Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Joints

  • adhesive joint
  • affected joint
  • ankle joint
  • arthritic joint
  • atlanto-occipital joint
  • ball joint
  • different joint
  • distal interphalangeal joint
  • elbow joint
  • facet joint
  • femorotibial joint
  • hip joint
  • inflamed joint
  • interphalangeal joint
  • knee joint
  • lap joint
  • limb joint
  • metacarpophalangeal joint
  • metatarsophalangeal joint
  • normal joint
  • other joint
  • patellofemoral joint
  • rat knee joint
  • rheumatoid joint
  • sacroiliac joint
  • shoulder joint
  • small joint
  • solder joint
  • synovial joint
  • target joint
  • tarsal joint
  • tarsometatarsal joint
  • temporomandibular joint
  • tibiofemoral joint
  • welded joint
  • wrist joint

  • Terms modified by Joints

  • joint action
  • joint activity
  • joint analysis
  • joint angle
  • joint arthroplasty
  • joint assessment
  • joint attention
  • joint blood flow
  • joint british society
  • joint capsule
  • joint cartilage
  • joint cavity
  • joint commission
  • joint committee
  • joint contractures
  • joint control
  • joint count
  • joint damage
  • joint deformity
  • joint degeneration
  • joint design
  • joint destruction
  • joint deterioration
  • joint development
  • joint disease
  • joint dislocation
  • joint disorders
  • joint distribution
  • joint effect
  • joint effects
  • joint effort
  • joint effusion
  • joint estimation
  • joint evaluation
  • joint examination
  • joint experimental
  • joint fluid
  • joint force
  • joint function
  • joint infection
  • joint infections
  • joint inflammation
  • joint influence
  • joint injury
  • joint instability
  • joint inversion
  • joint involvement
  • joint kinematics
  • joint laxity
  • joint lesion
  • joint load
  • joint loading
  • joint manifestation
  • joint margin
  • joint meeting
  • joint mobility
  • joint model
  • joint modeling
  • joint modelling
  • joint moment
  • joint morphology
  • joint motion
  • joint movement
  • joint national committee
  • joint osteoarthritis
  • joint outcome
  • joint pain
  • joint position
  • joint position sense
  • joint posture
  • joint probability
  • joint product
  • joint production
  • joint profit
  • joint project
  • joint range
  • joint replacement
  • joint replacement surgery
  • joint rotation
  • joint score
  • joint sound
  • joint space
  • joint space narrowing
  • joint space width
  • joint stability
  • joint stiffness
  • joint strength
  • joint structure
  • joint surface
  • joint surgery
  • joint swelling
  • joint symptom
  • joint system
  • joint test
  • joint tissue
  • joint torque
  • joint use
  • joint venture

  • Selected Abstracts


    Satoshi Ishikawa MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Bryan W. Sokol
    First page of article [source]

    Words, flies, Jews, Joyce, Joint: Wyndham Lewis and the unpublishing of obscenity

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2004
    Geoff Gilbert
    First page of article [source]

    Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Linear Friction Welded 45 Steel Joint

    J. Ma
    Linear friction welding (LFW) is an emerging solid-state joining process to extend the current applications of welding. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of LFW 45 steel joint were investigated. The microstructures from the weld center to the parent metal were the superfine ferrite+pearlite in the weld center, the deformed fine ferrite + pearlite in the thermomechanically affected zone, the tempered sorbite, troosite and martensite in the heat affected zone. The microhardness of the joint decreased gradually from the parent metal to the weld center. The tensile properties of the joint were significantly improved in both the strength and ductility. The microstructure evolution, microhardness variation and fracture position are attributed to the various thermal histories of different positions. [source]

    Mental health training and development needs of community agency staff

    Jenny Secker
    Abstract Emphasis has long been placed in UK national policy on providing ,seamless' mental health services to meet both the health and social care needs of service users. While attention has been paid to the training required by specialist mental health and primary care staff in order to achieve this, the needs of other community agency staff have received less attention. The present article describes a study designed to identify the training needs of staff working within a broad range of agencies. Focus group discussions were used to explore participants' experiences of mental health problems amongst clients, their confidence in dealing with these, current sources of support and perceived training needs. The results indicate that participants in all agencies routinely encountered a range of problems. Colleagues were the main source of support, followed by line managers, but supervision structures and wider organisational support were lacking in some cases. Joint working with specialist mental health services was almost universally problematic and all groups identified a range of training needs. On the basis of the results, the present authors put forward suggestions as to how these needs might be met. [source]

    Rheumatological presentations of anticoagulation related hemorrhages

    S. R. Cox
    Abstract Background: Joint, back and muscle pain are common in patients referred to a rheumatology unit. Acute pain due to hemorrhage may be difficult to distinguish from more common causes of pain in these patients. This article describes a small case-series of patients who presented acutely with hemarthroses, spinal hemorrhage or muscle hematomas while receiving anticoagulant treatment. Methods: Case notes of nine patients were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic characteristics, indication for anticoagulation, international normalized ratio, and management were evaluated. Results: The majority of hemorrhages occurred when the INR was within the therapeutic range. Anticoagulation was held in all cases. Joint aspiration was performed in all cases of hemarthrosis. Surgical intervention was required in management of the spinal epidural bleed and also in one case of muscle hematoma. Conclusion: Cases described represent major hemorrhages in anticoagulated patients. There is little literature on specific treatment and prognosis, particularly with respect to hemarthrosis, and further studies are needed. [source]

    Medial collateral ligament autografts have increased creep response for at least two years and early immobilization makes this worse

    G. M. Thornton
    Recent evidence has shown that 10,40% of knee joints reconstructed with soft-tissue autografts have a recurrence of abnormal joint laxity over time. One possible explanation is the "stretching out" (or unrecovered creep) of the graft tissue. To test in vitro creep and creep recovery of fresh anatomic ligament autografts in an extra-articular environment, 16 rabbits underwent an orthotopic medial collateral ligament (MCL) autograft procedure to one hindlimb. Three subgroups of animals had either unrestricted cage activity for 1 year (n = 5) or 2 years (n = 5) or pin-immobilization for the first 6 weeks followed by cage activity for the remainder of 1 year (n = 6). Following laxity measurements, to test their creep response, isolated MCL grafts were cyclically and then statically creep tested in vitro at 4.1 MPa, allowed to recover at zero load for 20 min, and finally elongated to failure. Due to differences in cross-sectional area between the grafts and normal MCLs, two normal control groups were tested: stress-matched tested at 4.1 MPa (16.2 N; n = 7) and force-matched tested at 29.1 N (7.1 MPa; n = 6). Ligament grafts had normal laxity but significantly increased creep and decreased creep recovery compared to normal MCLs after 1 and 2 years of healing (p < 0.0004). Graft failure stress was also significantly less than normal (p < 0.0001). Immobilized grafts had significantly greater creep compared to non-immobilized grafts at 1 year of healing (p < 0.05). These results support previous observations concerning material inferiority of fresh anatomic rabbit MCL autografts, but add the concept that such grafts also have increased potential to creep with either slower or incomplete recovery when subjected to low stresses in vitro. Joint and ligament laxities in situ were normal in this model, however, suggesting either that in vivo MCL graft stresses are lower than those used here in vitro or that these tissues have other mechanisms by which they can recover their functional length in vivo. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Nonlinear FEM Simulation of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) Skirt Joint Under Tension Loading

    The mechanical properties of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) skirt cloth, which is a nonlinear rubber-coated fabric, are tested on a Series IX 4465 electron tension machine manufactured by Instron Company. Compared with the Mooney,Rivlin and Ogden form, the second-order Mooney,Rivlin form agrees with the model test result better. The ultimate bearing capacity of an ACV skirt joint structure is tested on a mechanical tension machine and the ultimate load is recorded manually. Then, considering the contact effect of each assembly and the large-displacement of skirt elements, a nonlinear finite element method (FEM)-based simulation process of an ACV skirt joint structure under tension loading is presented. The simulation process comprises three steps: assembly of parts, bolts' tightening, and tensioning the skirt cloth. Under these loadings, the stress distribution and deformation of the skirt cloth, and the cloth broken locations and directions are obtained. These results agree well with the test results. As for the ultimate bearing capacity of the skirt joint, the simulation result is slightly smaller than the test result. Thus, this FEM-based simulation method is proven to be reliable and relatively conservative. [source]

    Disorders of the Sacroiliac Joint

    PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 1 2002
    Phillip S. Sizer Jr MEd
    Abstract: Controversies have surrounded the sacroiliac joint. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a considerably complex and strong joint with limited mobility, mechanically serving as a force transducer and a shock absorber. Anatomical changes are seen in the SIJ throughout an individual's lifetime. The ligamentous system associated with the SIJ serves to enhance stability and offer proprioceptive feedback in context with the rich plexus of articular receptors. Stability in the SIJ is related to form and force closure. Movement in the SIJ is 3-D about an axis outside of the joint. The functional examination of the SIJ is related to a clinical triad. [source]

    Joint And Muscle Forces During Clenching

    Stefan Rues
    The masticatory system is highly redundant. Therefore, complete knowledge about the activation patterns of the chewing muscles belonging to a specific resultant bite force can only be gained either by simultaneous force- and EMG-measurement or with the help of optimization strategies. In this study, such EMG and force measurements were carried out with 10 test persons and the results compared to those computed with several objective functions. The results show an increase of the joint forces with an increase of the horizontal component of the resultant bite force. The test persons seem to favor energy minimization as control mechanism. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Biomechanics of the Fractured Medial Coronoid Process and the Isolated Anconeal Process in the Canine Elbow Joint

    J. Maierl
    Introduction:, Elbow dysplasia is one of the most important orthopaedic diseases of the canine elbow joint. The medial coronoid process (MCP) and the anconeal process (AP) are involved with a high incidence. Aims:, The aim of this study was to clarify whether these processes are especially loaded resulting in osteoarthrosis. Material and Methods:, Elbow joints were examined from dogs of various breeds, with a body weight over 20 kg and an age ranging from 1 to 12 years. Only joints without damage to the articular cartilage have been included in this investigation. Articular surfaces have been evaluated macroscopically, subchondral bone density (long-term loading) and split-lines (long-term tensile loading) have been determined. Results:, In the humeral fossa olecrani, there was a distinct impression on the inner side of the lateral compared to the medial epicondyle. In the ulna, the MCP was much greater than the lateral coronoid indicating that the medial process has to support the humeral condyle to a higher extent. Subchondral split lines with a transverse orientation in the fossa olecrani gave evidence of long-term transverse tensile loading in this area. Split lines on the MCP were oriented radially as if the lateral edge was bent downwards. Subchondral bone density in the fossa olecrani was higher towards the lateral epicondyle in comparison to the medial. Furthermore, there was a bone density maximum on the medial part of the humeral condyle opposite of the MCP with its very high density. Discussion:, Gait analyses showed that there is a transverse, medially oriented force of up to 4% bodyweight acting on the paw during midstance. As the carpus is stable when slightly hyperextended during midstance loading there is a long lever arm from the ground up to an assumed rotation centre in the depth of the trochlear notch. The medially directed ground reaction force slightly rotates the forearm inwards causing a bending moment about the elbow joint, which leads to an increased pressure of the AP and the MCP. This bending in addition to sagittal loading is the reason for the high susceptibility of the MCP and AP. [source]

    The ligamentum olecrani of the Elbow Joint in Dogs and Cats

    E. Engelke
    The olecranon ligament (ligamentum olecrani) is described as an elastic ligament of the elbow joint in carnivores that tenses the caudomedial part of the joint capsule. The aim of the study was to compare the course and the microscopic structure of the ligament in dogs and cats. The elbow regions of 25 dogs and 15 cats were dissected to examine the topography of the ligament in extension and flexion. Furthermore, the olecranon ligaments of five dogs and five cats were studied using routine histological methods. Additional sections were stained with Resorcin,Fuchsin and Orcein to detect elastic fibres. In both species the olecranon ligament originates at the lateral surface of the epicondylus medialis humeri and inserts at the cranial crest of the olecranon extending distally to the roof of the processus anconeus. Tension of the ligament only occurs when the elbow joint is flexed maximally. This tension is increased by a slight supination of the forearm, which takes place automatically in this joint position. In dogs the ligament is long (30,40 mm in medium sized breeds) and relatively slim (approx. 2,4 mm). In cats the ligament is short (10,12 mm) and relatively strong (5,8 mm). The histological examination of the olecranon ligament shows all signs of a tight collagenous ligament with a negligible amount of elastic fibres. The olecranon ligament helps to limit the maximal flexion of the elbow joint. In addition, it controls a slight lateral movement of the processus anconeus during the automatic supination of the antebrachial bones in extreme flexion of the elbow joint. [source]

    Joint and Soft Tissue Injection: Injecting with Confidence

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2004
    Geoffrey Horne
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Linear Friction Welded Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti17) Titanium Alloy Joints,

    Wen-Ya Li
    The microstructural evolution, microhardness, tensile properties and impact toughness of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr (Ti17) alloy joints welded by linear friction welding (LFW) are investigated. A narrow, sound weld is formed, consisting of a superfine ,,+,, structure in the weld center. The structure gradually changes from the weld center to the parent Ti17 in the TMAZ, with the highly deformed , and , phases oriented along the deformation direction, owing to the uneven deformation and temperature distribution. The microhardness of the TMAZ is the lowest of the distinct zones and presents a valley-like shape. The tensile strengths of the joints are comparable to that of the parent Ti17 but with a much lower plasticity and impact toughness. The microstructure variation contributes to the resultant properties. [source]

    In Situ and Ex Situ Nanomechanical Analysis of Reactive Nanolayer Solder Joints,

    Michael Tong
    The nanomechanical behavior of NiAl derived from explosively RNLs in reactive solder joints is studied using in situ nanocompression and nanoindentation. We report the direct analysis of <011> slip and discuss the role it plays in the much disputed ductility of NiAl. The hardness, modulus, and residual stress in the NiAl layer are studied by load-displacement curve analysis. [source]

    Influence of Filler Composition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel,Aluminum Joints Produced by Metal Arc Joining (Adv. Eng.

    The cover shows the inverse pole figure map obtained by EBSD on the cross section of an hybrid aluminium-to-steel joint produced by the Cold Metal Transfer welding technique on a specially designed butt geometry,More details can be found in the article of L. Agudo et al. on page 350. [source]

    Influence of Filler Composition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel,Aluminum Joints Produced by Metal Arc Joining,

    Leonardo Agudo Jácome
    Chemical joining of aluminum to steel parts is one of the main challenges in the automotive industry to achieve sound economical solutions for required automobile weight reduction. The cold metal transfer (CMT) is a fusion welding process developed to meet that challenge. It is shown in this paper how the choice of proper filler materials can yield appropriate mechanical performance of specially designed dissimilar CMT butt joints by improving the seam characteristics and weld bead properties. [source]

    Ultrasonically Welded Aluminium Foams/Sheet Metal , Joints,

    C. Born
    Abstract The ultrasonic welding technology enables to produce high-strength joints between sheet metal and aluminium foam sandwich (AFS) without melting of the metal or any damage of the foam structure. In the investigations the used welding processes and different factors influencing the weldability were varied. The achievable mechanical properties for ultrasonically welded metal joints, especially under monotonic and cyclic load, will be discussed. Additionally, results of microscopic investigations of the bonding zone and possible applications are presented. [source]

    Mechanosensitive hyaluronan secretion: stimulus,response curves and role of transcription,translation,translocation in rabbit joints

    A. K. T. Wann
    Joint movement was recently shown to stimulate the secretion of the lubricant hyaluronan (HA); also, exercise therapy and intra-articular hyaluronan injections are used to treat moderate osteoarthritis. The present study quantifies the stimulus,response curves for HA secretion in vivo and reports a role of transcription,translation,translocation in the secretory response. After washing out endogenous HA from anaesthetized, cannulated rabbit knees, the joints were cycled passively at various frequencies and durations, with or without intra-articular inhibitors of protein synthesis and Golgi processing. Newly secreted HA was harvested for analysis after 5 h. Joints displayed graded, non-linear stimulus,response curves to both duration and frequency of movement; 1 min duration per 15 min or a frequency of 0.17 Hz raised HA secretion by 42,54%, while rapid (1.5 Hz) or prolonged cycling (9 min per 15 min) raised it by 110,130%. Movement-stimulated secretion and phorbol ester-stimulated secretion were partly inhibited by the translation inhibitor cycloheximide, by the transcription,translation inhibitors actinomycin D and puromycin and by the Golgi translocation inhibitor brefeldin A. There is thus a graded coupling between HA secretion and cyclic joint movement that depends partly on new protein synthesis. This is likely to be important for joint homeostasis, providing protection during repetitive cycling and potentially contributing to exercise therapy for osteoarthritis. [source]

    Alumina/Alumina and Alumina-Zirconia/Alumina-Zirconia Joints Through Glass Interlayers, Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses

    G. Faga
    As alternative to traditional joining methods, Ca-Al silicate glasses were used to self-bond alumina and alumina-zirconia ceramics under different processing conditions. Microstructures, mechanical properties and residual stress studies have shown glassy interlayer characteristics to be correlated with the chemistry of the starting glasses and of the ceramics. [source]

    Ancient Boats, Boat Timbers, and Locked Mortise-and-Tenon Joints from Bronze/Iron-Age Northern Vietnam

    Peter Bellwood
    This paper describes two nautical discoveries buried c.2000 years ago in the Red River alluvial plain, northern Vietnam. One is part of a logboat with a series of empty mortise and locking-peg holes for plank attachment using loose rectangular tenons. The other, from an infant mortuary house, is a series of re-used 4-m-long timbers with exactly the same locked mortise-and-tenon technology. Both finds are interpreted as having belonged to river-boats like those shown on the sides of Heger 1 (Dong Son) bronze drums. Potentially-related technologies from the Mediterranean and China are also discussed. © 2006 The Authors [source]

    High-Turnover Periprosthetic Bone Remodeling and Immature Bone Formation Around Loose Cemented Total Hip Joints

    Michiaki Takagi
    Abstract Aseptic loosening and periprosthetic osteolysis are the major problems awaiting solution in total hip surgery. The clinical investigation focused on the analysis of periprosthetic bone remodeling to clarify one important key event in the cascade of periprosthetic connective tissue weakening and osteolysis around loose artificial hip joints. Twelve acetabular bone samples adjacent to granulomatous synovial-like membrane of loose hip prosthesis were retrieved at revision surgery and processed for Villanueva bone staining for morphological observation and bone histomorphometric analysis. Eight well-fixed bony samples were used as control. Although osteoclastic surface and eroded surface by osteoclasts were evident in the periprosthetic bone from loose hip joints (p = 0.003 and p = 0.027), increased osteoid/low-mineralized bone matrix (p < 0.001) and osteoid width (p < 0.001) also were significant findings in structural analysis. In addition, not only elevated mineral apposition rate (MAR; p = 0.044) but also increased mineralizing surface (p = 0.044) and bone formation rate (BFR; p = 0.002) in loose periprosthetic bones were shown in dynamic data analysis. These results were confirmed by precise morphological observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Active coupling of bone formation and resorption and increased osteocytes with abundant bone canalicular projections were found in combined with the presence of immature bone matrices (osteoid and low-mineralized bone areas) in periprosthetic bones from loose hip joints. These results indicated that active osteoclastic bone resorption and/or defective bone formation are coupled with monocyte/macrophage-mediated foreign body-type granuloma in the synovial-like interface membrane of loose hip joints. Thus, this unique high-turnover periprosthetic bone remodeling with bad bone quality probably is caused by the result of cellular host response combined with inappropriate cyclic mechanical loading. The fragile periprosthetic bone may contribute to hip prosthesis loosening. [source]

    Kinematics of Robot Fingers with Circular Rolling Contact Joints

    Curtis L. Collins
    This paper examines the kinematics of robot fingers that use RR subassemblies coupled by rolling contact to provide versatile one degree-of-freedom mechanical joints. A three degree-of-freedom robot finger constructed with these joints is a 6R planar chain with the R-joints coupled together in pairs. The focus is on coupling based on pure rolling of circular cylinders which can be realized by friction contact, gearing, or cable tendons. We derive the forward, inverse and rate kinematics for this 3(RR) open chain. We then focus on the two degree-of-freedom 2(RR) case to illustrate the geometry of the system. An example design of a robot finger that incorporates these joints in order to provide compact movement is provided. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Dynamic Feedback Control of XYnR, Planar Robots with n Rotational Passive Joints

    Stefano Iannitti
    We consider the problem of trajectory planning and control for an XYnR, Planar robot with the first two joints (rotational or prismatic) actuated and n rotational passive joints, moving both in the presence and the absence of gravity. Under the assumption that each passive link is attached at the center of percussion of the previous passive link, dynamics of the system can be expressed through the behavior of n special points of the plane. These points are called link-related acceleration points (LRAP) since their instantaneous acceleration is oriented as the axis of the related passive links. Moreover, LRAP dynamics present a backward recursive form which can be exploited to recursively design a dynamic feedback that completely linearizes the system equations. We use this approach to solve trajectory planning and tracking problems and report simulation results obtained for an RR2R, robot having the first two rotational joints actuated. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Wear Simulation of Alumina-on-Alumina Prosthetic Hip Joints Using a Multidirectional Motion Pin-on-Disk Device

    Vesa Saikko
    The wear of a state-of-the-art implant alumina against itself was studied with a circularly translating pin-on-disk (CTPOD) device, a wear simulator for prosthetic hip joint materials. The direction of sliding changed continually relative to the pin, preventing erroneous uniaxial grooving typical of ordinary pin-on-disk devices. The dominating wear mechanism was mild abrasion manifested as a relieflike surface, which agreed with clinical findings. The wear factor ranged from 1 × 10,8 to 6 × 10,8 mm3/(N·m). The CTPOD device, validated earlier for ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, was shown to be the first simple wear test device to produce wear similar to that known to occur clinically in alumina-on-alumina total hip prostheses. [source]

    Effects of Arg-Gly-Asp Sequence Peptide and Hyperosmolarity on the Permeability of Interstitial Matrix and Fenestrated Endothelium in Joints

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 6 2004
    A. POLI
    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aims were to assess the contribution of arg-gly-asp (RGD) mediated cell integrin,matrix bonds to interstitial hydraulic resistance and to fenestrated endothelial permeability in joints. Joint fluid is generated by filtration from fenestrated capillaries and drains through a fibronectin-rich synovial intercellular matrix. The role of parenchymal cell,matrix bonding in determining tissue hydraulic resistance is unknown. Methods: The knee cavity of anesthetized rabbits was infused with saline or the competitive hexapeptide blocker GRGDTP, with or without added osmotic stress (600 mosm saline). Intra-articular pressure Pj, net trans-synovial drainage rate s, and the permeation of Evans blue-labeled albumin (EVA) from plasma into the joint cavity were measured. Results: GRGDTP increased the hydraulic conductance of the synovial drainage pathway, ds/dPj, by 71% (p = .02, paired t test, n = 6 animals). Synovial plasma EVA clearance (control 7.1 ± 0.8 ,L h,1, mean ± SEM, n = 15) was unaffected by GRGDTP (7.0 ± 2.3 ,L h,1, n = 6) or hyperosmolarity (4.9 ± 1.5 ,L h,1, n = 8) but was increased by GRGDTP and hyperosmolarity together (15.9 ± 4.8 ,L h,1, n = 5) (p = .01, ANOVA). Changes in dPj/dt evoked by GRGDTP plus hyperosmolarity, but neither alone, demonstrated increased microvascular filtration into the joint cavity (p < .001, ANOVA), as did changes in fluid absorption from the infusion system at fixed Pj. Conclusions: RGD-mediated bonds between the parenchymal cells and interstitial polymers reduce the interstitial hydraulic conductance by 42%. This helps to retain the lubricating fluid inside a joint cavity. RGD-mediated bonds also support the macromolecular barrier function of fenestrated endothelium, but in vivo this is evident only in stressed endothelium (cf. in vitro). [source]

    Autoantibody to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-A2 (RA33) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Clinical significance

    Hoda Y. Tomoum
    Abstract Background:, Objective biomarkers are needed for early diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Anti-A33 antibodies are considered good markers for adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but little information is available on their occurrence in JIA. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the value of anti-RA33 for diagnosis of JIA (both early and established disease), and its relation to markers of disease activity, and bone resorption. Subjects:, This case,control study was conducted on 34 children with JIA. Ten patients with arthritis of short duration (<6 weeks) were included, as undifferentiated arthritis. Forty-four age- and sex- matched healthy children served as controls. Beside evaluation and assessment of disease activity, urinary calcium, serum parathyroid hormone and serum anti-RA33 were measured in included subjects. Joints were examined radiologically and modified Larsen index (LI) was estimated. Results:, During follow up, eight of the patients with undifferentiated arthritis were diagnosed as having early JIA. Patients with JIA (early and established cases) had higher anti-RA33 levels than the control group (z = 6.04, 3.95, respectively). A total of 66.7% of the patients were positive for anti-RA33, results were comparable in early and established cases. Anti-RA33 values were correlated to disease activity (clinical and laboratory), to laboratory markers (urinary calcium, parathyroid hormone levels) and radiological evidence (LI) of bone resorption (r = 0.95, 0.63, 0.94, respectively). Conclusion:, Anti-RA33 is detected in two-thirds of JIA patients and occurs with comparable frequency early in the disease. Its levels are correlated to disease activity and markers of bone resorption and it seems to convey diagnostic and prognostic insights for appropriate management. [source]

    Signal pathways regulating hyaluronan secretion into static and cycled synovial joints of rabbits

    K. R. Ingram
    Joint lubrication, synovial fluid conservation and many pathophysiological processes depend on hyaluronan (HA). Intra-articular HA injection and exercise, which stimulates articular HA production, ameliorate osteoarthritis. We therefore investigated the pathways regulating movement-stimulated articular HA secretion rate () in vivo. Endogenous HA was removed from the knee joint cavity of anaesthetised rabbits by washout. Joints were then cycled passively or remained static for 5 h, with/without intra-articular agonist/inhibitor, after which newly secreted HA was harvested for analysis. Movement almost doubled . Similar or larger increases were elicited in static joints by the intra-articular Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, prostaglandin E2, cAMP-raising agents, serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). PKC-stimulated secretion was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I and inhibitors of the downstream kinases MEK-ERK (U0126, PD98059). These agents inhibited movement-stimulated secretion of HA (MSHA) only when the parallel p38 kinase path was simultaneously inhibited by SB203580 (ineffective alone). The phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 almost fully blocked MSHA (P= 0.001, n= 10), without affecting static . The ENaC channel blocker amiloride inhibited MSHA, whereas other inhibitors of stretch-activated channels (Gd3+, ruthenium red, SKF96365) did not. It is proposed that MSHA may be mediated by PLC activation, leading to activation of parallel PKC,MEK,ERK and p38 kinase pathways. [source]

    Prevention of cartilage degeneration and restoration of chondroprotection by lubricin tribosupplementation in the rat following anterior cruciate ligament transection

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2010
    Gregory D. Jay
    Objective To investigate whether cartilage degeneration is prevented or minimized following intraarticular injections of lubricin derived from human synoviocytes in culture, recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4), or human synovial fluid (SF) in a rat model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods Unilateral ACL transection (ACLT) was performed in Lewis rats (n = 45). Nine animals were left untreated. The remaining rats were given intraarticular injections (50 ,l/injection) of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (n = 9), human synoviocyte lubricin (200 ,g/ml; n = 9), rhPRG4 (200 ,g/ml; n = 9), or human SF lubricin (200 ,g/ml; n = 9) twice weekly beginning on day 7 after injury. Joints were harvested on day 32 after injury. Histologic analysis was performed using Safranin O,fast green staining, and articular cartilage degeneration was graded using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI),modified Mankin criteria. Histologic specimens were immunoprobed for lubricin and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. A 24-hour urine collection was performed on days 17 and 29 postinjury, and urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) levels were measured. Results Treatment with human synoviocyte lubricin resulted in significantly lower OARSI scores for cartilage degeneration compared with no treatment or PBS treatment (P < 0.05). Increased immunostaining for lubricin in the superficial zone chondrocytes and on the surface of cartilage was observed in lubricin-treated, but not untreated or PBS-treated, joints. On day 17, urinary CTX-II levels in human synoviocyte lubricin, and human SF lubricin,treated animals were significantly lower than those in untreated animals (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively) and in PBS-treated animals (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion After treatment with any of the 3 types of lubricin evaluated in this study, a reduction in cartilage damage following ACLT was evident, combined with a reduction in type II collagen degradation. Our findings indicate that intraarticular lubricin injection following an ACL injury may be beneficial in retarding the degeneration of cartilage and the development of posttraumatic OA. [source]

    In vivo inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-13 gene therapy in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 8 2007
    Christian S. Haas
    Objective Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can affect vessel formation, an important component of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue pannus. The purpose of this study was to use a gene therapy approach to investigate the role of IL-13 in angiogenesis in vivo, using a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model of RA. Methods Ankle joints of female rats were injected preventatively with an adenovirus vector containing human IL-13 (AxCAIL-13), a control vector with no insert (AxCANI), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Joints were harvested at the peak of arthritis, and histologic and biochemical features were evaluated. Results AxCAIL-13,treated joint homogenates had lower hemoglobin levels, suggesting reduced joint vascularity, and both endothelial cell migration and tube formation were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). Similarly, AxCAIL-13 inhibited capillary sprouting in the rat aortic ring assay and vessel growth in the Matrigel plug in vivo assay. IL-13 gene delivery resulted in up-regulation and association of phosphorylated ERK-1/2 and protein kinase C,/,II, suggesting a novel pathway in IL-13,mediated angiostasis. The angiostatic effect of AxCAIL-13 was associated with down-regulation of proangiogenic cytokines (IL-18, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1/CXCL1, lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine/CXCL5) and up-regulation of the angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin. The expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, which participate in angiogenesis, was impaired in response to IL-13 as compared with AxCANI and PBS treatment. Conclusion Our findings support a role for IL-13 as an in vivo antiangiogenic factor and provide a rationale for its use in RA to control pathologic neovascularization. [source]