Key Predictors (key + predictor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Self-criticism is a key predictor of eating disorder dimensions among inpatient adolescent females

Silvana Fennig MD
Abstract Objective: Although the unipolar depression-eating disorder comorbidity is adequately documented, examination of the role of depressive personality styles in eating disorders is relatively scarce. Method: Associations between depressive symptoms, depressive risk and resilience (i.e., dependency, self-criticism, and sense of efficacy), and eating disorder symptoms (as measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-2) were examinedin inpatient adolescent females (N = 81). Results: Self-criticism emerged as independent, robust, and strong predictor of eating disorder symptoms. Conclusion: Patients self-criticism should be targeted in psychotherapy and might serve as an obstacle for successful inpatient treatment. The role of self-derogation in eating disorders should be examined further. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

Spousal relations and well-being: A comparative analysis of Jewish and Arab dual-earner families in Israel

Liat Kulik
The study examined differences in division of household tasks and spousal support among a sample of educated dual-earner families from two national groups in Israel: Jews (n = 116), and Arabs (n = 163). The contribution of the spousal interaction variables (household roles and spousal support) toward explaining two dimensions of psychological well-being (burnout and life satisfaction) was also examined. The research findings indicate that in general, the Arabs maintain a more traditional orientation toward gender roles than their Jewish counterparts. Arab men showed a greater tendency to perform outside tasks than their Jewish counterparts who participate more in domestic chores. By contrast, no differences were found between the two groups with regard to the mutual support provided by spouses. Gender role attitudes were found to be a key predictor of the two psychological well-being dimensions in both national groups. Regarding sex differences, men of both nationalities were more likely than women to report that they perform all types of household tasks. Concomitantly, the women reported higher levels of burnout, while no differences between the sexes were found with respect to life satisfaction. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Contrasting effects of heterozygosity on survival and hookworm resistance in California sea lion pups

Abstract Low genetic heterozygosity is associated with loss of fitness in many natural populations. However, it remains unclear whether the mechanism is related to general (i.e. inbreeding) or local effects, in particular from a subset of loci lying close to genes under balancing selection. Here we analyse involving heterozygosity,fitness correlations on neonatal survival of California sea lions and on susceptibility to hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection, the single most important cause of pup mortality. We show that regardless of differences in hookworm burden, homozygosity is a key predictor of hookworm-related lesions, with no single locus contributing disproportionately. Conversely, the subsequent occurrence of anaemia due to blood loss in infected pups is overwhelmingly associated with homozygosity at one particular locus, all other loci showing no pattern. Our results suggest contrasting genetic mechanisms underlying two pathologies related to the same pathogen. First, relatively inbred pups are less able to expel hookworms and prevent their attachment to the intestinal mucosa, possibly due to a weakened immune response. In contrast, infected pups that are homozygous for a gene near to microsatellite Hg4.2 are strongly predisposed to anaemia. As yet, this gene is unknown, but could plausibly be involved in the blood-coagulation cascade. Taken together, these results suggest that pathogenic burden alone may not be the main factor regulating pathogen-related mortality in natural populations. Our study could have important implications for the conservation of small, isolated or threatened populations, particularly when they are at a risk of facing pathogenic challenges. [source]

An examination of the relationships between leadership style, quality, and employee satisfaction in R&D versus administrative environments

R & D MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2005
Yair Berson
Academics and executives argue that effective leadership is a key predictor of R&D success as well as quality management. Recent research highlights transformational leadership as a highly effective style shown to predict performance in organizations. However, no study examined the role of transformational and transactional leadership in building quality climate in R&D versus non-R&D settings. We examined the relationship between leadership style and the establishment of a quality environment in an R&D setting based on an empirical study of 511 research engineers and scientists. It is found that both transformational leadership and transactional contingent-reward leadership are related to the establishment of a quality environment in the R&D part of a telecommunications firm. However, the impact of transactional contingent-reward leadership ceases to be significant once both leadership styles are considered simultaneously using structural equations. A transformational leadership style was also found to be related to employee satisfaction. [source]

Prediction of cardiovascular and total mortality in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients by the WHO definition for the metabolic syndrome

G. T.-C.
Aim:, The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MES) in type 2 diabetic patients and the predictive values of the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) definitions and the individual components of the MES on total and cardiovascular mortality. Methods:, A prospective analysis of a consecutive cohort of 5202 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients recruited between July 1994 and April 2001. Results:, The prevalence of the MES was 49.2,58.1% depending on the use of various criteria. There were 189 deaths (men: 100 and women: 89) in these 5205 patients during a median (interquartile range) follow-up period of 2.1 (0.3,3.6 years). Of these, 164 (87%) were classified as cardiovascular deaths. Using the NCEP criterion, patients with MES had a death rate similar to those without (3.51 vs. 3.85%). By contrast, based on the WHO criteria, patients with MES had a higher mortality rate than those without (4.3 vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002). Compared to patients with neither NCEP- nor WHO-defined MES, only the group with MES defined by the WHO, but not NCEP, criterion had significantly higher mortality rate (2.6 vs. 6.8%, p < 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis, only age, duration of diabetes and smoking were identified as independent factors for cardiovascular or total death. Among the various components of MES, hypertension, low BMI and albuminuria were the key predictors for these adverse events. Conclusions:, In Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, the WHO criterion has a better discriminative power over the NCEP criterion for predicting death. Among the various components of the MES defined either by WHO or NCEP, hypertension, albuminuria and low BMI were the main predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. [source]

Examining dispositional and situational effects on outgroup attitudes,

Joke Meeus
Two research lines have dominated the quest for the antecedents of outgroup attitudes. Whereas the first has viewed outgroup attitudes as a result of individual differences, the second stressed the importance of the intergroup situation. In order to investigate the interplay of individual differences and situational characteristics, key predictors of the individual differences perspective (i.e. right-wing authoritarianism or RWA, and social dominance orientation or SDO) and the intergroup relations perspective (i.e. ingroup identification and ingroup threat) were simultaneously tested. Two studies revealed additive but no interaction effects of RWA and SDO, ingroup identification and threat. Additionally, Study 1 showed that threat effects remain limited to the outgroup that is portrayed as threatening and do not generalize to other outgroups. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parent, child, and contextual predictors of childhood physical punishment

Lianne J. Woodward
Abstract Data gathered over the course of an 18-year longitudinal study of 1025 New Zealand children were used to: (a) develop a profile of the maternal, child, and contextual factors associated with differing levels of exposure to maternal physical punishment, and (b) identify the key predictors of maternal physical punishment as reported by young people at age 18. Results revealed the presence of clear linear associations between the extent of young people's reported exposure to physical punishment and a wide range of maternal, child, and contextual factors. The key predictors of physical punishment suggested that the psychosocial profile of those mothers at greatest risk of physically punishing or mistreating their child was that of a young woman with a personal history of strict parenting who entered motherhood at an early age, and who was attempting to parent a behaviourally difficult child within a dysfunctional family environment characterized by elevated rates of inter-parental violence and childhood sexual abuse. These findings were consistent with a cumulative risk factor model in which increasing risk factor exposure is associated with increasing levels of child physical punishment/maltreatment. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sources of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants in Europe: A Multi-Level Analysis,

Elisa Rustenbach
In recent times, many nations are experiencing an increase in anti-immigrant attitudes on the part of natives. Most papers only explore one or two sources of anti-immigrant attitudes at a time, which provides an incomplete picture of the effects at work. This paper tests eight different explanations for anti-immigrant attitudes: cultural marginality theory, human capital theory, political affiliation, societal integration, neighborhood safety, contact theory, foreign investment, and economic competition. Analysis is conducted using combined data from the European Social Survey and Eurostat/OECD and individual-, regional-, and national-level predictors. Results indicate that key predictors of anti-immigrant attitudes are regional and national interpersonal trust, education level, foreign direct investment, and political variables. [source]

Leadership quality and follower affect: A study of U.S. presidential candidates

M. David Albritton
Using the tripartite model of attitude structure as a conceptual basis, this article investigates voter attitudes toward presidential candidates, including cognitive and affective assessments of these leaders as well as behavioral intentions and voting behavior. Data collected from the seven most recent U.S. presidential elections were used to compare Democratic and Republican Party candidates who were successful in securing votes to those who were unsuccessful. Here, follower perceptions of leader intelligence, feelings of pride and hope, as well as feelings of fear and anger were found to be statistically different between the two groups. Additionally, regression analysis using follower assessments of candidates' leadership quality, as dependent upon certain perceptual traits of that leader, are presented. Candidates perceived to be higher in intelligence, considered to possess stronger degrees of inspirational quality, and judged more "likeable," in terms of generating stronger degrees of positive follower affect and lower degrees of negative follower affect, are considered better quality leaders. Followers' perceptions of these traits are found to be key predictors of whether that follower will consider a leader to be of high quality. [source]

The Pennsylvania certified safety committee program: An evaluation of participation and effects on work injury rates

Hangsheng Liu PhD
Abstract Background Since 1994, Pennsylvania, like several other states, has provided a 5% discount on workers' compensation insurance premiums for firms with a certified joint labor management safety committee. This study explored the factors affecting program participation and evaluated the effect of this program on work injuries. Methods Using Pennsylvania unemployment insurance data (1996,2006), workers' compensation data (1998,2005), and the safety committee audit data (1999,2007), we conducted propensity score matching and regression analysis on the program's impact on injury rates. Results Larger firms, firms with higher injury rates, firms in high risk industries, and firms without labor unions were more likely to join the safety committee program and less likely to drop out of the program. The injury rates of participants did not decline more than the rates for non-participants; however, rates at participant firms with good compliance dropped more than the rates at participant firms with poor compliance. Conclusions Firm size and prior injury rates are key predictors of program participation. Firms that complied with the requirement to train their safety committee members did experience reductions in injuries, but non-compliance with that and other requirements was so widespread that no overall impact of the program could be detected. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:780,791, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Individual differences, environmental scanning, innovation framing, and champion behavior: key predictors of project performance

Jane M. Howell
Although increasing evidence points to the importance of champions for keeping product innovation ideas alive and thriving, little is known about how champions identify potential product innovation ideas, how they present these ideas to gain much needed support from key stakeholders, and their impact on innovation project performance over time. Jane M. Howell and Christine M. Shea address this knowledge gap by using measures of individual differences, environmental scanning, innovation framing and champion behavior to predict the performance of 47 product innovation projects. Champion behavior was defined as expressing confidence in the innovation, involving and motivating others to support the innovation, and persisting under adversity. Interviews with 47 champions were conducted to collect information about the innovation projects and the champions' tendency to frame the innovation as an opportunity or threat. Survey data were obtained from three sources: 47 champions provided information on their personal characteristics (locus of control and breadth of interest) and activities (environmental scanning), 47 division managers subjectively assessed project performance at two points in time, and 237 innovation team members rated the frequency of champion behavior. The results revealed that an internal locus of control orientation was positively related to framing the innovation as an opportunity, and breadth of interest was positively related to environmental scanning. Environmental scanning of documents and framing the innovation as a threat was negatively related to champion behavior, while environmental scanning through people was positively related to champion behavior. Champion behavior positively predicted project performance over a one-year interval. Overall, the findings suggest that in scanning the environment for new ideas, the most effective source of information is the champion's personal network of people inside and outside the organization. Also, the simple labeling of an idea as a threat appears to diminish a champion's perceived influence and erode credibility in promoting an innovation. From the perspective of division managers, champions make a positive contribution to project performance over time, reinforcing the crucial role that champions play in new product development process. [source]

Self-Efficacy Mediates Effects of Exposure, Loss of Resources, and Life Stress on Posttraumatic Distress among Trauma Survivors

Aleksandra Luszczynska
Trauma exposure, loss of resources, and stressful life events are usually listed among key predictors of posttraumatic adaptation. Our studies investigated if self-efficacy (i.e. beliefs about ability to deal with posttraumatic adversities) mediates the relationships between these peri- and post-traumatic risk factors and mental health. Study 1 investigated these relationships among 50 Hurricane Katrina survivors infected with HIV. Specifically, it was hypothesised that the effects of exposure and loss of resources (measured 1 year after the disaster) on posttraumatic symptoms and general distress (measured 2 years after disaster) would be mediated by self-efficacy (assessed 1 year after trauma). Study 2, enrolling 70 survivors of motor vehicle accidents, tested the mediating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between stressful life events (reported at approximately 7 days after the trauma) and PTSD symptom severity and number (measured 90 days later). Results of both studies confirmed the mediating effects of beliefs about the ability to deal with posttraumatic adversities, whereas the direct effects of trauma exposure, number of stressors, and losses on mental health were negligible. Our findings indicate that although self-efficacy beliefs are affected by trauma and stressful life events (in particular, balance of negative and positive events), they should facilitate posttraumatic adaptation. [source]

The reclassification of elderly people following admission to residential aged care

Andrew Robinson
Objectives:,To determine the incidence of, and factors associated with, the reclassification of level of care needs of older people following admission to a residential aged care facility (RACF) in Tasmania. Method:,Focus group discussions with 11 Directors of Nursing of RACFs were conducted to inform the development of a questionnaire, which was administered to all residential aged care providers in the State. Results:,More than 10% of elderly people admitted to a RACF in Tasmania are subject to a reclassification from high to low care or vice versa within 60 days of admission. The study also revealed a number of variables associated with reclassification. Conclusions:,Reclassification of residents is often considered to be a ,significant problem'. To reduce the incidence of reclassification many RACFs conduct their own assessments. Dementia, admission of hospital inpatients and greater than 6 months since an ACAT assessment represent the key predictors of reclassification. [source]