Justice

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Justice

  • associate justice
  • chief justice
  • civil justice
  • court justice
  • criminal justice
  • distributive justice
  • economic justice
  • environmental justice
  • gender justice
  • global justice
  • interactional justice
  • intergenerational justice
  • international justice
  • juvenile justice
  • organizational justice
  • perceived justice
  • procedural justice
  • restorative justice
  • social justice
  • supreme court justice
  • transitional justice
  • youth justice

  • Terms modified by Justice

  • justice agencies
  • justice department
  • justice for all
  • justice issues
  • justice movement
  • justice perception
  • justice perspective
  • justice policy
  • justice professional
  • justice research
  • justice system
  • justice theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    DELIBERATING CRIME AND PUNISHMENT: A WAY OUT OF GET TOUGH JUSTICE?

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2006
    VANESSA BARKER
    First page of article [source]


    IN SEARCH OF COMMON GROUND: THE IMPORTANCE OF THEORETICAL ORIENTATIONS IN CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 2 2005
    M. KAY HARRIS
    [source]


    PALLIATIVE CARE, PUBLIC HEALTH AND JUSTICE: SETTING PRIORITIES IN RESOURCE POOR COUNTRIES

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2009
    CRAIG BLINDERMAN
    ABSTRACT Many countries have not considered palliative care a public health problem. With limited resources, disease-oriented therapies and prevention measures take priority. In this paper, I intend to describe the moral framework for considering palliative care as a public health priority in resource-poor countries. A distributive theory of justice for health care should consider integrative palliative care as morally required as it contributes to improving normal functioning and preserving opportunities for the individual. For patients requiring terminal care, we are guided less by principles of justice and more by the duty to relieve suffering and society's commitment to protecting the professional's obligation to uphold principles of beneficence, compassion and non-abandonment. A fair deliberation process is necessary to allow these strong moral commitments to serve as reasons when setting priorities in resource poor countries. [source]


    POPULATION AGING AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: ADDRESSING COMPETING CLAIMS OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2007
    MICHAL ENGELMAN
    ABSTRACT To date, bioethics and health policy scholarship has given little consideration to questions of aging and intergenerational justice in the developing world. Demographic changes are precipitating rapid population aging in developing nations, however, and ethical issues regarding older people's claim to scarce healthcare resources must be addressed. This paper posits that the traditional arguments about generational justice and age-based rationing of healthcare resources, which were developed primarily in more industrialized nations, fail to adequately address the unique challenges facing older persons in developing nations. Existing philosophical approaches to age-based resource allocation underemphasize the importance of older persons for developing countries and fail to adequately consider the rights and interests of older persons in these settings. Ultimately, the paper concludes that the most appropriate framework for thinking about generational justice in developing nations is a rights-based approach that allows for the interests of all age groups, including the oldest, to be considered in the determination of health resource allocation. [source]


    INTRODUCTION: THE LONG ROAD TO GLOBAL JUSTICE, PEACE, AND HUMANITY

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 3 2007
    XUNWU CHEN
    [source]


    JUSTICE AND PEACE IN KANT AND CONFUCIUS

    JOURNAL OF CHINESE PHILOSOPHY, Issue 3 2007
    CHUNG-YING CHENG
    [source]


    VALUES IN THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY THERAPIST: SELF DETERMINATION AND JUSTICE

    JOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 1 2003
    Richard Melito
    Recently, there has been renewed interest in the role of values in family therapy. A number of theorists agree that there is an inherent ethical dimension in all forms of therapy, because therapy necessarily involves influencing others in accord with a set of values. In cultures that value self determination, a potential conflict arises between the therapist's inherent moral influence and protecting the client's self determination. This article identifies that dilemma and investigates how different treatment approaches resolve it as they attempt to promote justice in the family. [source]


    NICHOLAS WOLTERSTORFF'S JUSTICE: RIGHTS AND WRONGS: AN INTRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS ETHICS, Issue 2 2009
    Paul Weithman
    ABSTRACT This introduction sets the stage for four papers on Nicholas Wolterstorff's Justice: Rights and Wrongs, written by Harold Attridge, Oliver O'Donovan, Richard Bernstein, and myself. In his book, Wolterstorff defends an account of human rights. The first section of this introduction distinguishes Wolterstorff's account of rights from the alternative account of rights against which he contends. The alternative account draws much of its power from a historical narrative according to which theory and politics supplanted earlier ways of thinking about justice. The second section sketches that narrative and Wolterstorff's counter-narrative. The third section draws together the main points of Wolterstorff's own account. [source]


    GLOBAL JUSTICE WITHOUT END?

    METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1-2 2005
    John Tasioulas
    Abstract: John Rawls argued in The Law of Peoples that we should reject any principle of international distributive justice, whether in ideal theory or nonideal theory. Instead, he advocated a duty of assistance on the part of well-ordered societies toward burdened societies. I argue that Rawls is correct that we should endorse a principle with a target and cut-off point rather than a principle of international distributive justice. But the target and cut-off point he favors is too undemanding, because it can be met by assisting a burdened society to become a decent people. Instead, only a society that respects the right to an adequate standard of living, and not simply a right to subsistence, can be an acceptable target. Rawls is prevented from drawing this conclusion by a failure to disentangle issues of intervention and assistance, a failure bound up with his flawed, intervention-driven account of human rights in defining a decent people. [source]


    PREACHING JUSTICE: DOMINICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO SOCIAL ETHICS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by Francesco Compagnoni OP and Helen Alford OP

    NEW BLACKFRIARS, Issue 1026 2009
    MICHAEL BLACK
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    POWER IN SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AS THE SUBJECT OF JUSTICE

    PACIFIC PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2005
    AARON JAMES
    This rationale for assessment of social justice equally applies to legally optional or informal social practices. But it does not apply to individual conduct. Indeed, it follows that principles of social justice cannot provide a basis for the assessment and guidance of individual choice. The paper develops this practice-based conception of the subject of justice by rejoining G. A. Cohen's influential critique of Rawls' focus on the "basic structure" of society. [source]


    JUSTICE IN TEAMS: ANTECEDENTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF PROCEDURAL JUSTICE CLIMATE

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    JASON A. COLQUITT
    This study examined antecedents and consequences of procedural justice climate (Mossholder, Bennett, & Martin, 1998; Naumann & Bennett, 2000) in a sample of manufacturing teams. The results showed that climate level (i.e., the average procedural justice perception within the team) was significantly related to both team performance and team absenteeism. Moreover, the effects of climate level were moderated by climate strength, such that the relationships were more beneficial in stronger climates. In addition, team size and team collectivism were significant antecedents of climate level, and team size and team demographic diversity predicted climate strength. [source]


    TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION CLAIMING: AN INTEGRATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND SOCIAL INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORIES

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    BARRY M. GOLDMAN
    This research examines predictors of actual discrimination claiming among terminated workers by investigating a number of variables suggested by organizational justice and social information processing theories. This study investigated initial decisions to claim in a sample of 439 terminated workers who were surveyed at several unemployment offices. Logistic regression was used to examine how the decision to claim for discrimination was affected by procedural and distributive justice, social guidance, minority status, gender, age, tenure, and education. All of the variables except education and gender were found to be significant. Thus, the results support variables from each of the theories. Social guidance was found to have a major influence on discrimination-claiming. A counter-intuitive finding for minority status was found such that Whites were more likely to claim than minorities. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. [source]


    GLOBAL JUSTICE AND THE SPECTER OF LEVIATHAN1

    PHILOSOPHICAL FORUM, Issue 1 2007
    MICHAEL PENDLEBURYArticle first published online: 22 FEB 200
    First page of article [source]


    PUNITIVE JUSTICE AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE AS SOCIAL RECONCILIATION

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
    ZENON SZABLOWINSKI
    The notion of justice is broad and complex. When we pursue justice too harshly after a conflict, we create new injustice and more victims; when we do not, the offenders usually keep hurting others and the violence is prolonged. As a matter of fact, only a few perpetrators can be punished. On the other hand, does punishment of the offender alone heal the victim or restore peace and harmony in society? Moreover, when the victim forgives, should the society still punish the offender? What role do truth recovery, state tribute (paid to the victims) and monetary compensation play in finding the balance between punitive justice and restorative justice? This paper takes up these issues of justice and, while discussing certain aspects of the relationship between punitive justice and restorative justice in some processes of social (national) reconciliation, tries to present some answers. [source]


    GLOBAL JUSTICE AND THE LIMITS OF HUMAN RIGHTS

    THE PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 221 2005
    Dale Dorsey
    To a great extent, recent discussion of global obligations has been couched in the language of human rights. I argue that this is a mistake. If, as many theorists have supposed, a normative theory applicable to obligations of global justice must also respect the needs of justice internal to recipient nations, any such theory cannot take human rights as an important moral notion. Human rights are inapplicable for the domestic justice of poor nations, and thus cannot form a plausible basis for international justice. Instead, I propose an alternative basis, a form of welfarist maximizing consequentialism. My alternative is superior to rights-based theories in dealing with the special problems of justice found in poor nations. [source]


    INDUCTIVE RISK AND JUSTICE IN KIDNEY ALLOCATION

    BIOETHICS, Issue 8 2010
    ANDREA SCARANTINO
    ABSTRACT How should UNOS deal with the presence of scientific controversies on the risk factors for organ rejection when designing its allocation policies? The answer I defend in this paper is that the more undesirable the consequences of making a mistake in accepting a scientific hypothesis, the higher the degree of confirmation required for its acceptance. I argue that the application of this principle should lead to the rejection of the hypothesis that ,less than perfect' Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) matches are an important determinant of kidney graft survival. The scientific community has been divided all along on the significance of partial antigen matches. Yet reliance on partial matches has emerged as one of the primary factors leading blacks to spend a much longer time than whites on the waiting list for kidneys, thereby potentially impacting the justice of the kidney allocation policy. My case study illustrates one of the legitimate roles non-epistemic values can play in science and calls into question the ideal of a value-free science. [source]


    ARTICLES: REPRODUCTIVE TOURISM AND THE QUEST FOR GLOBAL GENDER JUSTICE

    BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2010
    ANNE DONCHIN
    ABSTRACT Reproductive tourism is a manifestation of a larger, more inclusive trend toward globalization of capitalist cultural and material economies. This paper discusses the development of cross-border assisted reproduction within the globalized economy, transnational and local structural processes that influence the trade, social relations intersecting it, and implications for the healthcare systems affected. I focus on prevailing gender structures embedded in the cross-border trade and their intersection with other social and economic structures that reflect and impact globalization. I apply a social connection model of responsibility for unjust outcomes and consider strategies to counter structural injustices embedded in this industry. The concluding section discusses policy reforms and proposals for collaborative action to preclude further injustices and extend full human rights to all. [source]


    HOW TO CONNECT BIOETHICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: HEALTH, SUSTAINABILITY, AND JUSTICE

    BIOETHICS, Issue 9 2009
    JAMES DWYER
    ABSTRACT In this paper, I explore one way to bring bioethics and environmental ethics closer together. I focus on a question at the interface of health, sustainability, and justice: How well does a society promote health with the use of no more than a just share of environmental capacity? To address this question, I propose and discuss a mode of assessment that combines a measurement of population health, an estimate of environmental sustainability, and an assumption about what constitutes a fair or just share. This mode of assessment provides an estimate of the just and sustainable life expectancy of a population. It could be used to monitor how well a particular society promotes health within just environmental limits. It could also serve as a source of information that stakeholders use when they deliberate about programs, policies, and technologies. The purpose of this work is to focus attention on an ethical task: the need to fashion institutions and forms of life that promote health in ways that recognize the claims of sustainability and justice. [source]


    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE IN LIGHT OF SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH RESEARCH

    BIOETHICS, Issue 2 2009
    SRIDHAR VENKATAPURAM
    ABSTRACT The present article identifies how social determinants of health raise two categories of philosophical problems that also fall within the smaller domain of ethics; one set pertains to the philosophy of epidemiology, and the second set pertains to the philosophy of health and social justice. After reviewing these two categories of ethical concerns, the limited conclusion made is that identifying and responding to social determinants of health requires inter-disciplinary reasoning across epidemiology and philosophy. For the reasoning used in epidemiology to be sound, for its scope and (moral) purpose as a science to be clarified as well as for social justice theory to be relevant and coherent, epidemiology and philosophy need to forge a meaningful exchange of ideas that happens in both directions. [source]


    MOVING TOWARD GENDER JUSTICE

    BIOETHICS, Issue 9 2007
    ANNE DONCHIN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BENEFICENCE, DETERMINISM AND JUSTICE: AN ENGAGEMENT WITH THE ARGUMENT FOR THE GENETIC SELECTION OF INTELLIGENCE

    BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2005
    KEAN BIRCH
    ABSTRACT In 2001, Julian Savulescu wrote an article entitled ,Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children', in which he argued for the genetic selection of intelligence in children. That article contributes to a debate on whether genetic research on intelligence should be undertaken at all and, if so, should intelligence selection be available to potential parents. As such, the question of intelligence selection relates to wider issues concerning the genetic determination of behavioural traits, i.e. alcoholism. This article is designed as an engagement in the intelligence selection debate using an analysis of Savulescu's arguments to raise a series of problematic issues in relation to the ethics of parental selection of intelligence. These problematic issues relate to wider assumptions that are made in order to put forward intelligence selection as a viable ethical option. Such assumptions are more generic in character, but still relate to Savulescu's article, concerning issues of genetic determinism, private allocation and inequality, and, finally, individual versus aggregate justice. The conclusion focuses on what the implications are for the question of agency, especially if intelligence selection is allowed. [source]


    Capitalism Reorganized: Social Justice after Neo-liberalism

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 3 2010
    Albena Azmanova
    First page of article [source]


    Rawls and Derrida on the Historicity of Constitutional Democracy and International Justice

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 1 2009
    Johan van der Walt
    First page of article [source]


    A Critical Theory of Reparative Justice

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 2 2008
    Ernesto Verdeja
    First page of article [source]


    Military Justice Before and After September 11

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 4 2002
    Anthony W. Pereira
    First page of article [source]


    Justice and Foreigners: Kant's Cosmopolitan Right

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 1 2000
    Sankar Muthu
    First page of article [source]


    Are psychiatrists affecting the legal process by answering legal questions?

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 2 2008
    Timothy Hardie
    Background,Psychiatrists are often asked to answer legal questions. The extent to which they answer strictly legal rather than medical matters is not known. Aim,To investigate how strongly psychiatrists in England and Wales express opinions on one legal question , that of diminished responsibility in respect of a murder charge, and how this is related to outcome in court. Method,Our data were extracted from psychiatric reports and case files supplied by the then Department of Constitutional Affairs (now the Ministry of Justice) on cases heard in the Crown Courts between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2001 in which the defence of diminished responsibility had been raised. The cases had been selected by the Law Commission in their earlier review of partial defences to murder. We devised a reliable system of rating the presence/absence and strength of expression of a legal opinion in the medical reports. We tested the data for relationship between nature and strength of opinion and progression to trial and verdict. Results,Psychiatric reports were available on 143 of 156 cases in which diminished responsibility was considered. They yielded 338 opinions on at least one aspect of diminished responsibility. In 110 (93%) of the 118 cases in which there was a diminished verdict, this was made without trial and, therefore, without reference to a jury. In only eight (27%) out of the 30 cases that went to trial, was a diminished responsibility verdict made. Half of the reports (169) gave a clear opinion on diminished responsibility, a third (121) invited the court to draw a particular conclusion and only 11% (36) provided relevant evidence without answering the legal questions. When there was an opinion or an invitation to make a finding on the legal question, a trial was less likely. A trial was also less likely if reports agreed on what the verdict should be. Conclusions,Psychiatrists frequently answer the legal question of diminished responsibility. The judiciary and medical experts should join in research to examine the consequences of different styles or approaches in presentation of essentially similar evidence in court. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    FUNDING COMMUNITY POLICING TO REDUCE CRIME: HAVE COPS GRANTS MADE A DIFFERENCE?,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2002
    JIHONG "SOLOMON" ZHAO
    Research Summary: This research examines how funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), has affected violent and property crime rates in the United States from 1995 to 1999. Drawing on six years of panel data, we examine the effects of three types of awards made by COPS to 6,100 law enforcement agencies serving more than 145 million citizens. We estimate their impact on crime reduction over time in jurisdictions receiving funding and controlling for baseline levels of crime, socioeconomic characteristics, city size, and population diversity and mobility. Our analyses suggest that COPS hiring and innovative grant programs have resulted in significant reductions in local crime rates in cities with populations greater than 10,000 for both violent and nonviolent offenses. Multivariate analysis shows that in cities with populations greater than 10,000, an increase in one dollar of hiring grant funding per resident contributed to a corresponding decline of 5.26 violent crimes and 21.63 property crimes per 100,000 residents. Similarly, an increase in one dollar of innovative grant funding per resident has contributed to a decline of 12.93 violent crimes and 45.53 property crimes per 100,000 persons. In addition, the findings suggest that COPS grants have had no significant negative effect on violent and property crime rates in cities with less than 10,000 population. Policy Implications: The findings of this study imply that COPS program funding to medium- and large-size cities has been an effective force in reducing both violent and property crime. Federal government grants made directly to law enforcement agencies to hire additional officers and promote innovations may be an effective way to reduce crime on a national scale. [source]


    Imagining Social Justice: Cornel West's Prophetic Public Intellectualism

    CROSSCURRENTS, Issue 1 2008
    Gary Dorrien
    [source]