Job Market (job + market)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Job Market or Marriage Market?

Life Choices for Southern Women Educated at Northern Colleges
First page of article [source]

Kanada: Deutschstudien im Wandel , von neuen Gegebenheiten zu Ansätzen einer Selbsterneuerung

Anette Guse
This contribution describes the situation of the German profession in Canada, by presenting the latest trends in trans-institutional cooperation, curriculum development, the job market, and promotion of the discipline. The author suggests that the adaptation to new realities, such as changes in student interests and the continuing cutbacks of resources, has resulted in the modernization of German programs and more effective strategies of self-marketing. Rather than succumbing to resignation, the article highlights the need to capitalize on traditional strengths as well as the demand to pursue interdisciplinary work and to embrace the concept of collaboration with other departments. [source]

Ethnic Entrepreneurship Among Indian Women in New Zealand: A Bittersweet Process

Edwina Pio
This research article explores the lived-in and lived-through experiences of Indian women entrepreneurs in New Zealand in the context of ethnic entrepreneurship. Through a four-stage model emerging from qualitative interviews, the article illuminates the bittersweet entrepreneurial process of ethnic minority migrant women. The four stages are: the low permeability for entry into the job market for ethnic minority migrant women; underemployment; setting up a micro-enterprise and expanding the business and creating employment for others, primarily co-ethnics as well as an expanding customer base. A combination of factors ranging from perceived discrimination, low self esteem and feelings of being devalued, to ethnic networks and lack of access/knowledge of government resources and the entry of women from Indian business families feed into each of the four stages of this model. The article offers an analysis of minority voices, along with implications for future research. [source]

Social, Economic and Demographic Consequences of Migration on Kerala

K.C. Zachariah
Migration has been the single most dynamic factor in the otherwise dreary development scenario of Kerala during the last quarter of the last century. It has contributed more to poverty alleviation and reduction in unemployment in Kerala than any other factor. As a result of migration, the proportion of the population below the poverty line has declined by 12 per cent. The number of unemployed persons , estimated to be only about 13 lakhs in 1998 compared with 37 lakhs reported by the Kerala Employment Exchanges , has declined by over 30 per cent. Migration has caused nearly a million married women in Kerala to live away from their husbands. Most of these so-called "Gulf wives" experienced extreme loneliness to begin with, and were burdened with added family responsibilities to which they had not been accustomed when their husbands were with them. But over a period, and with a helping hand from abroad over the ISD, most came out of their early gloom. Their gain in autonomy, status, management skills and experience in dealing with the world outside their homes were developed the hard way and would remain with them for the rest of their lives for the benefit of their families and society. In the long run, the transformation of these million women will have contributed more to the development of Kerala society than all the temporary euphoria created by remittances and modern gadgetry. Kerala is dependent on migration for employment, subsistence, housing, household amenities, institution building, and many other developmental activities. The danger is that migration could cease, as shown by the Kuwait war of 1993, and repercussions could be disastrous for the State. Understanding migration trends and instituting policies to maintain the flow of migration is more important today than at any time in the past. Kerala workers seem to be losing out in international competition for jobs in the Gulf market. Corrective policies are needed urgently to raise their competitive edge over workers in competing countries in South and South-East Asia. Like any other industry, migration from Kerala needs periodic technological upgrading of workers. Otherwise, there is a danger that the State might lose the Gulf market permanently. The crux of the problem is Kerala workers' inability to compete with expatriates from other South and South-East Asian countries. The solution lies in equipping workers with better general education and job training. This study suggests a twofold approach. In the short run, the need is to improve the job skills of prospective emigrant workers. This could be achieved through ad hoc training programmes focussed on the job market in Gulf countries. In the long run, the need is to restructure the educational system, taking into consideration the future demand of workers not only in Kerala but also in potential destination countries all over the world, including the US and other developed countries. Kerala emigrants need not always be construction workers in the Gulf countries; they could also be software engineers in developed countries. [source]

The Second Generation in Europe

Maurice Crul
The study of integration processes has now reached a crucial stage in most Western European countries with the emergence of the second generation. The oldest children born to postwar immigrants on European soil have recently entered the job market, and we can now investigate their performance in both education and employment. This opens a unique opportunity to compare the situations of second generation migrants across countries. Ostensibly the children all have the same starting position, being born in the country of settlement. The intriguing question is how differences between immigrant groups, and also differences in national contexts, work to the benefit or detriment of the second generation. We discuss the first issue briefly, confining ourselves here to Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. In addressing the issue of national contexts, we focus primarily on policies and practices rather than on broad-reaching national integration models. We examine in detail the integration process itself in the context of vital institutional arrangements such as the education system and the mechanisms for transition to the labor market. How do such arrangements differ between countries, and how do they affect the outcomes for the second generation? [source]

Comparing adults in Los Angeles County who have and have not been homeless

Michael R. Cousineau
This study compares the formerly homeless with those who have not been homeless on several characteristics, based on a telephone survey of the general adulate population. The study was conducted in Los Angeles County. Researchers estimate how many and what percentage of adults (aged 18 or older) have been homeless in the past 5 years and the types of places people stayed while they were homeless. An estimated 370,000 adults have experienced homelessness within the past 5 years, 5.7% of the adult population (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.2,6.2). A third were literally homeless (in a shelter, street, or car). Just over half (56%) stayed with a friend or relative while homeless. Nine percent had a mixed experience. Compared to those who were not homeless, the formerly homeless are disproportionately poor, African American, not in the job market, on public assistance, and in poor health. There are few differences when comparing place of birth, citizenship status, or length of residence in Los Angeles County. Yet many homeless have been able to achieve some economic stability. Implications for the development of intervention and prevention programs are discussed. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

How Many Labour Force States?

LABOUR, Issue 2 2006
An Analysis Based on the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS)
The goal is to examine whether there are statistically significant differences between the unemployed and non-participants, as well as inside each of the two groups, considering their transitions in the job market. Using logistic regression for a pooled cross-section time-series sample of employed as well as non-employed persons, three different Out of Work subgroups are identified: Seeking Out of Work, Attached Out of Work, and Voluntary Out of Work. The first group can be broadly assimilated to the official definition of unemployment, International Labour Organization unemployment, whereas all the others are usually classified as economically inactive. Nonetheless, the last two groups are characterized by significantly different transition rates, showing a behaviourally distinct attitude in their labour market dynamics. This result points out that the aggregate non-employment has several dimensions, which are not caught by the distinction between unemployment and economic inactivity, and should be accounted for by policy makers and researchers. [source]

Transcendence and globalization: Our education and workforce development challenge

Mark David MillironArticle first published online: 19 JUN 200
This chapter describes how globalization is changing the U.S. economy and the job market for community college students and discusses the skills students need to participate in a globalized world. [source]

Training for innovation in India: Cultural considerations and strategic Implications

L. Roxanne Russell
Global organizations with personnel in India rank innovation as a primary workforce development objective to stay competitive in the global market (NASSCOM, 2007). This analysis reviews relevant literature for evidence of cultural factors that stand in the way of innovative performance in Indian personnel and discusses implications for the design of interventions. Findings in the literature indicate possible knowledge gaps resulting from higher education quality assurance problems and high turnover in the job market, underrecognition of creative and practical intellectual abilities owing to testing practices, and restrictions on creative tendencies stemming from hierarchical structures and external pressures. Instructional design implications include the use of diagnostics, transformational learning strategies, and systemic reinforcement initiatives. [source]

Contingent Chicago: Restructuring the Spaces of Temporary Labor

Jamie Peck
Hiring-halls, specializing in the placement of day-laborers in temporary jobs, have in recent years been proliferating along major transport arteries in Chicago's low-income neighborhoods. This article examines the phenomenon of low-wage temporary work in Chicago from the perspective of the principal institutional actors in these highly ,flexibilized' or ,contingent' labor markets , the ,temp' agencies. Particular emphasis is placed on the labor-market effects of temp-agency strategies, both in respect to patterns of labor segmentation and in terms of the spatial (re)constitution of urban job markets. It is suggested that temp agencies are actively engaged in both the exploitation and facilitation of contingent labor-market conditions. In this sense, they are assuming important new roles as privatized ,labor-market intermediaries', with apparently deleterious effects for job security and social segregation in the lower reaches of urban labor markets. Their strategies can also be related to the social and geographic restructuring of these job markets, because the growth and polarization of temp employment has been associated with a ,hardening', and indeed ,stretching', of extant ethnic, gender and spatial inequalities. Des bureaux d'embauche, spécialisés dans le placement de journaliers sur des postes temporaires, ont récemment proliféré le long des grands axes de transport dans les quartiers défavorisés de Chicago. Cet article étudie le phénomène du travail temporaire à faible revenu dans cette ville, et ce, du point de vue des principaux acteurs institutionnels sur ces marchés du travail hautement ,flexibilisés' ou ,aléatoires': les agences de travail temporaire. Il insiste sur les conséquences des stratégies de ces agences pour le marché de l'emploi, à la fois au niveau des schémas de segmentation du travail et en termes de (re)constitution spatiale des marchés du travail urbains. Aussi peut-on suggérer que ces agences sont activement impliquées dans l'exploitation et la facilitation des conditions aléatoires du marché du travail. En ce sens, elles jouent un rôle important et nouveau comme ,intermédiaires du marché du travail' privatisés, avec des effets apparemment néfastes pour la sécurité de l'emploi et la ségrégation sociale dans les circuits inférieurs des marchés urbains. Leurs stratégies peuvent aussi être liées à la restructuration sociale et géographique de ces marchés, la croissance et la polarisation de l'emploi temporaire ayant ètè associées à un ,durcissement', et assurément à une ,extension', des inégalités existantes au plan ethnique, spatial et des sexes. [source]

The Making of a Global European Economist

David Colander
SUMMARY This paper provides results of a survey of European graduate programs that are designing their programs to be similar to top US programs and compares those results to an earlier study done by the author of US schools. The study (1) provides a profile of European graduate economics students; (2) considers the degree to which European training at these schools differs from U.S. training, (3) offers some insights into the differences that exist among some top European programs in economics, and (4) provides a glimpse of the views that the students have of economics and of the training they are receiving. It finds that these global European programs are similar in many ways to US programs and that the students are satisfied with the programs. However, because of the different job markets in the US and Europe, it is not clear that the training is appropriate for the majority of European students. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the concerns that should be kept in mind by other programs as they consider adapting their programs to become a ,global' program. These concerns include the argument that the traditional European system did a number of things right; the European academic economics institutional structure is quite different from the U.S. institutional structure; and the U.S. system has its own set of problems. [source]

The nonprofit leadership deficit: A case for more optimism

Janet L. Johnson
Recent headlines claim that a looming nonprofit leadership crisis will soon be precipitated by retiring baby boomers. Analysis of baby boom demographics, using national census data on the age distribution and other demographic characteristics of top leaders by sector, confirms the aging nonprofit workforce. However, the issue of whether the aging workforce portends a nonprofit leadership crisis, when analyzed within a theoretical framework of supply and demand in the market for nonprofit executives, reveals flaws in most commentaries about the leadership crisis. Workings of the labor market and nonprofit organizations themselves suggest trends that could be expected to affect labor supply and demand and mitigate a leadership deficit. Reasonable,and likely,market and organizational adjustments, including higher executive pay, increased labor force participation of older workers, skill acquisition of younger workers, possible consolidation of nonprofit organizations, board and volunteer skill sharing, and even venture philanthropy, can be expected to moderate the shock of baby boom retirements, much in the way that schools, job markets, and housing markets have accommodated the movement of this "bulging" generation through earlier decades of their lives. [source]