Job Histories (job + history)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Occupation and risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma,

Lawrence S. Engel PhD
Abstract Background Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia have risen dramatically in incidence over the past few decades, however, little research has been conducted on the occupational risk factors for these cancers. Methods In this population-based case-control study, lifetime job histories were compared between cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma (n,=,283), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (n,=,259), and population controls (n,=,689). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ever employment and by duration in various occupational and industrial categories were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results The risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma was elevated for persons ever employed in administrative support (OR,=,1.5; 95%CI,=,1.0,2.1); financial, insurance, and real estate (OR,=,1.6; 95%CI,=,1.0,2.4); and health services (OR,=,2.2; 95%CI,=,1.2,3.9). The risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma was increased among transportation workers (OR,=,1.7; 95%CI,=,1.1,2.6), as well as among carpenters (OR,=,1.8; 95%CI,=,0.9,3.9) and workers in the furniture manufacturing industry (OR,=,2.4; 95%CI,=,0.9,6.3). However, we observed few duration,response relations between length of employment in any category and cancer risk. Conclusions This study revealed associations of esophageal adenocarcinoma with employment in administrative support, health services, and a category of financial, insurance, and real estate industries, and of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma with transportation and certain woodworking occupations. Some of these findings may be due to the play of chance associated with the multiple comparisons made in this study. Our results suggest that, overall, workplace exposures play a minor role in the etiology and upward trend of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. Am. J. Ind. Med. 42:11,22, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: A population-based, case,control study in the Southeastern United States

Christine G. Parks
Objective Crystalline silica may act as an immune adjuvant to increase inflammation and antibody production, and findings of occupational cohort studies suggest that silica exposure may be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We undertook this population-based study to examine the association between occupational silica exposure and SLE in the southeastern US. Methods SLE patients (n = 265; diagnosed between January 1, 1995 and July 31, 1999) were recruited from 4 university rheumatology practices and 30 community-based rheumatologists in 60 contiguous counties. Controls (n = 355), frequency-matched to patients by age, sex, and state of residence, were randomly selected from driver's license registries. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 39 years; 91% were women and 60% were African American. Detailed occupational and farming histories were collected by in-person interviews. Silica exposure was determined through blinded assessment of job histories by 3 industrial hygienists, and potential medium- or high-level exposures were confirmed through followup telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Results More patients (19%) than controls (8%) had a history of medium- or high-level silica exposure from farming or trades. We observed an association between silica and SLE (medium exposure OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.1,4.0], high exposure OR 4.6 [95% CI 1.4,15.4]) that was seen in separate analyses by sex, race, and at different levels of education. Conclusion These results suggest that crystalline silica exposure may promote the development of SLE in some individuals. Additional research is recommended in other populations, using study designs that minimize potential selection bias and maximize the quality of exposure assessment. [source]

Reliability of demographic, smoking and occupational data provided by mothers vs. fathers in a childhood cancer study

R. McKean-Cowdin
A large case,control study of children was used to test mothers' reporting of information on fathers' background, lifestyle and occupational factors. For a subset (104) of 1341 enrolled families, both parents were interviewed about fathers' characteristics. Reliability of reporting was determined for fathers' race, education, smoking status, non-recent job history and use of occupational agents. The ability of mothers to report fathers' race, education and smoking status was high (kappa > 0.70). Mothers were generally able to report jobs held by the fathers in the 5 years preceding the birth of the child, but reliability was higher for jobs held for longer (kappa typically above 0.70), rather than shorter periods (kappa above 0.40). The finding that mothers' reporting on fathers' background, lifestyle and non-recent job history was reliable is encouraging, because many studies on childhood health rely exclusively on information from interviews with mothers. However, mothers were not reliably able to describe exposure to specific occupational agents. [source]

Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case,control studies in Montreal

Rachelle Beveridge MSc
Abstract Background Nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium have been identified as lung carcinogens in highly exposed cohorts. The purpose of this study was to examine the etiological link between lung cancer and these metals in occupations, that usually entail lower levels of exposure than those seen in historical cohorts. Methods Two population-based case,control studies were conducted in Montreal, from 1979 to 1986 and from 1996 to 2001, comprising 1,598 cases and 1,965 controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate lifetime occupational exposure to many agents, including nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium compounds. Results Lung cancer odds ratios were increased only among former or non-smokers: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3,4.7) for nickel exposure, 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2,4.8) for chromium VI, and 4.7 (95% CI: 1.5,14.3) for cadmium. The metals did not increase risk among smokers. Conclusions While excess risks due to these metal compounds were barely discernable among smokers, carcinogenic effects were seen among non-smokers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:476,485, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]