Jpn

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Estimation of backward impedance on low-voltage distribution system using measured resonant current

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2010
Toru Miki
Abstract Two estimation methods for a backward impedance of a power distribution system are proposed in this paper. According to the first method, the backward impedance is estimated based on information obtained from the frequency response of a transient current flowing into a capacitor connected to a distribution line. The backward impedance is determined from the attenuation constant and the resonant frequency calculated using the capacitance and the impedance of the power distribution system. These parameters can be reliably obtained from a frequency response of the transient current using the least square method. The accuracy of the method strongly depends on the origin on the time axis for Fourier transform. An additional estimate of the time-origin is required for an accurate estimation of the backward impedance. The second method estimates the backward impedance using two transient current waveforms obtained by alternately connecting different capacitors to a distribution line. The backward impedance can be represented as a function of the frequency responses of these currents. Since this method is independent from the time-origin, it is suitable for automatic measurements of the backward impedance. Proposed methods are applicable to the estimation of harmonic currents in distribution systems. In this paper, harmonic currents flowing through a distribution line are calculated based on the estimated backward impedance and on the measured values of voltage harmonics obtained by the instrument developed by the authors. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(3): 28,40, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20900 [source]


A method to determine direct- and quadrature-axis inductances of permanent magnet synchronous motors

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2010
Shu Yamamoto
Abstract The equivalent circuit constants of permanent magnet synchronous motors are needed in the calculation of operation characteristics, construction of a control system, etc. These constants can be computed from the data on structural form and materials. However, measurements are necessary to obtain highly precise values. Methods for measurement of the d- and q-axis inductances can be roughly divided into rotational and standstill methods. The standstill methods have the advantage that they are easy to carry out. However, it is difficult to consider magnetic saturation and distortion of the change in the armature winding inductance. The accuracy of the standstill method can be improved if these effects can be readily taken into account. This paper describes a standstill method for measuring accurate d- and q-axis synchronous inductances of permanent magnet synchronous motors. By utilizing the fact that the EMF interference terms in the motor voltage equation considering the distortion of the inductance change are equal to zero when the rotor is in a specific position, the proposed method determines the inductances considering both magnetic saturation and inductance distortion effects from simple off-line standstill testing. In addition, this method is capable of taking cross-magnetic saturation into account when used with the necessary testing equipment. The proposed method was implemented on a 0.4-kW interior permanent magnet synchronous motor with concentrated stator winding. The validity of the proposed method was demonstrated by comparing the measured and calculated results of the no-load and on-load characteristics. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(3): 41,50, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20969 [source]


Long-span seek control system for hard disk drive without mode-switching

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2010
Shinji Takakura
Abstract In hard disk drives (HDD) there are two control modes: the head positioning control mode and the other is the seek control mode. In the head positioning control mode, a feedback controller is optimally designed to suppress disturbances. In the long-span seek mode, a velocity feedback control system is applied in order to move the heads fast. Thus, an HDD has multiple control systems, and the head is moved to the target position while changing from one control system to the other. However, changing the control system causes a discontinuous control signal, which activates the resonant mode of an actuator. Past methods can only decrease discontinuous control, and therefore a single control system that can be used for both a seek control mode and a head positioning control mode is necessary for a narrow track pitch. In the proposed method, the feedback controller is decomposed into an integrator and a phase compensator. The VCM model is updated by the output of the phase compensator, and the integrator and the output of the velocity feedback controller control the VCM. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by numerical and experimental results using a miniature 2.5-inch hard disk drive. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(3): 51,60, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20935 [source]


Precise disturbance modeling for improvement of positioning performance

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2010
Masafumi Yamamoto
Abstract This paper presents a modeling methodology for unknown disturbances in mechatronics systems, based on disturbance estimation using an iterative learning process. In disturbance modeling, nonlinear frictions are specially handled as disturbances in the mechanisms, which mainly degrade trajectory control performance. Friction can be mathematically modeled by using learned estimation data as a function of the displacement, velocity. acceleration, and jerk of the actuator. This model has the distinctive feature that friction compensation can be achieved with a generalization capability for different conditions. The proposed positioning control approach with disturbance modeling and compensation has been verified by experiments using a table drive system on a machine stand. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(2): 31,39, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www. interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20928 [source]


Real-time compensation for positioning performance using on-line parameter identification and initial value compensation

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2010
Noriaki Hirose
Abstract Variations and/or uncertainties in environments of mechatronic systems, such as electrical/mechanical parameter changes and nonlinear components, generally deteriorate the motion control performance. In our research, the fast and precise position settling performance for parameter variations in positioning devices can be improved by techniques of an on-line parameter identification and an initial value compensation. The proposed technique allows the positioning systems to be adaptive and robust for unknown parameter variations. The effectiveness of the approach has been verified by numerical simulations and experiments using a prototype. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(2): 40,49, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20926 [source]


Speed estimation of induction motor drive using d -axis slot harmonics and parameter identification method

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2010
Toshihiko Noguchi
Abstract This paper describes a rotor speed estimation technique of an induction motor, which utlizes slot harmonics on the d -axis caused by permeance variation across the air gap. The frequency of the slot harmonics is a multiple of the actual rotor speed, and is proportional to the number of rotor slots. In order to extract the slot harmonics, a novel adaptive bandpass filter incorporating coordinate transformation is proposed, which is effective to estimate the rotor speed from 400 to 2000 rpm. This rotor speed estimation is applied to a field-oriented controller as well as a speed controller. In addition, performance improvement is carried out by compensating a motor parameter mismatch. Feasibility of the proposed technique is confirmed through several tests, using a prototype experimental setup. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(2): 50,58, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www. interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20901 [source]


Basic study of pole change generator for micro windmill generation system

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 1 2010
Kazuto Yukita
Abstract This paper proposes a pole change generator for a windmill. Since micro windmill systems generate power from natural energy, power generation characteristics across a wide band are necessary. However, the conventional generator, in which the open voltage is simply proportional to the rotational velocity, encounters difficulty in generating power across a wide range of rotational velocities from low to high, because of the power generation characteristics. To develop a generator with a wide power band suitable for a micro windmill, this paper proposes a technique for switching the status of the generator coil connection. To demonstrate the effectiveness of pole changing, we use a pole-changing generator with 16 coils as an example. The coils can be connected using four patterns: 16-pole series, 8-pole 2-parallel, 4-pole 4-parallel, and 2-pole 8-parallel. Theoretical and experimental studies from this point of view demonstrate that this technique is effective. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(1): 28,36, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20873 [source]


A zone-control induction heating (ZCIH) system for semiconductor processing

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 1 2010
Hideaki Fujita
Abstract This paper proposes a new induction heating technology capable of controlling a precise exothermic distribution, which is termed zone-control induction heating (ZCIH). The ZCIH system consists of two or more sets of a high-frequency inverter unit and a work coil. The inverter units control the phase angle of the coil current to be in phase with each other. The ZCIH has the capability of operation with the mutual inductance, and enables locating the coils as close as possible. As a result, the ZCIH technology makes it possible to achieve rapid heating performance with extremely precise exothermic distribution. This paper presents experimental results of a 150-kW six-zone ZCIH system for semiconductor heat processing. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(1): 37,45, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20908 [source]


Improvement of pulse pattern for space vector modulated matrix converters

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 1 2010
Kichiro Yamamoto
Abstract Novel modulation which consists of conventional space vector modulation (SVM) based on a virtual AC/DC/AC conversion and carrier signal modulation for matrix converters is proposed. In this proposed modulation, duties for the switching pattern decided by conventional SVM are changed into those for each switch of matrix converter. The new duties for each output phase are compared with the triangle carrier. By using proposed modulation, switchings between the input phase voltage with minimum value and the voltage with maximum value are eliminated. In this paper, the conventional SVM and proposed modulation are explained. Next, for both conventional and proposed modulations waveforms of input current, output voltage and output current and their frequency spectra are calculated by PSIM simulation program. Simulation results show the proposed modulation can reduce harmonics of output voltage waveforms. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 171(1): 46,54, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20903 [source]


Experimental study of a doubly-fed rotary frequency converter

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 4 2010
Yasutoshi Takemoto
Abstract Wind power generation using an unlimited, natural energy has been getting attention regarding environmental issues in recent years, and the installed capacity of wind power generation system is increasing at a rapid pace, resulting in deterioration of power quality especially in frequency and voltage. This fact will be a big problem in restricting large capacity of wind farms. This paper proposes a new frequency converter: rotary frequency converter (RFC) to moderate the electric output from wind generation, which is to be installed between a set of wind generators and a grid, providing a smoothed electric output, promoting the wind power generation introduction. This mainly consists of a synchronous machine and the adjustable-speed machine. Independent controls of input/output voltage, active power, and reactive power offer electrical separation between the two networks. Experimental study of a prototype model and its characteristics, especially dynamic control, is discussed in this paper. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(4): 26,34, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20922 [source]


A perturbation analysis of harmonic generation from saturated elements in power systems

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 4 2010
Teruhisa Kumano
Abstract Nonlinear phenomena such as saturation of magnetic flux have considerable effects in power systems analysis. It is reported that a failure in a real 500-kV system triggered islanding operation, where resultant even harmonics caused malfunctions in protective relays. It is also reported that the major origin of this wave distortion is nothing but unidirectional magnetization of the transformer iron core. Time simulation is widely used today to analyze phenomena of this type, but it has basically two shortcomings. One is that the time simulation takes too much computing time in the vicinity of inflection points in the saturation characteristic curve because certain iterative procedures such as N-R (Newton,Raphson) must be used and such methods tend to be caught in an ill-conditioned numerical hunting. The other is that such simulation methods sometimes do not aid an intuitive understanding of the studied phenomenon because all of the nonlinear equations are treated in matrix form and are not properly divided into understandable parts, as is done in linear systems. This paper proposes a new computation scheme that is based on the so-called perturbation method. Magnetic saturation of iron cores in a generator and a transformer are taken into account. The proposed method has a special feature to deal with the first shortcoming of the N-R-based time simulation method stated above. The proposed method does not use an iterative process to reduce the equation residue, but uses perturbation series, so that it is free of the ill-conditioning problem. The user need only calculate the perturbation terms one by one until the necessary accuracy is attained. In a numerical example treated in the present paper, first-order perturbation can achieve reasonably high accuracy, which means very fast computing time. In a numerical study, three nonlinear elements are considered. The calculation results are almost identical to the conventional N-R-based time simulation, which shows the validity of the method. The proposed method can be effectively used in screening where many case studies are needed. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(4): 35,42, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20895 [source]


A study on video performance of multipoint-to-point video streaming with multiple description coding over ad hoc networks

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 4 2010
Keisuke Utsu
Abstract Supporting multimedia applications over wireless networks has become a very active research topic recently because video applications are forecast to receive high demand in future wireless networks, such as ad hoc networks. However, enabling video transmission over wireless ad hoc networks is more challenging than over other wireless networks due to node mobility, interference, and the absence of a supporting infrastructure. This paper addresses the problem of video transmission over ad hoc networks. We propose to combine Multiple Description Coding (MDC) with multiple source transport (Multipoint-to-Point transfer: MP2P) in order to maintain smooth video streaming over wireless ad hoc networks. In this paper, we describe a comprehensive simulation and test bed experiment designed to show the effect of the proposed MP2P video transfer with MDC for two description cases of video streaming over wireless ad hoc networks. The results show that the proposed mechanism successfully improves video transfer performance in terms of video packet reachability and throughput. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(4): 43,50, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20999 [source]


New structures of vector control systems for permanent magnet synchronous motors with core loss

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2010
Shinji Shinnaka
Abstract This paper investigates and proposes new system structures for vector control of permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) with core loss. The proposed vector control systems have the following versatile features. (a) The systems employ the structures allowing control of the stator current through control of the load current. (b) The systems employ unique "stator voltage feedback-use" structures in order to accomplish simply the load current control. (c) The produced torque is directly related to the load current, and the precise torque control can be attained through the load current control. (d) The relation between produced torque and the load current is nonlinear for salient-pole PMSMs similar to the case of no core loss, and a variety of the load current commands can be selected from viewpoints of minimum loss and/or wide speed range drives. The system structures add no constraint to the selection of the load current commands. (e) In addition to the torque control, the speed control can be allowed, where linearity between output of the speed controller and produced torque is kept. The validity of versatile features is verified through the numerical experiments. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(3): 28,39, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20910 [source]


A simple method for output voltage control of a three-phase multilevel inverter considering DC voltage fluctuation

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2010
Kenji Amei
Abstract Multilevel inverter circuit generates the stair-like voltage without using transformer and interphase reactor, and it is the circuit which realizes reduction in the harmonics and enlargement of the capacity. In addition, the application of PWM control improves the waveform, and reduces the switching component to the conventional half, and the filter capacity is reduced. In this paper, improvement on the voltage utilization factor and feedback control of output voltage are applied to multilevel inverter circuit. For the DC power supply with the intense fluctuation, it is necessary to construct inverter circuit which can supply stabilized AC voltage. One-chip microcomputer with various functions is used for the control equipment of this circuit, and miniaturization and cost reduction of the control equipment are realized. Here, the control principle and experimental results of this equipment are mainly reported. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(3): 40,47, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20906 [source]


An operational algorithm for residential cogeneration systems based on the monitored daily-basis energy demand

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2010
Yuka Yamagishi
Abstract Residential cogeneration systems with PEFC are promising as distributed power system resources with the ability to improve energy system efficiency. However, it is important to develop an efficient algorithm for operation because the energy demand at each house differs greatly from day to day. In this paper, we propose an operational algorithm and evaluate it from the viewpoint of energy conservation and economic effectiveness based on the energy demand characteristics. In the algorithm, the hot water and electricity demand on the next day are estimated based on the average of past data. The results of simulations using actually monitored energy demand data indicate that (1) the greater the electrical demand of a household, the more effective this algorithm becomes with respect to energy conservation; (2) the greater the hot water demand of a household, the more effective this algorithm becomes with respect to economic effectiveness. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(2): 37,45, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley. com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20892 [source]


Selection of injection conditions for aluminum particles as a raw material by numerical analysis in the synthesis of ultrafine particles with transferred type arc plasma

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2010
Shizue Furukawa
Abstract We investigated by numerical analysis the dependence of vaporization behavior of aluminum particles injected into transferred type arc plasma on injection conditions in synthesis of aluminum nitride ultra fine particles. On the basis of calculation results, we chose one proper injection condition where aluminum particles vaporized more. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(2): 46,52, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20852 [source]


Direct-power-control-based matrix converter and its operation characteristics

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2010
Toshihiko Noguchi
Abstract This paper proposes a novel control strategy for a matrix converter, which features direct instantaneous active- and reactive-power control of the converter. The theoretical aspects of the proposed control are discussed, and computer simulation results are presented to confirm the basic controllability of the technique. In addition, several operational characteristics were examined through experimental tests, using a 1.5-kW prototype. The maximum efficiency and the total input power factor of the prototype with a 30-Hz output frequency were 95.4% and 99.9% at 1.5-kW load, respectively. The total harmonic distortion at the rated load was 5.9%. These results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 170(2): 53,59, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20886 [source]


Development of an identification system for location of free metallic particles in GIS based on analysis of Lamb waves

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2009
Masahiro Kozako
Abstract We investigated propagation properties of Lamb waves in a gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) tank to diagnose insulation performance of GIS. The acoustic signals excited by a free metallic particle colliding with the tank sheath were measured using AE sensors. The wavelet transform was applied to decompose the wave data into its time,frequency components. As a result, difference of propagation properties of Lamb waves is clearly seen with different sizes of GIS tank. Based on the characteristics of Lamb waves, algorithms for location identification of a free metallic particle were examined in model GIS using two AE sensors. Herein, we propose a new system for location identification of a free metallic particle in GIS. Moreover, it is verified that the new identification system is suitable as a diagnostic technique for GIS. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(3): 28,35, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20676 [source]


Economic evaluation of demand-side energy storage systems by using a multi-agent-based electricity market

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2009
Ken Furusawa
Abstract With the wholesale electric power market opened in April 2005, deregulation of the electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (PPS), Load Service Entity (LSE), and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (MCP) is largely changed by the amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause a price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers face a risk of higher revenue and cost. DSM is attractive as a means of load leveling, and has an effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (ES) is one DSM in order to change demand profile at the customer side. In the case that customers decrease their own demand due to increased MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(3): 36,45, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20658 [source]


Active coordinated operation of a distribution network system for many connections of distributed generators

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2009
Yasuhiro Hayashi
Abstract Recently, the total number of distributed generators (DGs) such as photovoltaic generation system and wind turbine generation system connected to an actual distribution network has increased drastically. The distribution network connected to many distributed generators must be operated keeping reliability of power supply, power quality, and loss minimization. In order to accomplish active distribution network operation to take advantage of many connections of DGs, a new coordinated operation of distribution system with many connections of DGs is necessary. In this paper, the authors propose a coordinated operation of distribution network system connected to many DGs by using newly proposed sectionalizing switch control, sending voltage control, and computation of available DG connection capability. In order to check the validity of the proposed coordinated operation of distribution system, numerical simulations using the proposed coordinated distribution system operation are carried out in a practical distribution network model. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(3): 46,57, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20655 [source]


Evaluation of cost and reliability of power systems with large numbers of distributed generators

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2009
Yutaka Sasaki
Abstract The authors have proposed the Flexible, Reliable and Intelligent ENergy Delivery System (called "FRIENDS"), which is a new concept for future power distribution systems. Also, a "micro grid" which is a similar concept to FRIENDS has been developed. In a micro grid, an independent distribution system can be constituted by a number of distributed generators. In this paper, FRIENDS, Micro grid, and conventional distribution systems are compared quantitatively in supply reliability and system cost through time sequential Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, for cost evaluation, interruption costs are included to show risk incurred by unsupplied energy. Finally, the authors search for preferable form with install and operation of distributed generators and network composition according to social cost including interruption cost and system cost. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(2): 28,37, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20659 [source]


Computation of locational and hourly maximum output of a distributed generator connected to a distribution feeder

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 2 2009
Yasuhiro Hayashi
Abstract Recently, the total number of distributed generation such as photovoltaic generation systems and wind turbine generation systems connected to a distribution network has drastically increased. Distributed generation using renewable energy can reduce the distribution loss and emission of CO2. However, the distribution network with the distributed generators must be operated while maintaining the reliability of the power supply and power quality. In this paper, the authors propose a computational method to determine the maximum output of a distributed generator under operational constraints [(1) voltage limit, (2) line current capacity, and (3) no reverse flow to bank] at arbitrary connection points and hourly periods. In the proposed method, a three-phase iterative load flow calculation is applied to evaluate the above operational constraints. The three-phase iterative load flow calculation has two simple procedures: (Procedure 1) addition of load currents from the terminal node of the feeder to root one, and (Procedure 2) subtraction of voltage drop from the root node of the feeder to terminal one. In order to check the validity of the proposed method, numerical simulations are performed for a distribution system model. Furthermore, the characteristics of locational and hourly maximum output of a distributed generator connected to a distribution feeder are analyzed using several numerical examples. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(2): 38,47, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20610 [source]


Proposal and development of radial air-gap coreless generator suitable for small wind turbine used in urban area

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 1 2009
Toshiyuki Takahashi
Abstract Independent distributed power generation using small wind turbines is becoming more widespread as wind power generation increases. Installation of small wind turbines in densely populated urban areas is not only useful from the viewpoint of extracting wind power sources in weak-wind areas but also for making renewable energy easier to access when power supplies are closer to consumers. It is from this point of view that the authors proposed "urban wind power generation" using a collective system with a number of small vertical wind turbines, and have developed a suitable generator for low-speed vertical wind turbines such as a Savonius windmill. Based on a standard coreless generator, the proposed generator is designed to make the direction of the magnetic flux radial in order to install the magnets and coils on the outer end of the generator. The change of magnet composition and flux direction maximizes the speed of the flux change and output voltage within a limited space. With the above configuration, the power of the proposed generator is independent of the diameter. In this report, the authors describe and evaluate the fundamental performance of a prototype of the proposed generator. Based on the experiments, a maximum output power of 283 W was obtained. The obtained starting torque is small enough to begin rotation under weak wind conditions of no more than 1 m/s. Therefore, it is clear that the proposed "radial" coreless generator is suitable for self-starting and producing high power at low wind speed. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(1): 26, 34, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20695 [source]


Optimal CBM of tie lines between control areas in a deregulated environment

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 1 2009
Hideaki Kuraishi
Abstract In order to keep power supply reliability at a certain level, electric power utilities have a certain amount of reserve capacity. When no generator outage or no unexpected large power demand occurs, however, the reserve capacity is regarded as surplus facility. To reduce the reserve capacity, some margin is reserved in tie lines between utilities. This margin is called the capacity benefit margin (CBM). In this study, a method of calculating optimal CBM in tie line under deregulated environment is described and two kinds of optimal CBM are proposed. As a result, it is shown how the deregulation affects the optimal CBM by using numerical simulation for the IEE Japan West 30 test system. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 167(1): 35, 48, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20654 [source]


New control for HVDC system connected to large windfarm

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 4 2009
Kenichi Tanomura
Abstract HVDC consisting of self-commutated inverters is able to be applied for power transmission connecting from a remote large windfarm to a weak AC system. Most self-commutated HVDC is applied for connection between two AC systems that have synchronous power sources, but it is not suitable for a windfarm that consists of induction generators without synchronous power source. This paper presents new control for the self-commutated HVDC system connected to a large windfarm of induction generators. The effect of the proposed control is shown by EMTP simulation. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(4): 31,39, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20539 [source]


Application of dynamic rating to increase the available transfer capability

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 4 2009
Masaki Miura
Abstract As the deregulated environment of power systems has spread worldwide, it is essential to operate power systems efficiently and economically. With the advance of communication technologies and sensors, so-called dynamic rating is now to be realized. Dynamic rating is a method which determines accurate ratings by utilizing real-time information such as conductor temperatures, ambient temperatures, and wind speeds. The dynamic rating is considered to increase the thermal capacities of overhead transmission lines and therefore take on importance in the deregulated electric power industry. The importance of the dynamic rating lies mainly in the area of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) improvement. In this paper, the validity of the proposed dynamic rating application is shown from the viewpoint of ATC, especially ATC with thermal constraints. In addition, the possibilities of ATC estimations using sensitivities are verified for the purpose of reducing calculation time, considering the importance of real-time simulation of ATC. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(4): 40,47, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20537 [source]


Coordinated voltage control of transformer taps with provision for hierarchical structure in power system

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 4 2009
Yoshiki Nakachi
Abstract Participation of distributed generators (DGs), such as wind turbines, cogeneration systems, etc., is a natural trend from an ecological point of view and will continue to increase. The outputs of these DGs mainly depend on weather conditions but do not correspond to the changes of electrical load demand necessarily. On the other hand, due to deregulation of the electric power market, the power flow in a power system will uncertainly vary with several power transactions. Thus, complex power flow by DGs or transactions will cause voltage deviation. It will be difficult to sustain the voltage quality by using conventional voltage/reactive power control in the near future. In this paper, in order to avoid such voltage deviation and to decrease the frequency of transformer tap operations, the coordinated voltage control scheme of transformer taps on account of hierarchical structure in the power system is proposed. In the proposed scheme, integral of voltage deviation at each layer bus is applied to decide the timing of each transformer tap operation. Numerical simulations confirm that the proposed scheme is able to respond to every condition on voltage deviation. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(4): 48,55, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20531 [source]


Effects of output power fluctuation on short-circuit current of induction-type wind power generators

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2009
Teruhisa Kumano
Abstract Effects of the fluctuation inherent in wind speed are studied by a probabilistic method. The random variation in wind speed is responsible for random behavior in output power and internal voltage of a wind power generator. In case of fault occurrence at the instant of high internal voltage, the resultant short-circuit current will be big, and vice versa. The DC component is also affected. According to the study, 2.4% and 1.3% increase of short-circuit current in AC and DC components are observed respectively in a large variation case. This implies that the wind speed variation should be considered for accurate short-circuit study. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(3): 27,36, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20721 [source]


Proposal and evaluation of a gas engine and gas turbine hybrid cogeneration system in which cascaded heat is highly utilized

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2009
Pyong Sik Pak
Abstract A high-efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) is proposed for utilizing high-temperature exhaust gas (HTEG) from a gas engine (GE). In the proposed system, for making use of heat energy of HTEG, H2O turbine (HTb) is incorporated and steam produced by utilizing HTEG is used as working fluid of HTb. HTb exhaust gas is also utilized for increasing power output and for satisfying heat demand in the proposed system. Both of the thermodynamic characteristics of the proposed system and a gas engine CGS (GE-CGS) constructed by using the original GE are estimated. Energy saving characteristics and CO2 reduction effects of the proposed CGS and the GE-CGS are also investigated. It was estimated that the net generated power of the proposed CGS has been increased 25.5% and net power generation efficiency 6.7%, compared with the original GE-CGS. It was also shown that the proposed CGS could save 27.0% of energy consumption and reduce 1137 t-CO2/y, 1.41 times larger than those of GE-CGS, when a case study was set and investigated. Improvements of performance by increasing turbine inlet temperature were also investigated. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(3): 37, 45, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20708 [source]


International comparison test in Asia-Pacific region for impulse voltage measurements

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2009
Takayuki Wakimoto
Abstract The national standard class divider for the lightning impulse voltage measurements in Japan was developed in 1998. After three years, the standard impulse voltage calibrator has also been manufactured. These standard equipment are used as an industrial standard, and the performance had been evaluated annually supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The standard impulse measuring system including the standard divider participated in the worldwide comparison test and its good performance was confirmed in 1999. Another international comparison test was carried out among three countries in the Asia-Pacific region in 2004 again and the standard measuring system participated in the test. In this paper, the details and the results of the international comparison tests in 2004 are described. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 166(3): 46, 54, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20677 [source]