Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Japonicus

  • Argyrosomu japonicu
  • Marsupenaeu japonicu
  • chub mackerel scomber japonicu
  • engraulis japonicu
  • lateolabrax japonicu
  • legume lotus japonicu
  • lotus japonicu
  • mackerel scomber japonicu
  • model legume lotus japonicu
  • ophiopogon japonicu
  • s. japonicu
  • scomber japonicu

  • Selected Abstracts

    Comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of ruscogenin, a major steroidal sapogenin from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, and Its succinylated derivative, RUS-2HS

    Ya-Lin Huang
    Abstract Ruscogenin (RUS), first isolated from Ruscus aculeatus, is also a major steroidal sapogenin of the traditional Chinese herb Radix Ophiopogon japonicus. It has robust anti-inflammatory activities. In previous studies, a ruscogenin affinity column, derived from succinylated ruscogenin (RUS-2HS), was used to purify an antibody of ruscogenin. A ruscogenin affinity column can also be used to explore its protein targets. However, until now there have been no related pharmacological reports about ruscogenin derivatives. Whether the activity groups of ruscogenin have been blocked during the derivation process remains unknown. The present study was performed to compare the anti-inflammatory activities in vitro of RUS-2HS and ruscogenin. Both compounds reduced tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,)-induced adhesion of human pro-myelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) to endothelial ECV304 cells with IC50 values of 6.90,nM and 7.45,nM, respectively. They were also inhibited overexpression of ICAM-1 in ECV304 cells at the mRNA level as evaluated by real-time PCR and at the protein level evaluated by flow cytometry with similar potency. Such data demonstrate that the functional groups of ruscogenin were not blocked by derivation, suggesting further use of the ruscogenin affinity column for target investigation. Meanwhile, RUS-2HS was found to have remarkable anti-inflammatory activity for the first time, indicating it would be a new lead compound with improved bioavailability. Drug Dev Res 69: 196,202, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Taxonomic Study of Korean Oedipodinae (Orthoptera: Caelifera: Acrididae)

    Tae-Woo KIM
    ABSTRACT As a result of Korean Oedipodinae is taxonomically revised, eleven species are recognized and Microgastrimargus taeguensis Lee and Park 1992 is a new synonym of Oedaleus infernalis Saussure 1884. A key to Korean species of Oedipodinae, and description of a little known species Epacromius japonicus (Shiraki 1910) are provided. [source]

    Taxonomic revision of the genus Dolophilodes subgenus Dolophilodes (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae) of Japan

    Naotoshi KUHARA
    Abstract Japanese species of the genus Dolophilodes subgenus Dolophilodes are revised taxonomically. Seven described species are recognized: D. japonicus (Banks), D. shinboensis (Kobayashi), D. auriculatus Martynov, D. nomugiensis (Kobayashi), D. babai (Kobayashi), D. iroensis (Kobayashi) and D. commatus (Kobayashi). In addition, two new species, D. angustatus and D. dilatatus, are described. Males of all nine species and females of all but D. babai are described and illustrated. The subgenus Hisaura Kobayashi is synonymized under the subgenus Dolophilodes. Three synonymies of species proposed are Wormaldia triangulata Kobayashi under D. nomugiensis, D. kunashirensis Ivanov under D. iroensis and Sortosa kaishoensis Kobayashi under D. commatus. [source]

    Revision of the genus Stichillus Enderlein of Japan (Diptera: Phoridae)

    Hiroto NAKAYAMA
    Abstract The genus Stichillus in Japan is revised. Three species are recognized: S. japonicus (Matsumura), S. spinosus Liu and Chou and S. cylindratus sp. nov. Stichillus brunneicornis Beyer is excluded from the Japanese fauna. These Japanese species are described and keyed. The male genitalia and the female terminalia are illustrated. Some unique characters of the male genitalia in the genus are reported, and morphology of the male genitalia and the female terminalia is discussed. [source]

    Seasonal changes in wing dimorphism of the lygaeid bug Dimorphopterus japonicus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) in relation to environmental factors

    Rikiya SASAKI
    Abstract The lygaeid bug Dimorphopterus japonicus Hidaka, which mainly feeds on a eulalia, Miscanthus sinensis, shows marked wing dimorphism of brachyptery and macroptery. Its production of macropters is stimulated in rearing conditions such as high temperature, long photoperiod and crowding during the nymphal stage. In this study, we investigated the seasonal prevalence in occurrence and the seasonal change in incidence of macroptery in D. japonicus for field populations in Okayama, western Japan. The results demonstrated that nymphal density was a key factor in determining the proportion of macropters, indicating an escape strategy from crowded populations. The field surveys also revealed that this bug has a univoltine life cycle in Okayama. There was a seasonal change in the incidence of macroptery in the new generation. The combined effects of temperature and photoperiod on wing-form determination explained this seasonality trait. [source]

    Estrogenic compounds affect development of harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    Helen S. Marcial
    Abstract The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of estrogenic compounds onthe harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus after continuous exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Natural estrogen (17,-estradiol), three known estrogenic compounds in vertebrates (bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, p - t -octylphenol), and an invertebrate molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone) were tested for their effects on development and reproductive characters in two successive generations of T. japonicus. Less than 24-h-old nauplii (parentals) were exposed to four sublethal concentrations of these compounds for 21 d at 25C. The first brood of nauplii (F1) produced was monitored further under the same culture conditions and exposures to test compounds. Results showed that all estrogenic compounds affected development (both in number of days to reach copepodid stage and sexual maturity) in the parental generation. Similar effects were apparent in the F1; however, fecundity, sex ratio, and survival were not significantly affected, even at concentrations as high as 10 ,g/L (nominal concentration). The invertebrate molting hormone 20-hyroxyecdysone had no detectable effect on any of the endpoints tested but gave the lowest 48-h 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value. The results suggest that endocrine disruption could occur in copepods following exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of estrogenic compounds, especially if they are exposed starting from embryonic development. [source]

    Increased bacterial load in shrimp hemolymph in the absence of prophenoloxidase

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2009
    Fernand F. Fagutao
    Invertebrates rely on their innate immune responses to protect themselves from pathogens, one of which is melanization of bacteria mediated by the activation of phenoloxidase (PO). Furthermore, invertebrate hemolymph, even that of healthy individuals, has been shown to contain bacterial species. The mechanisms that prevent these bacteria from proliferating and becoming deleterious to the host are, however, poorly understood. Here, we show that knocking down the activity of the inactive precursor of PO [prophenoloxidase (proPO)] by RNA interference resulted in a significant increase in the bacterial load of kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, even in the absence of a bacterial or viral challenge. Silencing of proPO also led to a sharp increase in shrimp mortality. In addition, the hemolymph of proPO-depleted shrimp had significantly lower hemocyte counts and PO activity than control samples. Microarray analysis after proPO silencing also showed a decrease in the expression of a few antimicrobial peptides, but no effect on the expression of the genes involved in the clotting system. Treatment with antibiotics prior to and after proPO dsRNA injection, to counteract the loss of proPO, resulted in a significant increase in shrimp survival. Our results therefore show that the absence of proPO renders the shrimp incapable of controlling bacteria present in the hemolymph, and that proPO is therefore essential for its survival. [source]

    Time series analyses reveal transient relationships between abundance of larval anchovy and environmental variables in the coastal waters southwest of Taiwan

    Abstract We investigated environmental effects on larval anchovy fluctuations (based on CPUE from 1980 to 2000) in the waters off southwestern Taiwan using advanced time series analyses, including the state-space approach to remove seasonality, wavelet analysis to investigate transient relationships, and stationary bootstrap to test correlation between time series. For large-scale environmental effects, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) to represent the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO); for local hydrographic conditions, we used sea surface temperature (SST), river runoff, and mixing conditions. Whereas the anchovy catch consisted of a northern species (Engraulis japonicus) and two southern species (Encrasicholina heteroloba and Encrasicholina punctifer), the magnitude of the anchovy catch appeared to be mainly determined by the strength of Eng. japonicus (Japanese anchovy). The main factor that caused the interannual variation of anchovy CPUE might change through time. The CPUE showed a negative correlation with combination of water temperature and river runoff before 1987 and a positive correlation with river runoff after 1988. Whereas a significant negative correlation between CPUE and ENSOs existed, this correlation was driven completely by the low-frequency ENSO events and explained only 10% of the variance. Several previous studies on this population emphasized that the fluctuations of larval anchovy abundance were determined by local SST. Our analyses indicated that such a correlation was transient and simply reflected ENSO signals. Recent advances in physical oceanography around Taiwan showed that the ENSOs reduced the strength of the Asian monsoon and thus weakened the China Coastal Current toward Taiwan. The decline of larval anchovy during ENSO may be due to reduced China Coastal Current, which is important in facilitating the spawning migration of the Japanese anchovy. [source]

    Transport and environmental temperature variability of eggs and larvae of the Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) in the western North Pacific estimated via numerical particle-tracking experiments

    Abstract Numerical particle-tracking experiments were performed to investigate the transport and variability in environmental temperature experienced by eggs and larvae of Pacific stocks of the Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) using high-resolution outputs of the Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) and the observed distributions of eggs collected from 1978 to 2004. The modeled anchovy individuals tend to be trapped in coastal waters or transported to the Kuroshio,Oyashio transition region. In contrast, a large proportion of the sardines are transported to the Kuroshio Extension. The egg density-weighted mean environmental temperature until day 30 of the experiment was 20,24C for the anchovy and 17,20C for the sardine, which can be explained by spawning areas and seasons, and interannual oceanic variability. Regression analyses revealed that the contribution of environmental temperature to the logarithm of recruitment per spawning (expected to have a negative relationship with the mean mortality coefficient) was significant for both the anchovy and sardine, especially until day 30, which can be regarded as the initial stages of their life cycles. The relationship was quadratic for the anchovy, with an optimal temperature of 21,22C, and linear for the sardine, with a negative coefficient. Differences in habitat areas and temperature responses between the sardine and anchovy are suggested to be important factors in controlling the dramatic out-of-phase fluctuations of these species. [source]

    Environmental effects on recruitment and productivity of Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus with recommendations for management

    Abstract We compared a wide range of environmental data with measures of recruitment and stock production for Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus to examine factors potentially responsible for fishery regimes (periods of high or low recruitment and productivity). Environmental factors fall into two groups based on principal component analyses. The first principal component group was determined by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index and was dominated by variables associated with the Southern Oscillation Index and Kuroshio Sverdrup transport. The second was led by the Arctic Oscillation and dominated by variables associated with Kuroshio geostrophic transport. Instantaneous surplus production rates (ISPR) and log recruitment residuals (LNRR) changed within several years of environmental regime shifts and then stabilized due, we hypothesize, to rapid changes in carrying capacity and relaxation of density dependent effects. Like ISPR, LNRR appears more useful than fluctuation in commercial catch data for identifying the onset of fishery regime shifts. The extended Ricker models indicate spawning stock biomass and sea surface temperatures (SST) affect recruitment of sardine while spawning stock biomass, SST and sardine biomass affect recruitment of chub mackerel. Environmental conditions were favorable for sardine during 1969,87 and unfavorable during 1951,67 and after 1988. There were apparent shifts from favorable to unfavorable conditions for chub mackerel during 1976,77 and 1985,88, and from unfavorable to favorable during 1969,70 and 1988,92. Environmental effects on recruitment and surplus production are important but fishing effects are also influential. For example, chub mackerel may have shifted into a new favorable fishery regime in 1992 if fishing mortality had been lower. We suggest that managers consider to shift fishing effort in response to the changing stock productivity, and protect strong year classes by which we may detect new favorable regimes. [source]

    Transport of larval jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) estimated from trajectories of satellite-tracked drifters and advective velocity fields obtained from sequential satellite thermal images in the eastern East China Sea

    Hee-Yong Kim
    Abstract Transport processes of jack mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) larvae in the waters off the west coast of Kyushu in the eastern East China Sea, have been investigated using satellite-tracked surface drifters and consecutive satellite thermal images. Trajectories of drifters describe northward flows over the continental shelf, eastward flows of the Kuroshio south-west of Kyushu, and a weak clockwise gyre off the west coast of Kyushu. In particular, the clockwise gyre causes the entrainment of jack mackerel larvae into the waters off the west coast of Kyushu. Consecutive satellite thermal images help to elucidate the northward warm water intrusion from the Kuroshio front south-west of Kyushu. Particle trajectories using sea surface current fields computed with the Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique also reveal that the transport of jack mackerel larvae into the nursery ground off the west coast of Kyushu caused by the anti-cyclonic gyre and the warm streamers are an important process for successful recruitment. [source]

    Bark borer Semanotus japonicus (Col., Cerambycidae) utilization of Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica: a delicate balance between a primary and secondary insect

    E. Shibata
    To understand how S. japonicus is affected by host nutrition and resin flow, newly hatched larvae were introduced into stressed cedar trees. Stress was induced by either heavy pruning, stem cutting (i.e. removing the side branches and top of tree), or girdling. Larval mortality due to resin flow in the ,heavy pruning treatment' and the ,stem cutting treatment' tended to be lower than that in the untreated control cedar trees where all larvae were drowned by resin flow. Parasitism to the larval stage was observed in the stem-cutting trees, not in living trees, suggesting that S. japonicus may avoid parasitism in living cedar trees because few volatiles are produced. In the ,stem-girdling treatment', although more than 90% of the introduced larvae died due to poor nutrition below the girdle, 7.8% of the larvae above the girdle reached the adult stage. The live body weight of the adults collected from above the girdle was similar to those taken from naturally infested cedar trees. These results suggest that S. japonicus requires adequate host nutrition but that larvae are defenceless against high resin flow. Thus, S. japonicus seems to be in a transition state between being primary or secondary with respect to its attack behavior on living cedar trees. [source]

    Food habits of the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis (Mller & Henle, 1839) off the western coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    A. A. Cabrera-Chvez-Costa
    Summary The objective of this study was to establish the trophic niche of the silky shark and to determine the ecological role of this predator in the ecosystem close to Baja California. The trophic spectrum was analyzed from samples taken during summer and autumn (2000,2002) from the fishing camps of Punta Lobos and Punta Belcher on the western coast of Baja California Sur. A total of 263 stomach contents were analyzed (143 with food; 120 empty). The index of relative importance (IRI) showed that at Punta Lobos, silky sharks fed mainly on red crabs Pleuroncodes planipes (%IRI = 83%), whereas at Punta Belcher the main food item was the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (%IRI = 41%), followed by chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (%IRI = 33%). According to the Levin Index (Bi), the trophic niche breadth in silky sharks is low (Bi = <0.6), which means that silky sharks are specialist predators because they mainly consume three prey types: red crab, chub mackerel, and jumbo squid. The Shannon-Wiener Index indicated that all trophic categories at Punta Belcher (0.85,1.22) had lower diversity than at Punta Lobos (0.50,1.6), because the silky shark feeds more on tropical prey found close to Punta Lobos. The Morisita-Horn Index (C,) showed an overlap in the diet between the two areas analyzed and between sexes (C, = >0.6). The juveniles and adult females did not show any overlap. In the caloric analysis of the main prey, the jumbo squid (D. gigas) contributed the most calories to the silky shark diet (76%). [source]

    The top 27 animal alien species introduced into Europe for aquaculture and related activities

    D. Savini
    Summary The information extracted from IMPASSE, DAISIE, FishBase, and FAO-DIAS inventories of alien species were used to draw a list of the 27 most utilized animal alien species for aquaculture and related activities (e.g. stocking, sport fishing, ornamental purposes) in Europe. Three variables have been considered to assess their negative ecological impacts when these species escape from aquaculture facilities: (i) their distribution across Europe (including non-EU Member States); (ii) evidence of their environmental impact in the wild; and (iii) evidence of their being vectors of non-target alien species and other hitchhikers (e.g. pathogens). Drivers of use and mechanisms of dispersal in the wild have been also considered and reviewed. Twenty of the species are freshwater fishes: alien cyprinids and salmonids have been introduced into Europe mainly for food production, sport fishing and ornamental purposes. The most widespread species are the goldfish Carassius auratus and the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, established in 29 and 28 European countries, respectively. Notwithstanding their successful distribution in Europe, only the Gibel carp Carassius gibelio and the peneid shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus were found to have environmental impact in all the countries of establishment. Crayfish and predatory fishes (e.g. catfishes and salmonids) cause major environmental impacts in Europe by outcompeting native species and altering habitat structure. Alien crayfish, Procambarus clarkii and Pacifastacus leniusculus, are responsible for the largest range of impacts (i.e. crayfish plague dissemination, bioaccumulation of pollutants, community dominance, competition and predation on native species, habitat modifications, food web impairment, herbivory and macrophytes removal). Cyprinids (e.g. herbivorous carps) are vectors of diseases and parasites, while salmonids (e.g. Salvelinus fontinalis) often cause genetic impairment of native stocks by hybridization. The importation of alien farmed (target) species frequently leads to the introduction of associated non-target species. The cultures of the Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas and Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum were responsible for the introduction of the largest number (60) of non-native invertebrates and algae, often attached to packaging material, fouling the shell or parasitizing bivalve tissues. [source]

    Effect of short term exposure to the anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol on plasma osmolality of juvenile dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae)

    A. K. Bernatzeder
    Summary The plasma osmolality of early juvenile dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, exposed to 2-phenoxyethanol and control fish that were pithed prior to sampling, was investigated. Exposure to 2-phenoxyethanol, after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min, did not alter plasma osmolality (Friedman test; P = 0.976). There was no significant relationship between the size of fish within the range 133,170 mm SL (40,85 g) and plasma osmolality. Finally, there was no significant difference in plasma osmolality between anaesthetized fish and the control group that were pithed directly after removal from the tanks. Anaesthetizing juvenile dusky kob with 2-phenoxyethanol prior to blood sampling did not affect plasma osmolality. [source]

    Synopsis of biological, fisheries and aquaculture-related information on mulloway Argyrosomus japonicus (Pisces: Sciaenidae), with particular reference to Australia

    V. Silberschneider
    Summary Argyrosomus japonicus is a member of the family Sciaenidae, which are commonly known as drums and croakers. A. japonicus occurs in estuarine and nearshore Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean waters surrounding Australia, Africa, India, Pakistan, China, Korea and Japan. The biology of A. japonicus is relatively well studied in South Africa, and more recently studied in Australia, but no information is readily available from other areas of its distributional range. The early life history distribution of A. japonicus may differ among regions, with their distribution in estuaries linked to salinity, turbidity, freshwater flows and depth of water. Studies in South Africa and Australia found that juvenile fish grow rapidly, attaining 35 cm TL in 1 year and 87,90 cm TL in 5 years. Sexual maturity also differs among regions and is attained at 2,3 years of age and >50 cm in eastern Australia, 5,6 years of age and >80 cm TL in western Australia and southern Africa. The maximum reported length and age of A. japonicus is 175 cm and 42 years, respectively. Spawning most likely occurs in nearshore coastal waters although there is evidence to suggest that it may also occur in the lower reaches of estuaries. Time of spawning varies among geographic localities and is probably linked to water temperature and oceanography. Juvenile fish (<2 years) appear to be relatively sedentary, but sub-adults and adults can move relatively long distances (>200 km) and such movements may be linked to pre-spawning migrations. A. japonicus is important in many recreational and commercial fisheries, but like other sciaenids, is prone to overfishing. It is classified as recruitment overfished in South Africa and overfished in eastern Australia. Although much research has been done to minimize the capture of juveniles in Australian prawn-trawl fisheries, greater protection of spawners and improved fishing practices to enhance survival of discarded juveniles, particularly from prawn trawling, may be required. An aquaculture industry is developing for A. japonicus in Australia and preliminary research on the impacts and success of re-stocking wild populations has begun in an attempt to arrest the apparent decline in populations. [source]

    Growth of larval Pacific anchovy Engraulis japonicus in the Yellow Sea as indicated by otolith microstructure analysis

    S.-D. Hwang
    Larval Pacific anchovy Engraulis japonicus were sampled from coastal waters off the central west coast of Korea from June to November 1996. Using otolith microstructure analysis (daily growth increments), three cohorts (spring, early summer and late summer) were distinguished based on backcalculated spawning dates. Growth rates differed between cohorts, with higher growth rates for late-summer cohorts than either the spring or early-summer cohorts. Growth rate was positively related to surface water temperature, with an optimum temperature range of between 20 and 26 C occurring during the late summer (late July through to mid-September). The study highlights that early growth rates of Pacific anchovy are dependent on ecosystem (particularly water temperature) attributes during early life. [source]

    Fusarium incarnatum isolated from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, with black gill disease cultured in Vietnam

    L V Khoa
    Abstract Fusarium incarnatum was isolated from gill lesions of cultured black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in every crop during 2000,2002 in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Infected shrimps showed typical signs of black gill disease and mortalities about a month prior to harvest. Detailed morphological examinations, as well as molecular phylogenic analyses based on partial nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA, were made on the isolates. An artificial infection of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, using two selected isolates was also conducted and their pathogenicity determined. [source]

    Apoptosis does not play an important role in the resistance of ,immune'Penaeus japonicus against white spot syndrome virus

    J L Wu
    Abstract We previously demonstrated that kuruma shrimp, Penaeus japonicus, exposed to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) became resistant (,immune' shrimp) to subsequent challenge with the virus. The present study investigated the role of apoptosis in the ,immune' shrimp during a secondary challenge with WSSV. When naive kuruma shrimp were intramuscularly injected with WSSV at a high or low dose, apoptosis was often detected by TUNEL assay in the lymphoid organ (LO), mainly in the early stage of the infection. A significantly higher incidence of apoptosis was observed in the LO of the shrimp injected with the high dose of WSSV (cumulative mortality: 100%) than in the shrimp injected with the low dose (cumulative mortality: 0%). When ,immune' and naive shrimp were injected with an equal dose of WSSV, the incidence of apoptosis was significantly lower in the ,immune' shrimp than in the naive shrimp. This difference is assumed to result from a substantial reduction of the virus by humoral neutralizing factor in the ,immune' shrimp. These results suggest that apoptosis is not a principal protective factor in ,immune' shrimp. [source]

    Effects of infection with the ectoparasite Argulus japonicus (Thiele) and administration of cortisol on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in the epidermis of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., skin

    A L Van Der Salm
    The host-parasite interaction between juvenile carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the ectoparasitic branchiuran, Argulus japonicus, together with the role of cortisol in this interaction, was examined at the level of the host skin epidermis. Epidermal mucous cell numbers, and proliferation and apoptosis of the epithelial cells were studied over 32 days. Apoptotic cell numbers in the uppermost epidermis were reduced at 26 days post-infection with A. japonicus, while the other parameters were unaffected. Administration of cortisol-containing food resulted in reduced apoptosis in the cells in the upper skin epidermis at 24 h and at 28 days post-feeding. Cortisol feeding combined with A. japonicus infection reduced numbers of apoptotic cells in the upper epidermis more than either individual treatment. Further, combining the treatments also significantly increased apoptosis in the lower epidermis in cells morphologically identified as leucocytes apparently migrating macrophages and lymphocytes. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated cortisol receptor presence and cellular localization in the teleost epidermis. Receptors only occurred in pavement cells in the upper epidermis and in leucocytes in the lower parts of the epidermis. The ectoparasites, or administered cortisol, induced effects which may be functionally adaptive in the upper pavement cells, while combining the two treatments also induced changes indicative of immunosuppression. [source]


    ABSTRACT A ,-carrageenan-degrading bacterial strain AJ5 isolated from the intestine of Apostichopus japonicus was identified as Pseudoalteromonas sp. based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The mutant Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 with ,-carrageenase activity of 61 U/mg protein was obtained from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5 using mutagenesis technique. An extracellular ,-carrageenase was purified from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 cultural supernatant by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-200) and cation-exchange chromatography (CM-cellulose 52). The purified enzyme yielded a single band on SDS-PAGE with the molecular mass of 35 kDa. Data of the N-terminal amino acid sequence indicated that this protein might be a novel ,-carrageenase. The pI and Km of the enzyme were 8.5 and 9.8 0.2 mg/mL, respectively. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55C. It hydrolyzed the ,-1, 4-glycosidic linkages of ,-carrageenan yielding ,-neocarrabiose, -tetraose, -hexaose, -octaose and -decaose sulfates as the main end-products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ,-Carrageenases degrade ,-carrageenan by hydrolyzing the ,-1,4 linkages to a series of oligosaccharides. Thus, it is expected that like other ,-carrageenases, the ,-carrageenase isolated from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 would also be useful in seaweed biotechnology, pharmacy and immunology. ,-Carrageenases can be applied to study the composition and structure of carrageenans from different red alga, and to study the bacterial ,-carrageenan metabolism. They also provide the opportunity to investigate the structure-function relationship of the hydrolases that degrade self-associating sulfated polysaccharides. Examples of the practical applications of ,-carrageenases include their use in degrading the cell walls of seaweeds to obtain protoplasts, and in hydrolyzing ,-carrageenan to produce oligosaccharides. ,-Carrageenan-oligosaccharides have various potential biological properties, such as antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant activities, cytoprotection, immunomodulation, etc. [source]


    ABSTRACT A novel strain, Aspergillus sp. JN19, producing,-fructofuranosidase (FFase), was isolated from soil. According to the physiological and biochemical characteristics and its 18S rDNA gene sequence analysis, it was identified as Aspergillus japonicus. The optimal conditions for production of fructofuranosidase by A. japonicus JN-19 were investigated. The initial concentration of sucrose was 15 to 18%. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. K2HPO4 was effective in increasing enzyme production. The enzyme activity was increased to about 1.3 times by addition of 0.2% carboxymethylcellulose in the medium. The highest FFase activity was 55.42 U/mL at pH 5.5 and 30C, and production yield of fructooligosaccharides was 55.8%. Some characteristics of purified FFase were also studied. [source]


    ABSTRACT The present paper demonstrates that a nonstntggling slaughter method can delay degradation of type V collagen in meat of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and softening of the meat during postharvest chilled storage. The fish were slaughtered by piercing a knife into nape (nonstruggling method) or by leaving on ground (struggling method) and then stored in an ice box. Sensory study revealed that the postharvest softening of the meat was moderated at 4 and 8 h by the non-struggling slaughter method in comparison with the struggling method. On the basis of the specific solubilization of type V collagen and reduced tyrosine content in it, a cleavage of the nonhelical regions (telopeptides) of the type V collagen occurred during the chilled storage in the fish slaughtered by the struggling method. The degradation of type V collagen was also slower in the meat of the fish slaughtered by the nonstruggling method, which can be directly linked to the moderation of the postharvest softening. [source]


    ABSTRACT Lipase from Rhizopus japonicus degraded chitosan resulting in soluble chitosan hydrolysates with molecular weight of about 30,50 kDa as shown by size exclusion chromatography. Optimal temperature for the hydrolysis of chitosan was 40C. The chitosan degradation products were fractionated stepwise according to their molecular weights by ultrafiltration with the filtration range of over 0.1 ,m, 0. l ,m to 30 kDa, 30 kDa to 10 kDa, 10 to 3 kDa, and 3 to 0.2 kDa. These fractions exhibited molecular weights of 50, 41, 41, 35, and 30 kDa, respectively. The molecular weights did not coincide with the pore size of filter membranes. Chitosan hydrolysate exhibited almost the same structural composition in IR spectra as chitosan flakes, except the peak of 1550 nm,1 that appeared to be the COO residue shifted from sodium acetate buffer to amine residue of chitosan. All fractions showed high solubility at neutral pH. The chitosan hydrolysates exhibiting molecular weights between 30 and 41 kDa were considered to be most suitable as a food additive or functional agent as demonstrated by sensory evaluation. [source]

    Genetic Analysis of ele Mutants and Comparative Mapping of ele1 Locus in the Control of Organ Internal Asymmetry in Garden Pea

    Xin Li
    Previous study has shown that during zygomorphic development in garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), the organ internal (IN) asymmetry of lateral and ventral petals was regulated by a genetic locus, SYMMETRIC PETAL 1 (SYP1), while the dorsoventral (DV) asymmetry was determined by two CYC - like TCP genes or the PsCYC genes, KEELED WINGS (K) and LOBED STANDARD 1 (LST1). In this study, two novel loci, ELEPHANT EAR-LIKE LEAF 1 (ELE1) and ELE2 were characterized. These mutants exhibit a similar defect of IN asymmetry as syp1 in lateral and ventral petals, but also display pleiotropic effects of enlarged organ size. Genetic analysis showed that ELE1 and ELE2 were involved in same genetic pathway and the enlarged size of petals but not compound leaves in ele2 was suppressed by introducing k and lst1, indicating that the enlargement of dorsal petal in ele2 requires the activities of K and LST1. An experimental framework of comparative genomic mapping approach was set up to map and clone LjELE1 locus in Lotus japonicus. Cloning the ELE1 gene will shed light on the underlying molecular mechanism during zygomorphic development and further provide the molecular basis for genetic improvement on legume crops. [source]

    An efficient combination of supercritical fluid extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography to extract and purify homoisoflavonoids from Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawler

    Chengjun Ma
    Abstract Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract homoisoflavonoids from Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawler. The optimization of parameters was carried out using an orthogonal test L9 (3)4 including pressure, temperature, dynamic extraction time and the amount of modifier. The process was then scaled up by 100 times with a preparative SFE system under the optimized conditions of 25 MPa, 55C, 4.0 h and 25% methanol as a modifier. Then crude extracts were separated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n -hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/ACN/water (1.8:1.0:1.0:1.2:1.0 v/v). There three homoisoflavonoidal compounds including methylophiopogonanone A 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone A, and 6-formyl-isoophiopogonanone A, were successfully isolated and purified in one step. The collected fractions were analyzed by HPLC. In each operation, 140 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 15.3 mg of methylophiopogonanone A (96.9% purity), 4.1 mg of 6-aldehydo-isoophiopogonone A (98.3% purity) and 13.5 mg of 6-formyl-isoophiopogonanone A (97.3% purity) respectively. The chemical structure of the three homoisoflavonoids are identified by means of ESI-MS and NMR analysis. [source]

    Essential elements and contaminants in tissues of commercial pelagic fish from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Beyza Ersoy
    Abstract BACKGROUND: It is important to determine the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in fish for human health. The essential elements and contaminants (Pb and Cd) were determined seasonally in the muscle and liver of some pelagic fish species round herring (Etrumeus teres), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) from the Iskenderun Bay, Eastern Mediterranean Sea. RESULTS: The Na, K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in muscle and liver tissues. The Na, K, Ca and Mg concentrations in fish tissues were between 51.7 and 3426 mg kg,1. Muscle accumulated the lowest levels of elements. Trace element and contaminant levels in muscle were highest in spring and summer. The Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations were highest in summer. The Ni, Mn and Fe concentrations were highest in spring. The maximum Pb concentrations in the muscle and liver of fish species was 0.39 and 0.80 mg kg,1 in autumn. The maximum Cd concentration in the muscle of fish was 0.27 mg kg,1 in spring and the maximum Cd concentration in the liver was 0.78 mg kg,1 in summer. CONCLUSION: The Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn levels in muscle were found to be lower than permissible limits reported by various authorities. Estimated weekly and daily intake for Pb and Cd by consumption of fish muscle were far below the PTWI and PTDI values established by FAO/WHO. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Identification and pathogenicity of Vibrio ponticus affecting cultured Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes)

    Z.Y. Xie
    Abstract Aims:, To rapidly determine the causative agent of mass death in Lateolabrax japonicus in Zhelin Bay of Guangdong Province in China in April 2004. Methods and Results:, Thirty-six strains, numbered sequentially from RP01 to RP36, were isolated from six diseased fish. All of the strains were identified as being of the same vibrio species according to the results of universal primer PCR combined with DGGE (UPPCR-DGGE). RP30 was one of these strains that was randomly selected and analysed by using a morphological, physiological and biochemical plate, Biolog GN2 Microplate System and API 20E system. Furthermore, RP30, 16S rDNA was sequenced and aligned in Genbank. Its virulence to Lateolabrax japonicus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes) was also tested. RP30 is most closely related to four Vibrio ponticus strains (993% similarity). LD50s were 25 (103 CFU per fish for intraperitoneal inoculation (IP) and 32 (103 CFU per fish for intramuscular inoculation (IM), respectively. Conclusions:, The investigated pathogenic agent of Lateolabrax japonicus (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes) was V. ponticus. Significance and Impact of the Study:, UPPCR-DGGE is very helpful in epidemiologic investigation. Interestingly, this is the first report that V. ponticus infects cultured marine fish. DGGE was likewise first introduced to epidemiologic investigation of fish disease. [source]

    Microsatellite DNA markers for population-genetic studies of blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) and cross-specific amplification in S. japonicus

    C. Y. TANG
    Abstract Blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) is targeted by large-scale purse-seiners in the western North Pacific, and its stock structure is still contentious. Herein, we described 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for blue mackerel. The number of alleles among 32 individuals surveyed ranged from five to 27 (average of 16.2 alleles per locus). Departures from Hardy,Weinberg expectation were observed at two loci. Cross-specific amplification in the congener, S. japonicus, was successful, except for one locus, revealed to be diagnostic for these congeners. These microsatellite loci will be useful tools to address queries in population genetic structure, fishery management unit and taxonomic species status in the genus Scomber. [source]

    Isolation and development of microsatellite markers for the Japanese dormouse, Glirulus japonicus

    S. P. YASUDA
    Abstract Eight microsatellite markers were developed for the Japanese dormouse (Glirulus japonicus), a natural monument and near-threatened species in Japan. The markers amplify in individuals from all of the mitochondrial lineages detected in a previous study. Numerous polymorphisms were detected in specimens from a local population in central Honshu (11,21 alleles per locus; n = 31) and from the entire distribution range of the species (19,41 alleles per locus; n = 152). These microsatellites will be useful in conservation genetic studies of G. japonicus. [source]