Joint Disorders (joint + disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Joint Disorders

  • temporomandibular joint disorders

  • Selected Abstracts

    The influence of strenuous exercise on collagen characteristics of articular cartilage in Thoroughbreds age 2 years

    P. A. J. BRAMA
    Summary In order to assess the influence of strenuous exercise on collagen characteristics of articularcartilage, the response of the collagen network was studied in seven 2-year-old Thoroughbreds subjected to strenuous exercise compared to 7 nontrained individuals. After 13 weeks, the animals were subjected to euthanasia, fetlock joints of the forelimbs were scored macroscopically after Indian Ink staining, and articular cartilage from different locations of the articular surface of the proximal first phalanx was sampled and analysed for water content, collagen content, hydroxylysine content and amount of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) crosslinks. Gross lesions were significantly more severe in the exercised than in the nonexercised group. In the control animals, the characteristic site-specific differences in collagen parameters were found as described earlier, but in the strenuously exercised animals this physiological biochemical heterogeneity had disappeared. In the exercised animals, an increase in water content and a sharp decrease in HP crosslinking was found that was correlated with the presence of wear lines. It is concluded that the strenuous exercise provoked significant alterations in the characteristics of the collagen network of the articular cartilage of the fetlock joint which were suggestive of microdamage and loosening of the collagen network. The collagen component of cartilage, in contrast to the proteoglycan component, is known to have a very limited capacity for repairand remodelling due to an extremely low turnover rate. Therefore, alterations within the articular collagen network might be expected to play an important role in the pathophysiology of degenerative joint disorders. [source]

    Hepatitis C virus does not infect muscle, the intervertebral disk, or the meniscus in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Javier Bartolomé
    Abstract Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations, including neuromuscular and joint disorders, and HCV RNA has been detected in muscle fibers of patients with myosistis and chronic hepatitis C. However, whether HCV infects muscle cells in patients without myosistis is unknown. The presence of HCV in other sites of the musculoskeletal system has not been investigated. In the present study the presence of HCV RNA was sought in muscle (2 cases), intervertebral disk (1 case) and meniscus (1 case) samples from patients with chronic hepatitis C. HCV RNA was not detected by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction in any of the samples tested. In conclusion, the results do not support a direct role of HCV in musculoskeletal disorders associated with chronic hepatitis C. J. Med. Virol. 79:1818,1820, 2007. © Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Diclofenac sodium and occlusal splint therapy in TMJ osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    Summary, The aim of the study was to compare treatment with diclofenac sodium (Voltaren 3 × 50 mg) to occlusal splint therapy in a randomized, single-blind controlled trial of patients with a diagnosis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA) in accordance with Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders. Patients with general joint disorders or restrictions against medication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug were not included. Twenty-seven females and two males (aged 36,76 years) included, answered a standardized questionnaire and were clinically examined and they underwent TMJ tomography. The treatment was randomized to either splint (n = 15) or diclofenac (n = 14). The temperatures over the TMJs were determined. The patients were re-examined 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after the start of treatment. A 1-year follow-up was carried out using questionnaires. After 1 week of treatment with diclofenac, significant reductions of pain and discomfort, TMJ tenderness and joint pain on jaw movements were noted. The splint therapy gave a significant reduction of reported symptoms after 1 month of treatment. Both treatments gave few adverse effects and were on an equal level. Estimation of the degree of inflammation by measuring the surface temperature over the TMJ was not reliable. Structural changes of the symptomatic TMJs were radiographically found in 82%, the contralateral, symptom-free TMJ had changes in 36%. There was a discrepancy between the clinical and the radiographical findings. Diclofenac gave a more rapid improvement, but both treatments gave a significant reduction of symptoms of TMJ OA within 3 months which remained at the one-year follow-up. [source]

    Mood and anxiety psychopathology and temporomandibular disorder: a spectrum approach

    D. Manfredini
    summary, Psychological factors play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), as demonstrated by an increase in stress, anxiety, depression and somatization in TMD patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of mood and panic-agoraphobic symptoms in different groups of TMD patients by means of a spectrum approach to psychopathology. A total of 131 subjects were included in this study and TMD signs and symptoms were investigated by means of a standardized clinical examination. Two self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate mood (MOODS-SR) and panic-agoraphobic (PAS-SR) spectrum. anova and Bonferroni's post hoc test for multiple comparisons were used to compare mean scores of all TMD groups for MOODS-SR, PAS-SR and all their domains. Results revealed a significantly higher prevalence of both mood (P < 0·001) and panic-agoraphobic (P < 0·01) symptoms in myofascial pain patients than in all other diagnostic groups (TMD-free, disc displacement and joint disorders). With regard to mood spectrum, strong differences emerged for all domains evaluating depressive symptoms. As for the panic-agoraphobic spectrum, myofascial pain patients differed from the other groups for the presence of stress sensitivity, panic, separation anxiety, hypochondriac and agoraphobic symptoms. It was concluded that myofascial pain patients differed from those with disc displacement, joint disorders and no TMD in relation to some psychopathological symptoms, while the last three groups presented very similar profiles. [source]

    Association between condylar position, joint morphology and craniofacial morphology in orthodontic patients without temporomandibular joint disorders

    K. Kikuchi
    summary, The present study investigated condylar position and joint morphology in adolescent patients and elucidated the possible association between the joint structure and condylar position, and craniofacial morphology. Sixty-five adolescent patients were selected as subjects and their tomograms and lateral cephalograms were analysed. No significant differences in joint spaces were found between the right and left temporomandibular joints. Both the condyles in this population were located slight anteriorly in the glenoid fossa. With respect to the association between condylar position, joint morphology and craniofacial morphology, the ramus plane angle also exhibited significant negative correlations with posterior, lateral and medial joint spaces. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the gonial angle and the anterior joint space. These findings imply that the condyle was likely to show more posterior position in the glenoid fossa when the mandible exhibited clockwise rotation. In conclusion, the condyle in the adolescent subjects showed a symmetrical anterior position relative to the glenoid fossa. In addition, the joint spaces and it ratios were significantly related to the craniofacial morphology associated with vertical dimension. It is suggested that the condylar position may be affected by craniofacial growth pattern. [source]

    Amitriptyline treatment of chronic pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    O. Plesh
    Randomized clinical trials of amitriptyline will require data from pilot studies to be used for sample size estimates, but such data are lacking. This study investigated the 6-week and 1-year effectiveness of low dose amitriptyline (10,30 mg) for the treatment of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. Based on clinical examination, patients were divided into two groups: myofascial and mixed (myofascial and temporomandibular joint disorders). Baseline pain was assessed by a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain intensity and by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) short form. Patient assessment of global treatment effectiveness was obtained after 6 weeks and 1 year of treatment by using a five-point ordinal scale: (1) worse, (2) unchanged, (3) minimally improved, (4) moderately improved, (5) markedly improved. The results showed a significant reduction for all pain scores after 6 weeks and 1 year post-treatment. The depression scores changed in depressed but not in non-depressed patients. Global treatment effectiveness showed significant improvement 6 weeks and 1 year post-treatment. However, pain and global treatment effectiveness were less improved at 1 year than at 6 weeks. [source]

    Abdominal compartment syndrome during hip arthroscopy

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 5 2009
    A. Sharma
    Summary Hip arthroscopy is recognised as a highly effective means of treating joint disorders. The majority of complications associated with hip arthroscopy involve neurovascular traction injury. We report a relatively unusual complication of hip arthroscopy, extravasation of irrigation fluid into the retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal cavities, resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome. [source]

    Control of Dkk-1 ameliorates chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage destruction, and subchondral bone deterioration in osteoarthritic knees

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2010
    Lin-Hsiu Weng
    Objective Perturbation of Wnt signaling components reportedly regulates chondrocyte fate and joint disorders. The Wnt inhibitor Dkk-1 mediates remodeling of various tissue types. We undertook this study to examine whether control of Dkk-1 expression prevents joint deterioration in osteoarthritic (OA) knees. Methods Anterior cruciate ligament transection,and collagenase-induced OA in rat knees was treated with end-capped phosphorothioate Dkk-1 antisense oligonucleotide (Dkk-1,AS). Articular cartilage destruction, cartilage degradation markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and subchondral trabecular bone volume of injured knee joints were measured using Mankin scoring, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and histomorphometry. Dkk-1,responsive molecule expression and apoptotic cells in knee tissue were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and TUNEL staining. Results Up-regulated Dkk-1 expression was associated with increased Mankin score and with increased serum levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) during OA development. Dkk-1,AS treatment alleviated OA-associated increases in Dkk-1 expression, Mankin score, cartilage fibrillation, and serum cartilage degradation markers. Dkk-1,AS also alleviated epiphyseal BMD loss and subchondral bone exposure associated with altered serum levels of osteocalcin and CTX-I. The treatment abrogated chondrocyte/osteoblast apoptosis and subchondral trabecular bone remodeling in OA. Dkk-1 knockdown increased levels of nuclear ,-catenin and phosphorylated Ser473 -Akt but attenuated expression of inflammatory factors (Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR-4], TLR-9, interleukin-1,, and tumor necrosis factor ,), the apoptosis regulator Bax, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and RANKL in OA knee joints. Conclusion Interference with the cartilage- and bone-deleterious actions of Dkk-1 provides therapeutic potential for alleviating cartilage destruction and subchondral bone damage in OA knee joints. [source]

    Inhibition of NF-,B signaling by fasudil as a potential therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 1 2010
    Hiroshi Okamoto
    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common systemic autoimmune disease and is characterized mainly by symmetric polyarticular joint disorders. The pathologic processes are mediated by a number of cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, and matrix metalloproteinases. The expression of most of these molecules is controlled at the transcriptional level. In addition, activation of NF-,B is involved in RA pathogenesis. This study was performed to explore the role of a novel serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, fasudil, in the control of the NF-,B activation pathway and to investigate the therapeutic effects of fasudil on arthritis development in a rat model of RA. Methods Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from RA patients and human endothelial cells (ECs) were established and maintained. To study the role of fasudil on cytokine expression, various cytokines expressed in the RA FLS and human ECs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following stimulation of the cells with interleukin-1, (IL-1,) in the presence of various concentrations of fasudil. The role of fasudil on NF-,B activation was studied using a reporter gene assay, Western blotting of I,B,, immunofluorescence analysis of the p65 subunit of NF-,B, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The in vivo effects of fasudil on arthritis were studied in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Results Fasudil inhibited cytokine expression in RA FLS and human ECs and also inhibited the activation of ECs, in a dose-dependent manner. Fasudil inhibited IL-1,,induced activation of NF-,B independent of the inhibition of I,B, degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-,B, and inhibited IL-1,,induced DNA binding of NF-,B. Finally, in vivo, fasudil ameliorated arthritis in rats with AIA, without any adverse effects. Conclusion Serine/threonine kinase inhibitor fasudil inhibits the development of arthritis in a rat model of RA, and also inhibits the NF-,B signaling required for binding of NF-,B to specific DNA sequences through, for example, the phosphorylation of p65, suggesting that a specific target of fasudil might be a novel NF-,B kinase. Thus, fasudil serves as a novel strategy for the treatment of RA. [source]

    Temporomandibular joint disorders in patients referred for third molar extraction

    AF DeAngelis
    Abstract Background:, Third molar removal has been implicated as a precipitating event for temporomandibular joint disorders. The aim of this study was to determine what proportion of patients had pre-existing pain and dysfunction that could be attributed to the temporomandibular joints. Methods:, Sixty patients referred for third molar removal were clinically examined and a history of their presenting complaint recorded at the initial consultation visit. Patients were then diagnosed and categorized. Results:, Of the total number of patients examined, 13.3 per cent showed signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction while a further 23.3 per cent also had symptomatic third molar teeth. Conclusions:, The results of this study suggest that the signs of temporomandibular joint disorders are common in patients referred for third molar extractions. [source]