Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Japonica

  • anguilla japonica
  • coturnix coturnix japonica
  • coturnix japonica
  • cryptomeria japonica
  • eel anguilla japonica
  • eriobotrya japonica
  • japanese eel anguilla japonica
  • l. japonica
  • lonicera japonica
  • p. japonica

  • Selected Abstracts


    Keiko Hosho
    A 45-year-old Philippine woman who came from Mindanao Island was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of epigastric discomfort. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a network pattern and linear calcification in the liver. Laparoscopic examination showed numerous yellowish, small speckles over the liver surface. The liver surface was separated into many small blocks by groove-like depressions, demonstrating a so-called tortoise shell pattern. Conventional colonoscopy and narrow-band imaging showed irregular areas of yellowish mucosa, and diminished vascular network and increased irregular microvessels extending from the descending colon to the rectum. Liver biopsy showed many Schistosoma japonicum eggs in Glisson's capsule and colon biopsy showed many S. japonicum eggs in the submucosal layer. These findings established a diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica. The present case is imported schistosomiasis japonica. Even though new cases have not occurred recently in Japan, we should remain aware of schistosomiasis japonica for patients who came from foreign epidemic areas. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 MAY 2010
    First page of article [source]


    Article first published online: 24 MAY 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Abstracts of ACTA Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica

    Article first published online: 24 MAY 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Designing herbicide formulation characteristics to maximize efficacy and minimize rice injury in paddy environments

    Steven A Cryer
    Abstract Mathematical descriptors, coupled with experimental observations, are used to quantify differential uptake of an experimental herbicide in Japonica and Indica rice (Oryza sativa, non-target) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli, target). Partitioning, degradation, plant uptake and metabolism are described using mass-balance conservation equations in the form of kinetic approximations. Estimated environmental concentrations, governed by the pesticide formulation, are described using superimposed analytical solutions for the one-dimensional diffusion equation in spherical coordinates and by a finite difference representation of the two-dimensional diffusion equation in Cartesian coordinates. Formulation attributes from granules include active ingredient release rates, particle sizes, pesticide loading, and granule spacing. The diffusion model for pesticide transport is coupled with the compartment model to follow the fate and transport of a pesticide from its initial application location to various environmental matrices of interest. Formulation effects, partitioning and degradation in the various environmental matrices, differential plant uptake and metabolism, and dose-response information for plants are accounted for. This novel model provides a mechanism for selecting formulation delivery systems that optimize specific attributes (such as weed control or the therapeutic index) for risk-assessment procedures. In this report we describe how this methodology was used to explore the factors affecting herbicide efficacy and to define an optimal release rate for a granule formulation. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Axoneme-dependent tubulin modifications in singlet microtubules of the Drosophila sperm tail

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2008
    Henry D. Hoyle
    Abstract Drosophila melanogaster sperm tubulins are posttranslationally glutamylated and glycylated. We show here that axonemes are the substrate for these tubulin C-terminal modifications. Axoneme architecture is required, but full length, motile axonemes are not necessary. Tubulin glutamylation occurs during or shortly after assembly into the axoneme; only glutamylated tubulins are glycylated. Tubulins in other testis microtubules are not modified. Only a small subset of total Drosophila sperm axoneme tubulins have these modifications. Biochemical fractionation of Drosophila sperm showed that central pair and accessory microtubules have the majority of poly-modified tubulins, whereas doublet microtubules have only small amounts of mono- and oligo-modified tubulins. Glutamylation patterns for different ,-tubulins experimentally assembled into axonemes were consistent with utilization of modification sites corresponding to those identified in other organisms, but surrounding sequence context was also important. We compared tubulin modifications in the 9 + 9 + 2 insect sperm tail axonemes of Drosophila with the canonical 9 + 2 axonemes of sperm of the sea urchin Lytichinus pictus and the 9 + 0 motile sperm axonemes of the eel Anguilla japonica. In contrast to Drosophila sperm, L. pictus sperm have equivalent levels of modified tubulins in both doublet and central pair microtubule fractions, whereas the doublets of A. japonica sperm exhibit little glutamylation but extensive glycylation. Tubulin C-terminal modifications are a prevalent feature of motile axonemes, but there is no conserved pattern for placement or amount of these modifications. We conclude their functions are likely species-specific. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Evolution and regeneration of the planarian central nervous system

    Yoshihiko Umesono
    More than 100 years ago, early workers realized that planarians offer an excellent system for regeneration studies. Another unique aspect of planarians is that they occupy an interesting phylogenetic position with respect to the nervous system in that they possess an evolutionarily primitive brain structure and can regenerate a functional brain from almost any tiny body fragment. Recent molecular studies have revisited planarian regeneration and revealed key information about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying brain regeneration in planarians. One of our great advances was identification of a gene, nou-darake, which directs the formation of a proper extrinsic environment for pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into brain cells in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Our recent findings have provided mechanistic insights into stem cell biology and also evolutionary biology. [source]

    Mediolateral intercalation in planarians revealed by grafting experiments

    Yumi Saito
    Abstract We investigated how planarians organize their left,right axis by using ectopic grafting. Planarians have three body axes: anteroposterior (A-P), dorsoventral (D-V), and left,right (L-R). When a small piece is implanted into an ectopic region along the A-P and D-V axes, intercalary structures are always formed to compensate for positional gaps. There are two hypotheses regarding L-R axis formation in this organism: first, that the left and right sides of the animal may be recognized as different parts, and L-R intercalation can induce midline structures (asymmetry hypothesis); second, that both sides may have symmetrical positional values, and mediolateral (M-L) intercalation creates positional values along the L-R axis (symmetry hypothesis). We performed ectopic grafting experiments in the head region of the planarian, Dugesia japonica, to examine these hypotheses. A left lateral fragment containing a left auricle was implanted into the medial region of the host. Ectopic structures were always formed only on the left side of the graft, where lateral tissues abutted onto the medial tissues. However, no morphologic change was induced on the right side of the graft, where left-sided tissues faced onto right-sided tissues. Molecular marker analyses indicated that ectopic structures formed on the left side of the graft were induced by M-L intercalation, supporting the "symmetry hypothesis." When the midline tissues were implanted into a lateral region, they induced a complete ectopic head, demonstrating that M-L intercalation may be sufficient to establish the L-R axis in planarians. Developmental Dynamics 226:334,340, 2003.© 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Evidence for species differences in the pattern of androgen receptor distribution in relation to species differences in an androgen-dependent behavior

    Brian K. Shaw
    Abstract Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), two closely related gallinaceous bird species, exhibit a form of vocalization,crowing,which differs between the species in two components: its temporal acoustic pattern and its accompanying postural motor pattern. Previous work utilizing the quail-chick chimera technique demonstrated that the species-specific characteristics of the two crow components are determined by distinct brain structures: the midbrain confers the acoustic pattern, and the caudal hindbrain confers the postural pattern. Crowing is induced by androgens, acting directly on androgen receptors. As a strategy for identifying candidate neurons in the midbrain and caudal hindbrain that could be involved in crow production, we performed immunocytochemistry for androgen receptors in these brain regions in both species. We also investigated midbrain-to-hindbrain vocal-motor projections. In the midbrain, both species showed prominent androgen receptor immunoreactivity in the nucleus intercollicularis, as had been reported in previous studies. In the caudal hindbrain, we discovered characteristic species differences in the pattern of androgen receptor distribution. Chickens, but not quail, showed strong immunoreactivity in the tracheosyringeal division of the hypoglossal nucleus, whereas quail, but not chickens, possessed strong immunoreactivity in a region of the ventrolateral medulla. Some of these differences in hindbrain androgen receptor distribution may be related to the species differences in the postural component of crowing behavior. The results of the present study imply that the spatial distribution of receptor proteins can vary even between closely related species. Such variation in receptor distribution could underlie the evolution of species differences in behavior. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 52: 203,220, 2002 [source]


    Keiko Hosho
    A 45-year-old Philippine woman who came from Mindanao Island was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of epigastric discomfort. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a network pattern and linear calcification in the liver. Laparoscopic examination showed numerous yellowish, small speckles over the liver surface. The liver surface was separated into many small blocks by groove-like depressions, demonstrating a so-called tortoise shell pattern. Conventional colonoscopy and narrow-band imaging showed irregular areas of yellowish mucosa, and diminished vascular network and increased irregular microvessels extending from the descending colon to the rectum. Liver biopsy showed many Schistosoma japonicum eggs in Glisson's capsule and colon biopsy showed many S. japonicum eggs in the submucosal layer. These findings established a diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica. The present case is imported schistosomiasis japonica. Even though new cases have not occurred recently in Japan, we should remain aware of schistosomiasis japonica for patients who came from foreign epidemic areas. [source]

    Conifers as invasive aliens: a global survey and predictive framework

    David M. Richardson
    ABSTRACT We summarize information on naturalized and invasive conifers (class Pinopsida) worldwide (data from 40 countries, some with remote states/territories), and contrast these findings with patterns for other gymnosperms (classes Cycadopsida, Gnetopsida and Ginkgoopsida) and for woody angiosperms. Eighty conifer taxa (79 species and one hybrid; 13% of species) are known to be naturalized, and 36 species (6%) are ,invasive'. This categorization is based on objective and conservative criteria relating to consistency of reproduction, distance of spread from founders, and degree of reliance on propagules from the founder population for persistence in areas well outside the natural range of species. Twenty-eight of the known invasive conifers belong to one family (Pinaceae) and 21 of these are in one genus (Pinus). The Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae) has six known invasive species (4%) in four genera, but the other four conifer families have none. There are also no known invasive species in classes Cycadopsida, Gnetopsida or Ginkgoopsida. No angiosperm family comprising predominantly trees and shrubs has proportionally as many invasive species as the Pinaceae. Besides the marked taxonomic bias in favour of Pinaceae, and Pinus in particular, invasiveness in conifers is associated with a syndrome of life-history traits: small seed mass (< 50 mg), short juvenile period (< 10 year), and short intervals between large seed crops. Cryptomeria japonica, Larix decidua, Picea sitchensis, Pinus contorta, Pinus strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii exemplify this syndrome. Many rare and endangered conifer species exhibit opposite characters. These results are consistent with earlier predictions made using a discriminant function derived from attributes of invasive and noninvasive Pinus species. Informative exceptions are species with small seeds (< 4 mg, e.g. Chamaecyparis spp., Pinus banksiana, Tsuga spp. , mostly limited to wet/mineral substrates) or otherwise ,non-invasive' characters (e.g. large seeds, fleshy fruits, e.g. Araucaria araucana, Pinus pinea, Taxus baccata that are dependent on vertebrates for seed dispersal). Most conifers do not require coevolved mutualists for pollination and seed dispersal. Also, many species can persist in small populations but have the genetic and reproductive capacity to colonize and increase population size rapidly. The underlying mechanisms mediating conifer invasions are thus easier to discern than is the case for most angiosperms. Further information is needed to determine the extent to which propagule pressure (widespread dissemination, abundant plantings, long history of cultivation) can compensate for low ,inherent invasiveness'. [source]

    Effects of plant invasions on the species richness of abandoned agricultural land

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2001
    Scott J. Meiners
    While exotic plant invasions are thought to lead to declines in native species, the long-term impacts of such invasions on community structure are poorly known. Furthermore, it is unknown how exotic plant invasions compare to invasions by native species. We present data from 40 yr of continuous vegetation sampling of 10 fields released from agriculture to examine the effects of invasions on species richness. The effects of both exotic and native species invasions on species richness were largely driven by variations among fields with most species not significantly affecting species richness. However, invasion and dominance by the exotics Agropyron repens, Lonicera japonica. Rosa multiflora. Trifolium pratense and the native Solidago canadensis were associated with declines in richness. Invasions by exotic and native species during old field succession have similar effects on species richness with dominance by species of either group being associated with loss of species richness. Exotic species invasions tended to have stronger effects on richness than native invasions. No evidence was found of residual effects of invasions because the impact of the invasion disappeared with the decline of the invading population. When pooled across species, heavy invasion by exotic species resulted in greater loss o species richness than invasion by native species. Studies of invasion that utilize multiple sites must account for variability among sites. In our study, had we no included field as a factor we would have incorrectly concluded that invasion consistently resulted in changes in species richness. [source]

    Invasion impacts local species turnover in a successional system

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 9 2004
    Kathryn A. Yurkonis
    Abstract Exotic plant invasions are often associated with declines in diversity within invaded communities. However, few studies have examined the local community dynamics underlying these impacts. Changes in species richness associated with plant invasions must occur through local changes in extinction and/or colonization rates within the community. We used long-term, permanent plot data to evaluate the impacts of the exotic vine Lonicera japonica. Over time, species richness declined with increasing L. japonica cover. L. japonica reduced local colonization rates but had no effect on extinction rates. Furthermore, we detected significant reductions in the immigration of individual species as invasion severity increased, showing that some species are more susceptible to invasion than others. These findings suggest that declines in species richness associated with L. japonica invasion resulted from effects on local colonization rates only and not through the competitive displacement of established species. [source]

    Postendocytic Provitellin Processing in the Growing Oocyte of the Short Horned Grasshopper, Oxyajaponicajaponica (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    Sae Youll CHO
    ABSTRACT Polyclonal antibodies made against 86 kDa (86 k), 80 kDa (80 k) and 54 kDa (54 k) vitellins of Oxya japonica japonica are used for Western blotting. Anti-80k vitellin antibody is cross-reacted with a 95 kDa (95 k) vitellin. While 95 k vitellin is present both in the female hemolymph and in the oocyte, 80 k vitellin is detected only in the oocyte and the laid egg. In the growing oocytes, as 95 k vitellin is faded out gradually, 80 k vitellin is accumulated increasingly, indicating postendocytic processing of 95 k vitellin brings 80 k vitellin. Further conforming the hypothesis, partial digestion of 95 k vitellin with pepsin and ,-chymotrypsin makes several protein bands of molecular weight around 80 kDa. Thus, the 95k vitellin may have a cleavage site (s) to produce 80 k vitellin which forms fairly stable tertiary structure. In the reduced condition (20 mM glutathion), both 95 k and 80 k vitellins were digested throughly by endogenous proteinase at pH 4. Both 86 k and 54 k vitellins, respectively, show no apparent molecular weight changes in the growing oocyte and in the hemolymph. [source]

    Host range of Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of drosophilid flies

    Shinsuke IDEO
    Abstract We studied the host range of Asobara japonica, a larval-pupal parasitoid of drosophilid flies. Habitat selection was found to be an important determinant of host range in this parasitoid; it attacked drosophilid larvae breeding on banana and mushrooms, but seldom attacked those breeding on decayed leaves. This parasitoid was able to use diverse drosophilid taxa as hosts. Attack by A. japonica sometimes killed hosts at the larval stage, and therefore parasitoid larvae also died. Drosophila elegans and D. busckii suffered particularly high larval mortality due to the attack by A. japonica (in the latter species only when young larvae were attacked). Many individuals of D. subpulchrella also died at the pupal stage without producing parasitoids when they were parasitized at the late larval stage. In contrast, D. bipectinata, D. ficusphila, D. immigrans, D. formosana and D. albomicans were resistant to attack: large proportions of the larvae of these drosophilid species grew to adulthood, even in the presence of parasitoids. On the basis of phylogenetic information, we concluded that phylogenetic position has only limited importance as a factor determining whether a species is suitable as a host for A. japonica, at least within the genus Drosophila. [source]

    Survivorship and growth in the larvae of Luehdorfia japonica feeding on old leaves of Asarum megacalyx

    Aya HATADA
    Abstract Although the papilionid butterfly Luehdorfia japonica, usually lays eggs on new leaves of the host plant (Asarum sp.; Aristolochiaceae), eggs of the butterfly were frequently found on old leaves of Asarum megacalyx in Suyama, Tokamachi, Niigata prefecture. Larvae hatched on new leaves and those hatched on old leaves did not show significant differences in their survival rate in the field. In laboratory breeding, about 90% of larvae that were fed old leaves survived and developed normally to the pupal stage. Their growth rate, however, was slightly lower than those that were fed new leaves. No nutritional differences were found between the old and new leaves. The reason why oviposition on the old leaves was so frequent and why larvae that hatched on old leaves could survive in the study area is discussed. [source]

    Cuticular hydrocarbons in workers of the slave-making ant Polyergus samurai and its slave, Formica japonica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Zhibin LIU
    Abstract Comparisons of cuticular hydrocarbons between workers of the dulotic ant Polyergus samurai and its slave, Formica japonica, were carried out. Gas chromatography,mass spectrometry showed that the slave-maker and its slave shared the major cuticular hydrocarbon compounds, but possessed several minor products unique to each species. No difference in hydrocarbon composition was detected between enslaved and free-living F. japonica workers, suggesting that association with P. samurai has no qualitative effect on hydrocarbon composition in these ants. Principal component analyses of the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles (CHP) revealed that (i) CHP was species specific in a given mixed colony; and (ii) among mixed colonies, P. samurai workers had species-colony specific CHP, while the same feature was not always found in enslaved and free-living F. japonica workers. Therefore, a ,uniform colony odor' in terms of CHP is not achieved in naturally mixed colonies of P. samurai nor those of its slaves, F. japonica. [source]

    Acute CO2 tolerance during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts

    T. Kikkawa
    Abstract Ocean sequestration of CO2 is proposed as a possible measure to mitigate climate changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentrations of the gas, but its impact on the marine ecosystem is unknown. We investigated the acute lethal effect of CO2 during the early developmental stages of four marine teleosts: red sea bream (Pagrus major), Japanese whiting (Sillago japonica), Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and eastern little tuna (Euthynnus affinis). The percentages of larvae that hatched and survived were not affected by exposure to water with a PCO2 of 1.0 kPa (= 7.5 mmHg) within 24 h. Median lethal PCO2 values for a 360-min exposure were 1.4 kPa (cleavage), 5.1 kPa (embryo), 7.3 kPa (preflexion), 4.2 kPa (flexion), 4.6 kPa (postflexion), and 2.5 kPa (juvenile) for red sea bream; 2.4 kPa (cleavage), 4.9 kPa (embryo), 5.9 kPa (preflexion), 6.1 kPa (flexion), 4.1 kPa (postflexion), and 2.7 kPa (juvenile) for Japanese whiting; 2.8 kPa (cleavage) and > 7.0 kPa (young) for Japanese flounder; and 11.8 kPa (cleavage) for eastern little tuna. Red sea bream and Japanese whiting of all ontogenetic stages had similar susceptibilities to CO2: the most susceptible stages were cleavage and juvenile, whereas the most tolerant stages were preflexion and flexion. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 375,382, 2003 [source]

    Epoxiconazole causes changes in testicular histology and sperm production in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Konstanze Grote
    Abstract The fungicide epoxiconazole (Epox), a triazole, belongs to the group of azole compounds that are extensively used as fungicides in various fruit crops. The frequent use of agricultural lands for wintering by migrating birds can be the source of their increased dietary intake of agricultural pesticides. We investigated whether exposure to Epox causes effects on avian fertility and reproduction, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) as a model species for the assessment of reproductive effects of pesticides in wild birds. Epox was administered to adult Japanese quail for three weeks at dietary levels of 10, 50, and 500 ppm, and possible effects on reproduction were investigated. Epox administration resulted in a significantly decreased number of spermatids in the 50- and 500-ppm dose groups. Histopathology showed a reduced number of testicular canaliculi with visible germ cells and a reduction in spermatid number. However, testis weight was not affected up to the highest dose level. No impact was observed on hormone levels, fertility, and reproductive outcome, as laying rate and percentage of fertile eggs were not altered. Likewise, treatment had no influence on the egg or chick parameters evaluated. A time- and dose-related transfer of Epox into the eggs was determined in all treatment groups. We conclude that dietary treatment of Japanese quail with 50 and 500 ppm of the triazole fungicide Epox resulted in a clear impact on the testis. The evaluation of the additional endpoints spermatid count and testicular histology have proven useful and are recommended for future studies on avian reproduction. [source]

    Mating Call Discrimination in Female European (Coturnix c. coturnix) and Japanese Quail (Coturnix c. japonica)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Sébastien Derégnaucourt
    Each year, thousands of domestic Japanese and hybrid quails are released within the breeding range of the European quail. We showed recently that no post-zygotic isolating mechanisms have yet been established between these subspecies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-zygotic mechanisms are strong enough to prevent hybridization. We tested the level of subspecies selectivity in females of European and Japanese quail respectively using playbacks of European, hybrid and Japanese male mating calls. European quail females emitted the greatest number of rally calls in response to mating calls by conspecific males. Their responses were the weakest to mating calls produced by males of the other subspecies and intermediate to mating calls by hybrid males. In contrast, Japanese quails produced similar responses to all types of mating calls. These results suggest that mixed pairs could form in the wild. The European quail could thus become one of the most endangered galliforms of the Western Palearctic. [source]

    Incorporation of ZP1 into perivitelline membrane after in vivo treatment with exogenous ZP1 in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 14 2008
    Mihoko Kinoshita
    In birds, the egg envelope surrounding the oocyte prior to ovulation is called the perivitelline membrane and it plays important roles in fertilization. In a previous study we demonstrated that one of the components of the perivitelline membrane, ZP3, which is secreted from the ovarian granulosa cells, specifically interacts with ZP1, another constituent that is synthesized in the liver of Japanese quail. In the present study, we investigated whether ZP1 injected exogenously into the blood possesses the ability to reconstruct the perivitelline membrane of Japanese quail. When ZP1 purified from the serum of laying quail was injected into other female birds, the signal of this exogenous ZP1 was detected in the perivitelline membrane. In addition, we revealed, by means of ligand blot analysis, that serum ZP1 interacts with both ZP1 and ZP3 of the perivitelline membrane. By contrast, when ZP1 derived from the perivitelline membrane was administered, it failed to become incorporated into the perivitelline membrane. Interestingly, serum ZP1 recovered from other Galliformes, including chicken and guinea fowl, could be incorporated into the quail perivitelline membrane, but the degree of interaction between quail ZP3 and ZP1 of the vitelline membrane of laid eggs from chicken and guinea fowl appeared to be weak. These results demonstrate that exogenous ZP1 purified from the serum, but not ZP1 from the perivitelline membrane, can become incorporated into the perivitelline membrane upon injection into other types of female birds. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the egg envelope component, when exogenously administered to animals, can reconstruct the egg envelope in vivo. [source]

    Methods for inoculum production and inoculation of Cistella japonica, the causal agent of resinous stem canker in Chamaecyparis obtusa

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    T. Yamanobe
    Summary The ascomycete Cistella japonica was cultured on potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) for inoculation into Chamaecyparis obtusa, enabling the development of an inoculation method suitable for use in a breeding programme aimed at selecting for families of Ch. obtusa resistant to resinous stem canker. Using PDA to generate the inoculum resolved the problems encountered with the previously used mixed medium of rice bran and wheat bran, including unfavourable characteristics, uncertain growth of Ci. japonica mycelia, and a complex culturing operation. The inoculation test induced resin exudation similar to that observed in natural infections, and reproduced clonal differences with regard to damage severity. [source]

    The specialist seed predator Bruchidius dorsalis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) plays a crucial role in the seed germination of its host plant, Gleditsia japonica (Leguminosae)

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    K. Takakura
    Summary 1,This paper describes the germination mechanism of hard seeds of a species of honey locust, Gleditsia japonica, which can germinate only when externally damaged, in relation to four germinating factors: feeding damage by two specialist seed predators, a bean weevil (Bruchidius dorsalis) and a cydid bug (Adrisa magna); feeding damage by a generalist seed predator, a wild mouse (Apodemus speciosus); and physical damage. 2,In laboratory experiments, both the bean weevil and physical damage facilitated germination, while damage by the cydid bug and wild mouse did not. 3,In contrast to laboratory findings, field censuses of G. japonica seed survival revealed that more than 99% were damaged either by B. dorsalis or A. magna. Therefore, less than 0·5% of the seeds remained intact, preventing formation of a seed bank. 4,In addition, all germinating seeds found in the field contained B. dorsalis larvae. 5,These results strongly suggest that damage by B. dorsalis is a prerequisite for G. japonica germination, in contrast to the conventional view that physical disturbance, possibly flooding, is the primary germinating factor for hard seeds. [source]

    Seasonal differences in the adaptability of herbage species to environmental variations in a long-term grazing experiment

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    Abstract Mixtures of orchardgrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, redtop, Kentucky bluegrass, and white clover were sown in autumn 1973. Two 8-year grazing experiments were conducted at the National Grassland Research Institute (Nasushiobara, Japan) to determine the effects of grazing intensity and nitrogen levels on pasture ecosystems. These experiments involved two different grazing intensities (1974,1981) and two different nitrogen levels (1982,1989). Large spatiotemporal variations in phytomass due to environmental variations were observed in both experiments. Finlay,Wilkinson analysis was applied to clarify seasonal (monthly) differences in the adaptability of the herbage species, as measured by phytomass, to environmental variations by year and treatments in the two experiments. Seasonality in the adaptability to environments differed greatly among species. In this paper, we examined from livestock farmers' standpoint whether seasonality in adaptability of herbage species in the grazing pasture could be satisfied. A significantly high adaptability was shown for: orchardgrass from May to July and November; tall fescue in April, June and July, and November; redtop and Kentucky bluegrass in April; and Zoysia japonica in September and October. In contrast, perennial ryegrass and white clover exhibited very low adaptability in any season. Z. japonica and weeds such as Pennisetum alopecuroides, Eragrostis ferruginea and Digitaria adscendens, which had invaded from surrounding areas, showed low adaptability, except in autumn, when they showed moderate adaptability. [source]

    Evaluating the adaptability of herbage species to environmental variation through a long-term grazing experiment

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 4 2005
    Abstract Mixtures of orchard grass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, redtop, Kentucky bluegrass and white clover were sown in the autumn of 1973. Two 8-year grazing experiments were carried out at the National Grassland Research Institute (Nasushiobara, Tochigi, Japan) to determine the effects of grazing intensity and nitrogen levels on the pasture ecosystem: two different grazing intensities (1974,1981) and two different nitrogen levels (1982,1989). Large temporal and spatial variations in phytomass were observed in both experiments. To clarify the adaptability of the phytomass of the herbage species to environmental variations in year, season and treatments, we re-examined the data obtained in these two experiments using a Finlay-Wilkinson analysis. Orchard grass and tall fescue achieved significantly higher phytomass in a more fertile environment in that they showed a high adaptability to environmental variation. Redtop and Kentucky bluegrass showed an increase in phytomass proportional to environmental improvement. The phytomass performances of perennial ryegrass and white clover were almost independent of environmental variation in that their adaptability was low. Finally, Zoysia japonica and weeds such as Pennisetum alopecuroides and Digitaria adscendens, which were invaders from the surrounding areas to the experimental site, were not observed in the pasture during the first 8-year period; during the second 8-year period, they showed moderate adaptability. [source]

    Effects of plant trichomes on herbivores and predators on soybeans

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
    Hongjun Dai
    Abstract, Tritrophic interaction in soybean system has received increasing attention recently. However, few studies have investigated the influence of plant trichomes on the population dynamics of soybean herbivores and their natural enemies. We conducted a field survey to investigate whether soybean trichomes affected the abundance of herbivores and their predators. The results of this study show that moderately or densely pubescent trichomes have positive influences on the abundance of some herbivores (e.g., Stollia guttiger) and predators (e.g., Propylaea japonica and Orius similes) although the influence may change over time, while trichome types do not affect the density of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. [source]

    Presence of a cerebral factor showing summer-morph-producing hormone activity in the brain of the seasonal non-polyphenic butterflies Vanessa cardui, V. indica and Nymphalis xanthomelas japonica (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    Ayuki Tanaka
    Abstract Three species of nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa cardui, V. indica and Nymphalis xanthomelas japonica, do not exhibit seasonal polyphenism in wing coloration. To determine whether seasonal non-polyphenic butterflies possess a cerebral factor affecting wing coloration, we used a Polygonia c-aureum female short-day pupal assay for detection of summer-morph-producing hormone (SMPH) activity in P. c-aureum. When 2% NaCl extracts of 25 brain-equivalents prepared from the pupal brains of V. cardui, V. indica or N. xanthomelas japonica were injected into Polygonia female short-day pupae, all recipients developed into summer-morph adults with dark-yellow wings, and the average grade score (AGS) of summer morphs showing SMPH activity was 3.8, 3.7 and 4.0, respectively. In contrast, when acetone or 80% ethanol extracts prepared from pupal brains were injected into Polygonia pupae, all recipients developed into autumn-morph adults with a dark-brown coloration and each exhibited an AGS of less than 0.5. Our results indicate that a cerebral factor showing SMPH activity is present in the pupal brain of seasonal non-polyphenic nymphalid butterflies, suggesting that a SMPH and cerebral factor showing SMPH activity occur widely among butterfly species. This finding will improve our understanding of the presence of cerebral factors showing interspecific actions of SHPH. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2002
    XUE Ming
    Abstract, The selective toxicity of six kinds of insecticides, including imidacloprid, imidacloprid + synergist (SV1), fenvalerate, endosulfan, methomyl and dimethoate, between the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) and two species of ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and Propylaea japonica Thunbery), was investigated in the laboratory. The reults showed that both imidacloprid WP and imidacloprid + synergist (SVl) EC possessed the highest toxicity to the aphids. Between C. septempunctata and M. persicae and between P. japonica and M. persicae, the selective toxicity ratios (STRs) of imidacloprid WP, imidacloprid+ synergist (SV1) EC and endosulfan EC were 37.6 and 13.0, 9.84 and 7.75, 54.0 and 7.28 respectively. All of them showed rather high selective toxicity. The STRs of fenvalerate EC, dimethoate EC and methomyl EC were all very low, ranging from 0.02 to 0.21, indicating their low degree of safety to the two species of ladybids. The results demomarated that imidacloprid WP and imidacloprid + SVl EC not only had rather high toxicity to the aphids, but also reduced strikingly the reproduction rate and fecundity of the survival aphids. Insecticides can induce the relative fitness of insects decrease. Among the six insecticides tested with M. persicae, the following were insecticides and the order of induction was: imidacloprid + SV1 imidacloprid endosulfan methomyl fenvalerate > dimethoate. [source]

    Abstracts: New alternatives to cosmetics preservation

    S. Papageorgiou
    pp. 107,123 This work was partially presented at the 7th Joint Meeting of AFRP, ASP, GA, PSE and SIF, Athens, Greece, and at the XIIIth COSMODERM Joint Meeting of ESCAD and the Hellenic Society of Dermatology and Venerology, Athens, Greece. In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after 3 weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (,0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products. [source]

    Cosmeceutical properties of polysaccharides from the root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica

    Sang Yong Eom
    In Korea and China, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of difficulty in urination, skin inflammation, etc. In order to investigate the potential of a polysaccharide extract from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica as a cosmetic ingredient, we measured its moisturizing effect, photo-induced cytotoxicity, and anti-inflammatory effect. After hydrolysis, HPLC experiments showed that the composition of the polysaccharide extract was mainly rhamnose, galactose, and glucose. The molecular weight of the obtained Ulmus davidiana root extract was 20 000. The intrinsic viscosity was 90 dL/g. In a moisturizing test conducted through the measurement of water loss in a desiccator and of moisture content with a Corneometer CM820, Ulmus davidiana root extract showed almost the same moisturizing effect as hyaluronic acid. In an assay for inhibition of the H2O2-activated release of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 in normal human fibroblast cell lines, Ulmus davidiana root extract showed an inhibitory activity of PGE2 release in a dose-dependent manner (up to 85.9% at a concentration of 0.1%). The percent inhibition of the release of IL-6 was in the range of 45.6,64.5% (H2O2 was used as the positive control). Moreover, the release of IL-8 was completely inhibited in the entire concentration range (>0.0025%). In a test of recovery from photo-induced damage after UVA irradiation (3 J/cm2), the cell recovery of human fibroblasts increased to levels two times higher than that of the positive control, which was UVA-damaged cells in the absence of Ulmus davidiana root extract (up to 60.2% at 3.0% of Ulmus davidiana root extract). In a photo-induced cytotoxicity assay in the presence of promethazine as a photosensitizer, Ulmus davidiana root extract showed approximately 48% of the increased cell viability of the control. Therefore, Ulmus davidiana root extract may be useful for the development of a cosmetic ingredient. [source]