Kinetic Diameter (kinetic + diameter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Characteristics of ammonia permeation through porous silica membranes

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2010
Masakoto Kanezashi
Abstract A sol,gel method was applied for the preparation of silica membranes with different average pore sizes. Ammonia (NH3) permeation/separation characteristics of the silica membranes were examined in a wide temperature range (50,400°C) by measurement of both single and binary component separation. The order of gas permeance through the silica membranes, which was independent of membrane average pore size, was as follows: He > H2 > NH3 > N2. These results suggest that, for permeation through silica membranes, the molecular size of NH3 is larger than that of H2, despite previous reports that the kinetic diameter of NH3 is smaller than that of H2. At high temperatures, there was no effect of NH3 adsorption on H2 permeation characteristics, and silica membranes were highly stable in NH3 at 400°C (i.e., gas permeance remained unchanged). On the other hand, at 50°C NH3 molecules adsorbed on the silica improved NH3 -permselectivity by blocking permeation of H2 molecules without decreasing NH3 permeance. The maximal NH3/H2 permeance ratio obtained during binary component separation was ,30 with an NH3 permeance of ,10,7 mol m,2 s,1 Pa,1 at an H2 permeation activation energy of ,6 kJ mol,1. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]

Separation of light gas mixtures using SAPO-34 membranes

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 4 2000
Joseph C. Poshusta
Continuous SAPO-34 membranes were prepared on porous alumina tubular supports, and shown to be useful for light gas separations at low and high temperatures. Single-gas permeances of CO2, N2 and CH4 decreased with increasing kinetic diameter. For the best membrane at 300 K, the He and H2 permeances were less than that of CO2, because He, H2, and CO2 were small compared to the SAPO-34 pore, and differences in the heat of adsorption determined the permeance order. The smaller component permeated the fastest in CO2/CH4, CO2/N2, N2/CH4, H2/CH4 and H2/N2 mixtures between 300 and 470 K. For H2/CO2 mixtures, which were separated by competitive adsorption at room temperature, the larger component permeated faster below 400 K. The CO2/CH4 selectivity at room temperature was 36 and decreased with temperature. The H2/CH4 mixture selectivity was 8 and constant with temperature up to 480 K. Calcination, slow temperature cycles, and exposure to water vapor had no permanent effect on membrane performance, but temperature changes of approximately 30 K/min decreased the membrane's effectiveness. [source]

Microporous Niobia,Silica Membrane with Very Low CO2 Permeability

Vittorio Boffa Dr.
Abstract A sol,gel-derived microporous ceramic membrane with an exceptionally low permeability for CO2 from gaseous streams was developed and characterized. The sols were prepared from a mixture of niobium and silicon alkoxide precursors by acid-catalyzed synthesis. Microporous films were formed by coating asymmetric ,-alumina disks with the polymeric sol (Si/Nb=3:1), followed by calcination at 500,°C. The membrane consists of a 150-nm-thick layer with a Si/Nb atomic ratio of about 1.5. The single-gas permeance of small gas molecules such as H2, CH4, N2, and SF6 decreases steadily with kinetic diameter. Hydrogen, helium, and carbon dioxide follow an activated transport mechanism through the membrane. The permeance of CO2 in this membrane is much lower than that in pure silica, and its behavior deviates strongly from the general trend observed with the other gases. This is attributed to a relatively strong interaction between CO2 and adsorption sites in the niobia,silica membrane. [source]

State of the art of carbon molecular sieves supported on tubular ceramics for gas separation applications

Kelly Briceño
Abstract During recent years, research into alternative power generation and less polluting vehicles has been directed towards the fabrication of compact and efficient devices using hydrogen fuel cells. As a compact viable proposal, membrane reactors (MR) have been studied as means of providing a fuel cell with an on-board supply device for pure hydrogen streams obtained by reforming hydrocarbons. However, the development of MRs is strongly dependant on the membrane having high permeation flux and high selectivity ratios towards H2 in a mixture of gases. To meet this need, carbon membranes are proposed materials, which have pores that are the same size as the kinetic diameters of syngases. These would provide an alternative to polymers, metals and ceramics in MR applications. Moreover, a tubular shape is a highly recommended configuration for achieving a compact and large reaction surface area. However, it is not easy to obtain a supported and amorphous carbon layer from polymer pyrolysis because the fabrication methods, the type of precursor material, characteristics of the support and pyrolysis conditions are all closely connected. The combination of all these factors and the stability problems of carbon membranes have limited the use of carbon molecular sieves (CMS) in large-scale applications. This review attempts to provide an overview of the use of carbon membranes in MRs for gas separation. It also reviews the advances in the materials, fabrication methods and characterisation techniques of specific supported carbon molecular sieve membranes that have been supported on tubular carriers so they can take advantage of the high permeation and selectivity values previously reported for unsupported CMS. Copyright © 2009 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]