Kangaroo Care (kangaroo + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Grief, Anxiety, Stillbirth, and Perinatal Problems: Healing With Kangaroo Care

CD(DONA), IBCLC, Maria D. Burkhammer RN
A young, anxious mother's first pregnancy was eclamptic, her placenta was underperfused, and her son was stillborn. She carried grief, guilt, anxiety, and hypervigilance into her next preeclamptic pregnancy, birth (of her small-for-dates son), and early postpartum period. When breastfeeding difficulties developed, the authors intervened with three consecutive (skin-to-skin) breastfeedings. During the first skin-to-skin breastfeeding, the mother stopped crying, shared self-disparaging emotions, and then began relaxing and "taking-in" her new baby. Breastfeeding continues at 1 year. [source]

Safe Criteria and Procedure for Kangaroo Care With Intubated Preterm Infants

FAAN professor, Susan M. Ludington-Hoe CNM
Kangaroo care (KC) was safely conducted with mechanically ventilated infants who weighed less than 600 grams and were less than 26 weeks gestation at birth. These infants, ventilated for at least 24 hours at the time of the first KC session, were considered stable on the ventilator at low settings (intermittent mandatory ventilation < 35 breaths per minute and FiO2 < 50%), had stable vital signs, and were not on vasopressors. A protocol for implementation of KC with ventilated infants that uses a standing transfer, with two staff members assisting to minimize the possibility of extubation, is presented. Also discussed is the positioning of the ventilator tubing during KC. This protocol was implemented without any accidental extubation throughout an experimental research study. The criteria and protocol were compared to those available in published reports and revealed many similar elements, providing additional support for the recommended protocol. No adverse events occurred with the criteria and protocol reported here, suggesting that they can be adopted for broader use. [source]

Developmental care in the UK: a developing initiative

K E StC Hamilton
Abstract Aim:, To review developmental care over time in the UK. Methods:, Longitudinal study comprising two prospective observational studies of unit organization and developmental care activity collected in 2005 and 2008 in all UK neonatal units. Indices related to developmental care and an aggregated score are reported corresponding to year and level of care. Results:, In 2008, over 90% units had open visiting for parents and modified lighting and 80% modified noise, showing no change since 2005. Incubator cover usage increased from 75% to 95%. Rates of parental tube feeding dropped from 76% to 64% and kangaroo care increased from 50% to 80%. Proportions of units with developmental care personnel and staff trained in developmental care have almost doubled to 64% and 57%. Aggregated scores, reflecting eight basic indices of developmental care, were unchanged: the 2005 mean was 5.7 (SD = 1.5) and 6.2 (SD = 1.5) in 2008. Scores were significantly higher in larger units and in those with developmental care personnel or developmentally trained staff. Conclusion:, Despite a significant increase in developmental care skills and infrastructure, variable approaches persist, with limited improvements over time. These findings reflect a UK culture that is ambivalent towards developmental care, and enable comparison with other countries where developmental care is more fully supported. [source]

Nursing and midwifery management of hypoglycaemia in healthy term neonates

Vivien Hewitt BSc(Hons) GradDipLib
Executive summary Objectives The primary objective of this review was to determine the best available evidence for maintenance of euglycaemia, in healthy term neonates, and the management of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia in otherwise healthy term neonates. Inclusion criteria Types of studies The review included any relevant published or unpublished studies undertaken between 1995 and 2004. Studies that focus on the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care devices for blood glucose screening and/or monitoring in the neonate were initially included as a subgroup of this review. However, the technical nature and complexity of the statistical information published in diagnostic studies retrieved during the literature search stage, as well as the considerable volume of published research in this area, suggested that it would be more feasible to analyse diagnostic studies in a separate systematic review. Types of participants The review focused on studies that included healthy term (37- to 42-week gestation) appropriate size for gestational age neonates in the first 72 h after birth. Exclusions ,,preterm or small for gestational age newborns; ,,term neonates with a diagnosed medical or surgical condition, congenital or otherwise; ,,babies of diabetic mothers; ,,neonates with symptomatic hypoglycaemia; ,,large for gestational age neonates (as significant proportion are of diabetic mothers). Types of intervention All interventions that fell within the scope of practice of a midwife/nurse were included: ,,type (breast or breast milk substitutes), amount and/or timing of feeds, for example, initiation of feeding, and frequency; ,,regulation of body temperature; ,,monitoring (including screening) of neonates, including blood or plasma glucose levels and signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Interventions that required initiation by a medical practitioner were excluded from the review. Types of outcome measures Outcomes that were of interest included: ,,occurrence of hypoglycaemia; ,,re-establishment and maintenance of blood or plasma glucose levels at or above set threshold (as defined by the particular study); ,,successful breast-feeding; ,,developmental outcomes. Types of research designs The review initially focused on randomised controlled trials reported from 1995 to 2004. Insufficient randomised controlled trials were identified and the review was expanded to include additional cohort and cross-sectional studies for possible inclusion in a narrative summary. Search strategy The major electronic databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane Library, etc., were searched using accepted search techniques to identify relevant published and unpublished studies undertaken between 1995 and 2004. Efforts were made to locate any relevant unpublished materials, such as conference papers, research reports and dissertations. Printed journals were hand-searched and reference lists checked for potentially useful research. The year 1995 was selected as the starting point in order to identify any research that had not been included in the World Health Organisation review, which covered literature published up to 1996. The search was not limited to English language studies. Assessment of quality Three primary reviewers conducted the review assisted by a review panel. The review panel was comprised of nine nurses with expertise in neonatal care drawn from senior staff in several metropolitan neonatal units and education programs. Authorship of journal articles was not concealed from the reviewers. Methodological quality of each study that met the inclusion criteria was assessed by two reviewers, using a quality assessment checklist developed for the review. Disagreements between reviewers were resolved through discussion or with the assistance of a third reviewer. Data extraction and analysis Two reviewers used a data extraction form to independently extract data relating to the study design, setting and participants; study focus and intervention(s); and measurements and outcomes. As only one relevant randomised controlled trial was found, a meta-analysis could not be conducted nor tables constructed to illustrate comparisons between studies. Instead, the findings were summarised by a narrative identifying any relevant findings that emerged from the data. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria for the objective of this systematic review. The review provided information on the effectiveness of three categories of intervention , type of feeds, timing of feeds and thermoregulation on two of the outcome measures identified in the review protocol , prevention of hypoglycaemia, and re-establishment and maintenance of blood or plasma glucose levels above the set threshold (as determined by the particular study). There was no evidence available on which to base conclusions for effectiveness of monitoring or developmental outcomes, and insufficient evidence for breast-feeding success. Given that only a narrative review was possible, the findings of this review should be interpreted with caution. The findings suggest that the incidence of hypoglycaemia in healthy, breast-fed term infants of appropriate size for gestational age is uncommon and routine screening of these infants is not indicated. The method and timing of early feeding has little or no influence on the neonatal blood glucose measurement at 1 h in normal term babies. In healthy, breast-fed term infants the initiation and timing of feeds in the first 6 h of life has no significant influence on plasma glucose levels. The colostrum of primiparous mothers provides sufficient nutrition for the infant in the first 24 h after birth, and supplemental feeds or extra water is unnecessary. Skin-to-skin contact appears to provide an optimal environment for fetal to neonatal adaptation after birth and can help to maintain body temperature and adequate blood glucose levels in healthy term newborn infants, as well as providing an ideal opportunity to establish early bonding behaviours. Implications for practice The seven studies analysed in this review confirm the World Health Organisation's first three recommendations for prevention and management of asymptomatic hypoglycaemia, namely: 1Early and exclusive breast-feeding is safe to meet the nutritional needs of healthy term newborns worldwide. 2Healthy term newborns that are breast-fed on demand need not have their blood glucose routinely checked and need no supplementary foods or fluids. 3Healthy term newborns do not develop ,symptomatic' hypoglycaemia as a result of simple underfeeding. If an infant develops signs suggesting hypoglycaemia, look for an underlying condition. Detection and treatment of the cause are as important as correction of the blood glucose level. If there are any concerns that the newborn infant might be hypoglycaemic it should be given another feed. Given the importance of thermoregulation, skin-to-skin contact should be promoted and ,kangaroo care' encouraged in the first 24 h after birth. While it is important to main the infant's body temperature care should be taken to ensure that the child does not become overheated. [source]