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## Joint Modeling (joint + modeling)
## Selected Abstracts## Robust Joint Modeling of Longitudinal Measurements and Competing Risks Failure Time Data BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009Ning LiAbstract Existing methods for joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and survival data can be highly influenced by outliers in the longitudinal outcome. We propose a joint model for analysis of longitudinal measurements and competing risks failure time data which is robust in the presence of outlying longitudinal observations during follow-up. Our model consists of a linear mixed effects sub-model for the longitudinal outcome and a proportional cause-specific hazards frailty sub-model for the competing risks data, linked together by latent random effects. Instead of the usual normality assumption for measurement errors in the linear mixed effects sub-model, we adopt a t -distribution which has a longer tail and thus is more robust to outliers. We derive an EM algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and estimate their standard errors using a profile likelihood method. The proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies and is applied to a scleroderma lung study (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## Joint Modeling for Cognitive Trajectory and Risk of Dementia in the Presence of Death BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2010Binbing YuSummary Dementia is characterized by accelerated cognitive decline before and after diagnosis as compared to normal aging. It has been known that cognitive impairment occurs long before the diagnosis of dementia. For individuals who develop dementia, it is important to determine the time when the rate of cognitive decline begins to accelerate and the subsequent gap time to dementia diagnosis. For normal aging individuals, it is also useful to understand the trajectory of cognitive function until their death. A Bayesian change-point model is proposed to fit the trajectory of cognitive function for individuals who develop dementia. In real life, people in older ages are subject to two competing risks, e.g., dementia and dementia-free death. Because the majority of people do not develop dementia, a mixture model is used for survival data with competing risks, which consists of dementia onset time after the change point of cognitive function decline for demented individuals and death time for nondemented individuals. The cognitive trajectories and the survival process are modeled jointly and the parameters are estimated using the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Using data from the Honolulu Asia Aging Study, we show the trajectories of cognitive function and the effect of education, apolipoprotein E 4 genotype, and hypertension on cognitive decline and the risk of dementia. [source] ## Joint Modeling and Analysis of Longitudinal Data with Informative Observation Times BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2009Yu LiangSummary In analysis of longitudinal data, it is often assumed that observation times are predetermined and are the same across study subjects. Such an assumption, however, is often violated in practice. As a result, the observation times may be highly irregular. It is well known that if the sampling scheme is correlated with the outcome values, the usual statistical analysis may yield bias. In this article, we propose joint modeling and analysis of longitudinal data with possibly informative observation times via latent variables. A two-step estimation procedure is developed for parameter estimation. We show that the resulting estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal, and that the asymptotic variance can be consistently estimated using the bootstrap method. Simulation studies and a real data analysis demonstrate that our method performs well with realistic sample sizes and is appropriate for practical use. [source] ## Latent-Model Robustness in Joint Models for a Primary Endpoint and a Longitudinal Process BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2009Xianzheng HuangSummary Joint modeling of a primary response and a longitudinal process via shared random effects is widely used in many areas of application. Likelihood-based inference on joint models requires model specification of the random effects. Inappropriate model specification of random effects can compromise inference. We present methods to diagnose random effect model misspecification of the type that leads to biased inference on joint models. The methods are illustrated via application to simulated data, and by application to data from a study of bone mineral density in perimenopausal women and data from an HIV clinical trial. [source] ## Modeling Longitudinal Data with Nonparametric Multiplicative Random Effects Jointly with Survival Data BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2008Jimin DingSummary In clinical studies, longitudinal biomarkers are often used to monitor disease progression and failure time. Joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data has certain advantages and has emerged as an effective way to mutually enhance information. Typically, a parametric longitudinal model is assumed to facilitate the likelihood approach. However, the choice of a proper parametric model turns out to be more elusive than models for standard longitudinal studies in which no survival endpoint occurs. In this article, we propose a nonparametric multiplicative random effects model for the longitudinal process, which has many applications and leads to a flexible yet parsimonious nonparametric random effects model. A proportional hazards model is then used to link the biomarkers and event time. We use B-splines to represent the nonparametric longitudinal process, and select the number of knots and degrees based on a version of the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Unknown model parameters are estimated through maximizing the observed joint likelihood, which is iteratively maximized by the Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization (MCEM) algorithm. Due to the simplicity of the model structure, the proposed approach has good numerical stability and compares well with the competing parametric longitudinal approaches. The new approach is illustrated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) data, aiming to capture nonlinear patterns of serum bilirubin time courses and their relationship with survival time of PBC patients. [source] ## On Models for Binomial Data with Random Numbers of Trials BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2007W. Scott ComuladaSummary A binomial outcome is a count s of the number of successes out of the total number of independent trials n=s+f, where f is a count of the failures. The n are random variables not fixed by design in many studies. Joint modeling of (s, f) can provide additional insight into the science and into the probability , of success that cannot be directly incorporated by the logistic regression model. Observations where n= 0 are excluded from the binomial analysis yet may be important to understanding how , is influenced by covariates. Correlation between s and f may exist and be of direct interest. We propose Bayesian multivariate Poisson models for the bivariate response (s, f), correlated through random effects. We extend our models to the analysis of longitudinal and multivariate longitudinal binomial outcomes. Our methodology was motivated by two disparate examples, one from teratology and one from an HIV tertiary intervention study. [source] ## Joint Models for Multivariate Longitudinal and Multivariate Survival Data BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2006Yueh-Yun ChiSummary Joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data is becoming increasingly essential in most cancer and AIDS clinical trials. We propose a likelihood approach to extend both longitudinal and survival components to be multidimensional. A multivariate mixed effects model is presented to explicitly capture two different sources of dependence among longitudinal measures over time as well as dependence between different variables. For the survival component of the joint model, we introduce a shared frailty, which is assumed to have a positive stable distribution, to induce correlation between failure times. The proposed marginal univariate survival model, which accommodates both zero and nonzero cure fractions for the time to event, is then applied to each marginal survival function. The proposed multivariate survival model has a proportional hazards structure for the population hazard, conditionally as well as marginally, when the baseline covariates are specified through a specific mechanism. In addition, the model is capable of dealing with survival functions with different cure rate structures. The methodology is specifically applied to the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) trial to investigate the relationship between quality of life, disease-free survival, and overall survival. [source] ## Longitudinal data analysis in pedigree studies GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY, Issue S1 2003W. James GaudermanAbstract Longitudinal family studies provide a valuable resource for investigating genetic and environmental factors that influence long-term averages and changes over time in a complex trait. This paper summarizes 13 contributions to Genetic Analysis Workshop 13, which include a wide range of methods for genetic analysis of longitudinal data in families. The methods can be grouped into two basic approaches: 1) two-step modeling, in which repeated observations are first reduced to one summary statistic per subject (e.g., a mean or slope), after which this statistic is used in a standard genetic analysis, or 2) joint modeling, in which genetic and longitudinal model parameters are estimated simultaneously in a single analysis. In applications to Framingham Heart Study data, contributors collectively reported evidence for genes that affected trait mean on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 17, but most did not find genes affecting slope. Applications to simulated data suggested that even for a gene that only affected slope, use of a mean-type statistic could provide greater power than a slope-type statistic for detecting that gene. We report on the results of a small experiment that sheds some light on this apparently paradoxical finding, and indicate how one might form a more powerful test for finding a slope-affecting gene. Several areas for future research are discussed. Genet Epidemiol 25 (Suppl. 1):S18,S28, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source] ## Bayesian longitudinal plateau model of adult grip strength AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2010Ramzi W. NahhasObjectives: This article illustrates the use of applied Bayesian statistical methods in modeling the trajectory of adult grip strength and in evaluating potential risk factors that may influence that trajectory. Methods: The data consist of from 1 to 11 repeated grip strength measurements from each of 498 men and 533 women age 18,96 years in the Fels Longitudinal Study (Roche AF. 1992. Growth, maturation and body composition: the Fels longitudinal study 1929,1991. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). In this analysis, the Bayesian framework was particularly useful for fitting a nonlinear mixed effects plateau model with two unknown change points and for the joint modeling of a time-varying covariate. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to handle missing values with posterior inferences appropriately adjusted to account for between-imputation variability. Results: On average, men and women attain peak grip strength at the same age (36 years), women begin to decline in grip strength sooner (age 50 years for women and 56 years for men), and men lose grip strength at a faster rate relative to their peak; there is an increasing secular trend in peak grip strength that is not attributable to concurrent secular trends in body size, and the grip strength trajectory varies with birth weight (men only), smoking (men only), alcohol consumption (men and women), and sports activity (women only). Conclusions: Longitudinal data analysis requires handling not only serial correlation but often also time-varying covariates, missing data, and unknown change points. Bayesian methods, combined with MI, are useful in handling these issues. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22:648,656, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source] ## Robust Joint Modeling of Longitudinal Measurements and Competing Risks Failure Time Data BIOMETRICAL JOURNAL, Issue 1 2009Ning LiAbstract Existing methods for joint modeling of longitudinal measurements and survival data can be highly influenced by outliers in the longitudinal outcome. We propose a joint model for analysis of longitudinal measurements and competing risks failure time data which is robust in the presence of outlying longitudinal observations during follow-up. Our model consists of a linear mixed effects sub-model for the longitudinal outcome and a proportional cause-specific hazards frailty sub-model for the competing risks data, linked together by latent random effects. Instead of the usual normality assumption for measurement errors in the linear mixed effects sub-model, we adopt a t -distribution which has a longer tail and thus is more robust to outliers. We derive an EM algorithm for the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and estimate their standard errors using a profile likelihood method. The proposed method is evaluated by simulation studies and is applied to a scleroderma lung study (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source] ## On Estimating the Relationship between Longitudinal Measurements and Time-to-Event Data Using a Simple Two-Stage Procedure BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2010Paul S. AlbertSummaryYe, Lin, and Taylor (2008,,Biometrics,64, 1238,1246) proposed a joint model for longitudinal measurements and time-to-event data in which the longitudinal measurements are modeled with a semiparametric mixed model to allow for the complex patterns in longitudinal biomarker data. They proposed a two-stage regression calibration approach that is simpler to implement than a joint modeling approach. In the first stage of their approach, the mixed model is fit without regard to the time-to-event data. In the second stage, the posterior expectation of an individual's random effects from the mixed-model are included as covariates in a Cox model. Although Ye et al. (2008) acknowledged that their regression calibration approach may cause a bias due to the problem of informative dropout and measurement error, they argued that the bias is small relative to alternative methods. In this article, we show that this bias may be substantial. We show how to alleviate much of this bias with an alternative regression calibration approach that can be applied for both discrete and continuous time-to-event data. Through simulations, the proposed approach is shown to have substantially less bias than the regression calibration approach proposed by Ye et al. (2008). In agreement with the methodology proposed by Ye et al. (2008), an advantage of our proposed approach over joint modeling is that it can be implemented with standard statistical software and does not require complex estimation techniques. [source] ## Multiple-Imputation-Based Residuals and Diagnostic Plots for Joint Models of Longitudinal and Survival Outcomes BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2010Dimitris RizopoulosSummary The majority of the statistical literature for the joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data has focused on the development of models that aim at capturing specific aspects of the motivating case studies. However, little attention has been given to the development of diagnostic and model-assessment tools. The main difficulty in using standard model diagnostics in joint models is the nonrandom dropout in the longitudinal outcome caused by the occurrence of events. In particular, the reference distribution of statistics, such as the residuals, in missing data settings is not directly available and complex calculations are required to derive it. In this article, we propose a multiple-imputation-based approach for creating multiple versions of the completed data set under the assumed joint model. Residuals and diagnostic plots for the complete data model can then be calculated based on these imputed data sets. Our proposals are exemplified using two real data sets. [source] ## A Semiparametric Joint Model for Longitudinal and Survival Data with Application to Hemodialysis Study BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2009Liang LiSummary In many longitudinal clinical studies, the level and progression rate of repeatedly measured biomarkers on each subject quantify the severity of the disease and that subject's susceptibility to progression of the disease. It is of scientific and clinical interest to relate such quantities to a later time-to-event clinical endpoint such as patient survival. This is usually done with a shared parameter model. In such models, the longitudinal biomarker data and the survival outcome of each subject are assumed to be conditionally independent given subject-level severity or susceptibility (also called frailty in statistical terms). In this article, we study the case where the conditional distribution of longitudinal data is modeled by a linear mixed-effect model, and the conditional distribution of the survival data is given by a Cox proportional hazard model. We allow unknown regression coefficients and time-dependent covariates in both models. The proposed estimators are maximizers of an exact correction to the joint log likelihood with the frailties eliminated as nuisance parameters, an idea that originated from correction of covariate measurement error in measurement error models. The corrected joint log likelihood is shown to be asymptotically concave and leads to consistent and asymptotically normal estimators. Unlike most published methods for joint modeling, the proposed estimation procedure does not rely on distributional assumptions of the frailties. The proposed method was studied in simulations and applied to a data set from the Hemodialysis Study. [source] ## Joint Modeling and Analysis of Longitudinal Data with Informative Observation Times BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2009Yu LiangSummary In analysis of longitudinal data, it is often assumed that observation times are predetermined and are the same across study subjects. Such an assumption, however, is often violated in practice. As a result, the observation times may be highly irregular. It is well known that if the sampling scheme is correlated with the outcome values, the usual statistical analysis may yield bias. In this article, we propose joint modeling and analysis of longitudinal data with possibly informative observation times via latent variables. A two-step estimation procedure is developed for parameter estimation. We show that the resulting estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal, and that the asymptotic variance can be consistently estimated using the bootstrap method. Simulation studies and a real data analysis demonstrate that our method performs well with realistic sample sizes and is appropriate for practical use. [source] ## Estimating a Multivariate Familial Correlation Using Joint Models for Canonical Correlations: Application to Memory Score Analysis from Familial Hispanic Alzheimer's Disease Study BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2009Hye-Seung LeeSummary Analysis of multiple traits can provide additional information beyond analysis of a single trait, allowing better understanding of the underlying genetic mechanism of a common disease. To accommodate multiple traits in familial correlation analysis adjusting for confounders, we develop a regression model for canonical correlation parameters and propose joint modeling along with mean and scale parameters. The proposed method is more powerful than the regression method modeling pairwise correlations because it captures familial aggregation manifested in multiple traits through maximum canonical correlation. [source] ## Discriminant Analysis for Longitudinal Data with Multiple Continuous Responses and Possibly Missing Data BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2009Guillermo MarshallSummary Multiple outcomes are often used to properly characterize an effect of interest. This article discusses model-based statistical methods for the classification of units into one of two or more groups where, for each unit, repeated measurements over time are obtained on each outcome. We relate the observed outcomes using multivariate nonlinear mixed-effects models to describe evolutions in different groups. Due to its flexibility, the random-effects approach for the joint modeling of multiple outcomes can be used to estimate population parameters for a discriminant model that classifies units into distinct predefined groups or populations. Parameter estimation is done via the expectation-maximization algorithm with a linear approximation step. We conduct a simulation study that sheds light on the effect that the linear approximation has on classification results. We present an example using data from a study in 161 pregnant women in Santiago, Chile, where the main interest is to predict normal versus abnormal pregnancy outcomes. [source] ## Spatial Multistate Transitional Models for Longitudinal Event Data BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2008F. S. NathooSummary Follow-up medical studies often collect longitudinal data on patients. Multistate transitional models are useful for analysis in such studies where at any point in time, individuals may be said to occupy one of a discrete set of states and interest centers on the transition process between states. For example, states may refer to the number of recurrences of an event, or the stage of a disease. We develop a hierarchical modeling framework for the analysis of such longitudinal data when the processes corresponding to different subjects may be correlated spatially over a region. Continuous-time Markov chains incorporating spatially correlated random effects are introduced. Here, joint modeling of both spatial dependence as well as dependence between different transition rates is required and a multivariate spatial approach is employed. A proportional intensities frailty model is developed where baseline intensity functions are modeled using parametric Weibull forms, piecewise-exponential formulations, and flexible representations based on cubic B-splines. The methodology is developed within the context of a study examining invasive cardiac procedures in Quebec. We consider patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome throughout the 139 local health units of the province and examine readmission and mortality rates over a 4-year period. [source] ## A Bayesian Semiparametric Joint Hierarchical Model for Longitudinal and Survival Data BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2003Elizabeth R. BrownSummary This article proposes a new semiparametric Bayesian hierarchical model for the joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data. We relax the distributional assumptions for the longitudinal model using Dirichlet process priors on the parameters defining the longitudinal model. The resulting posterior distribution of the longitudinal parameters is free of parametric constraints, resulting in more robust estimates. This type of approach is becoming increasingly essential in many applications, such as HIV and cancer vaccine trials, where patients' responses are highly diverse and may not be easily modeled with known distributions. An example will be presented from a clinical trial of a cancer vaccine where the survival outcome is time to recurrence of a tumor. Immunologic measures believed to be predictive of tumor recurrence were taken repeatedly during follow-up. We will present an analysis of this data using our new semiparametric Bayesian hierarchical joint modeling methodology to determine the association of these longitudinal immunologic measures with time to tumor recurrence. [source] ## Survival Analysis in Clinical Trials: Past Developments and Future Directions BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2000Thomas R. FlemingSummary. The field of survival analysis emerged in the 20th century and experienced tremendous growth during the latter half of the century. The developments in this field that have had the most profound impact on clinical trials are the Kaplan-Meier (1958, Journal of the American Statistical Association53, 457,481) method for estimating the survival function, the log-rank statistic (Mantel, 1966, Cancer Chemotherapy Report50, 163,170) for comparing two survival distributions, and the Cox (1972, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B34, 187,220) proportional hazards model for quantifying the effects of covariates on the survival time. The counting-process martingale theory pioneered by Aalen (1975, Statistical inference for a family of counting processes, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley) provides a unified framework for studying the small- and large-sample properties of survival analysis statistics. Significant progress has been achieved and further developments are expected in many other areas, including the accelerated failure time model, multivariate failure time data, interval-censored data, dependent censoring, dynamic treatment regimes and causal inference, joint modeling of failure time and longitudinal data, and Baysian methods. [source] |