be overestimated because they can be confounded with the direct effects of the transient food shortage itself. On the other hand, costs may be underestimated by ignoring physiological costs. Another largely neglected topic is that correcting mechanisms and costs may critically depend upon other stressors that often co-occur. 3Here, we identify the mass-correcting mechanisms and their associated costs at emergence in the damselfly Coenagrion puella, after being stressed by a transient period of starvation and a subsequent exposure to pesticide stress during the larval stage. We introduce path analysis to disentangle direct costs of starvation and the mass-correcting mechanisms in terms of immune response. 4As predicted, we found no differences in mass at emergence. Starvation directly resulted in a costly delayed emergence and a decreased immune response at emergence. Mass-correcting mechanisms included a prolonged post-starvation period, reduced mass loss at emergence and compensatory growth, although the latter only in females under pesticide stress. 5The mass-correcting mechanisms were associated with beneficial effects on investment in immune response, but only in the absence of pesticide stress. Under pesticide stress, these beneficial effects were mostly undone or overruled, resulting in negative effects of the mass-correcting mechanisms in terms of immune response. 6Our results stress the importance of and introduce a statistical way of disentangling direct costs of starvation and the mass-correcting mechanisms themselves, and the importance of including physiological endpoints in this kind of studies. [source]

    In vitro fermentative characteristics of ruminant diets supplemented with fibrolytic enzymes and ranges of optimal endo-,-1,4-glucanase activity

    E. González-García
    Summary Effectiveness of fibrolytic enzymes supplementing a range of forage to concentrate (F:C) diets was assessed with goat (G) or cow (C) inoculum using the gas production (GP) technique. Four F:C diets were evaluated: forage (1:0), high forage (0.7:0.3), medium forage (0.5:0.5) and low forage (0.3:0.7) diets, supplemented or not with PromoteTM (PRO) at 1 or 2 ml/kg dry matter (DM). The GP kinetic was different between F:C (1:0 < 0.7:0.3 < 0.5:0.5 < 0.3:0.7) and inoculum. Responses to enzyme were positively related to forage level and differed with inoculum. The neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre degradation were depressed by the concentrate in the substrates fermented with C and were not altered or even enhanced in G sets. Results confirm that increasing starch proportion modified the pattern of microbial fermentation, while no influences were detected in the improvement of cell wall degradation with fibrolytic enzymes. Another in vitro experiment was conducted to investigate factors by which endo-,-1,4-glucanase activity (EA) of PRO is compromised in a factorial design (3 × 4 × 3) for three pH (4.0, 5.5 and 6.5), four temperatures (30, 40, 50 and 70 °C) and three doses (1, 2 and 3 ml/kg DM of substrate). Maximum EA were obtained for pH 4.0, 50 °C and 3 ml/kg DM. Optimal conditions for PRO proved to be outside the normal ranges in ruminal environment. [source]

    I-CAN: A New Instrument to Classify Support Needs for People with Disability: Part I

    Vivienne C. Riches
    Background, The supports paradigm has shifted focus from assessing competence and deficits among people with disabilities to identifying supports needed to live meaningful and productive lives in inclusive settings. Consequently, a rigorous and robust system is required that is capable of accurately determining the type and intensity of support needed and of allocating resources accordingly. The aim of the present study was to develop such a system to identify and classify support needs of people with disabilities based on the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) [WHO, The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), Author, Geneva, 2001], and the supports concept [Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification and Systems of Support, 9th edn (1992), 10th edn (2002), American Association on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC). Method, A total of 1012 individuals with disabilities who were supported by accommodation and day programme organizations across the eastern states of Australia were assessed. The instrument was used in a team setting involving the person, their family and friends and staff as appropriate. Version 1 was administered with 595 people with disability. This version was refined according to qualitative and quantitative analyses. Another 342 individuals were assessed using Version 2, resulting in a combined data set for 936 individuals. Version 3 was then trialled with a further 76 individuals with disabilities. Results, Ten domain scales in Health and Well Being (HWB) and Activities and Participation (A&P) were explored and refined. The scales effectively discriminated a range of intensities of support for people with various disabilities, with the highest support needs generally recorded by individuals with multiple disabilities who were ageing. The instrument can be used to develop a profile of needed supports across the domain scales. These measure current and predicted support needs, and contribute to future planning. The team approach proved beneficial in this regard. Conclusions, The I-CAN is a useful instrument for effectively assessing the support needs of people with a disability using a person centred approach. It is effective in identifying support needs across health and well-being areas, and activities of daily living. [source]