Knockdown Embryos (knockdown + embryo)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Novel genes involved in canonical Wnt/, -catenin signaling pathway in early Ciona intestinalis embryos

Shuichi Wada
We report here characterization of five genes for novel components of the canonical Wnt/, -catenin signaling pathway. These genes were identified in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through a loss-of-function screening for genes required for embryogenesis with morpholinos, and four of them have counterparts in vertebrates. The five genes we studied are as follows: Ci-PGAP1, a Ciona orthologue of human PGAP1, which encodes GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) inositol-deacylase, Ci-ZF278, a gene encoding a C2H2 zinc-finger protein, Ci-C10orf11, a Ciona orthologue of human C10orf11 that encodes a protein with leucine-rich repeats, Ci-Spatial/C4orf17, a single counterpart for two human genes Spatial and C4orf17, and Ci-FLJ10634, a Ciona orthologue of human FLJ10634 that encodes a member of the J-protein family. Knockdown of each of the genes mimicked , -catenin knockdown and resulted in suppression of the expression of , -catenin downstream genes (Ci-FoxD, Ci-Lhx3, Ci-Otx and Ci-Fgf9/16/20) and subsequent endoderm formation. For every gene, defects in knockdown embryos were rescued by overexpression of a constitutively active form, but not wild-type, of Ci- , -catenin. Dosage-sensitive interactions were found between Ci-,-catenin and each of the genes. These results suggest that these five genes act upstream of or parallel to Ci- , -catenin in the Wnt/, -catenin signaling pathway in early Ciona embryos. [source]

Novel genes involved in Ciona intestinalis embryogenesis: Characterization of gene knockdown embryos

Mayuko Hamada
Abstract The sequenced genome of the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis contains nearly 2,500 genes that have vertebrate homologues, but their functions are as yet unknown. To identify novel genes involved in early chordates embryogenesis, we previously screened 200 Ciona genes by knockdown experiments using specific morpholino oligonucleotides and found that suppression of the translation of 40 genes caused embryonic defects (Yamada et al. [2003] Development 130:6485,6495). We have since examined an additional 304 genes, that is, screening 504 genes overall, and a total of 111 genes showed morphological defects when gene function was suppressed. We further examined the role of these genes in the differentiation of six major tissues of the embryo: endoderm, muscle, epidermis, neural tissue, mesenchyme, and notochord. Based on the similarity of phenotypes of gene knockdown embryos, genes were categorized into several groups, with the suggestion that the genes within a given group are involved in similar developmental processes. For example, five were shown to be novel genes that are likely involved in ,-catenin,mediated endoderm formation. The type of large-scale screening used is, therefore, a powerful approach to identify novel genes with significant developmental functions, the details of which will be determined in future studies. Developmental Dynamics 236:1820,1831, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Retinal patterning by Pax6-dependent cell adhesion molecules

Elisabeth Rungger-Brändle
Abstract Long-standing evidence gained from Pax6 mutant embryos pointed to an involvement of Pax6-dependent cell adhesion molecules in patterning the central nervous system and, in particular, the retina. However, direct evidence for such pathways remained elusive. We here present direct evidence that knockdown of Pax6 expression by morpholino antisense molecules in Xenopus embryos and knockdown of maternal N-cadherin (mNcad), N-cadherin (Ncad) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) produce similar phenotypes. Eye formation is reduced and retinal lamination is heavily disorganized. In Pax6 knockdown embryos, the levels of mRNAs coding for these cell adhesion molecules are markedly reduced. Overexpression of Pax6 efficiently rescues the phenotype of Pax6 knockdown embryos and restores expression of these putative target genes. Rescue of Pax6-deficiency by the putative target gene mNcad moderately rescues eye formation. The promoters of the genes coding for cell adhesion molecules contain several putative Pax6 binding sites, as determined by computer analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that, in embryonic heads, Pax6 binds to promoter regions containing such predicted binding sites. Thus, several cell adhesion molecules are direct target genes of Pax6 and cooperate in retinal patterning. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 764,780, 2010 [source]