Kinetic Interpretations (kinetic + interpretation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Kinetic study of the decomposition of 2-butanol on carbon-based acid catalyst

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2010
J. Bedia
Abstract The catalytic conversion of 2-butanol on a carbon-based acid catalyst prepared by chemical activation of olive stone with phosphoric acid was investigated. The carbon catalyst showed a considerable amount of surface phosphorus, presumably in form of phosphate groups, as revealed by XPS, despite a washing step carried out after the activation process. Conversion of 2-butanol yields mainly dehydration products, mostly cis-2-butene and trans-2-butene with lower amounts of 1-butene, and a very small amount of mek as dehydrogenation product. Kinetic interpretation of the experimental data was performed using two elimination mechanisms for the dehydration reaction; an E1-mechanism (two-step mechanism) and an E2-mechanism (one-step mechanism). The rate expressions derived from both models fit properly the experimental results, suggesting that probably the two mechanisms occur simultaneously. This is supported by the similar rate constant obtained for the formation of the carbocation and the olefins in the E1 and E2 mechanisms, respectively. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]

Compactness in Ginzburg-Landau energy by kinetic averaging

Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin
We consider a Ginzburg-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields appearing in the gradient theory of phase transition for instance. We prove that, as the relaxation parameter vanishes, families of such fields with finite energy are compact in Lp (,). Our proof is based on a kinetic interpretation of the entropies which were introduced by Desimone, Kohn, Müller and Otto. The so-called kinetic averaging lemmas allow to generalize their compactness results. Also the method yields a kinetic equation for the limit where the right-hand side is an unknown kinetic defect bounded measure from which we deduce some Sobolev regularity. This measure also satisfies some cancellation properties depending on its local regularity, which seem to indicate several level of singularities in the limit. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Decolorization of RR-120 Dye Using Ozone and Ozone/UV in a Semi-Batch Reactor

Mohammad Kazemi
Abstract Treatability of RR-120 aqueous dye solutions using O3 and O3/UV was studied in a bench scale set-up. Reduction in colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD) under various pH and initial dye concentrations were investigated. Pseudo first order reaction rate was satisfactorily used for kinetic interpretations in destruction of the dye. The results showed that decolorization with O3 was faster at neutral pH values. While use of UV had a small effect on ozonation at low pH values, UV radiation had a considerable effect at pH values of 7 and above. It was found that ozone utilization efficiency of higher than 95% could be attained in the experimental set up. On a étudié la possibilité de traitement de solutions aqueuses de colorant RR-120 à l'aide d'O3 et O3/UV dans un banc d'essai. La réduction de la demande chimique en oxygène (DCO) et en colorant a été étudiée pour différentes concentrations initiales de colorant. La vitesse de réaction du pseudo-premier ordre a été utilisée avec succès pour les interprétations cinétiques de la destruction du colorant. Les résultats montrent que la décoloration avec l'O3 est plus rapide à des valeurs de pH neutres. Alors que le recours aux UV a un faible effet sur l'ozonation à de faibles valeurs de pH, la radiation par UV a un effet considérable à des valeurs de pH de 7 et au-dessus. On a trouvé qu'une efficacité d'utilisation de l'ozone supérieure à 95% pouvait être atteinte dans l'installation expérimentale. [source]

Cell kinetic studies in the murine ventral tongue epithelium: thymidine metabolism studies and circadian rhythm determination

C. S. Potten
Abstract. ,The oral mucosa is a rapidly replacing body tissue that has received relatively little attention in terms of defining its cell kinetics and cellular organization. The tissue is sensitive to the effects of cytotoxic agents, the consequence of which can be stem cell death with the subsequent development of ulcers and the symptoms of oral mucositis. There is considerable interest in designing strategies to protect oral stem cells and, hence, reduce the mucositis side-effects in cancer therapy patients. Here we present details of a new histometric approach designed to investigate the changing patterns in cellularity in the ventral tongue mucosa. This initial paper in a series of four papers presents observations on the changing patterns in the labelling index following tritiated thymidine administration, which suggest a delayed uptake of tritiated thymidine from a long-term intracellular thymidine pool, a phenomenon that will complicate cell kinetic interpretations in a variety of experimental situations. We also provide data on the changing pattern of mitotic activity through a 24-h period (circadian rhythms). Using vincristine-induced stathmokinesis, the data indicate that 54% of the basal cells divide each day and that there is a high degree of synchrony in mitotic activity with a mitotic peak occurring around 13.00 h. The mitotic circadian peak occurs 9-12 h after the circadian peak in DNA synthesis. The data presented here and in the subsequent papers could be interpreted to indicate that basal cells of BDF1 mice have an average turnover time of about 26-44 h with some cells cycling once a day and others with a 2- or 3-day cell cycle time. [source]