Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Items

  • additional item
  • certain item
  • checklist item
  • clinical item
  • cultural item
  • data item
  • demographic item
  • diet item
  • dietary item
  • differential item
  • food item
  • important item
  • individual item
  • key item
  • knowledge item
  • lexical item
  • main item
  • many item
  • mathematics item
  • multiple-choice item
  • new item
  • news item
  • one item
  • original item
  • other item
  • pain item
  • prey item
  • questionnaire item
  • relevant item
  • same item
  • scale item
  • several item
  • single item
  • sociodemographic item
  • specific item
  • survey item
  • test item

  • Terms modified by Items

  • item analysis
  • item bias
  • item checklist
  • item content
  • item difficulty
  • item functioning
  • item generation
  • item geriatric depression scale
  • item hamilton depression rating scale
  • item hamilton rating scale
  • item health survey
  • item instrument
  • item level
  • item measure
  • item pool
  • item questionnaire
  • item response
  • item response theory
  • item response theory analysis
  • item response theory models
  • item scale
  • item score
  • item selection
  • item set
  • item short form
  • item short form health survey
  • item short-form health survey
  • item survey
  • item toronto alexithymia scale
  • item used
  • item version

  • Selected Abstracts

    Scheduling streaming flows on the downlink shared channel of UMTS

    Joy Kuri
    In Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS), the Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) may be used to provide streaming services. The traffic model for streaming services is different from the continuously backlogged model used in much of the literature. Each connection specifies a required service rate over an interval of time. In this paper, we are interested in determining how k DSCH frames should be allocated among a set of I connections. We need a scheduler that is channel-aware, so that channels presently enjoying low fading losses can be exploited to achieve higher aggregate throughput. On the other hand, the scheduler is also required to be fair, so that each connection obtains a throughput as close as possible to what it requires. We introduce the notion of discrepancy to capture the inherent trade-off between aggregate throughput and fairness. We show that the discrepancy criterion provides a flexible means for balancing efficiency, as measured by aggregate throughput, and fairness. Our problem, then, is to schedule mobiles so as to minimize the discrepancy over the control horizon. We provide a simple low-complexity heuristic called ITEM that is provably optimal in certain cases. In particular, we show that ITEM is optimal when applied in the UMTS context. Next, we compare the performance of ITEM with that of other algorithms, and show that it performs better in terms of both fairness and aggregate throughput. Thus, ITEM provides benefits in both dimensions,fairness and efficiency,and is therefore a promising algorithm for scheduling streaming connections. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Instructional Tools in Educational Measurement and Statistics (ITEMS) for School Personnel: Evaluation of Three Web-Based Training Modules

    Rebecca Zwick
    In the current No Child Left Behind era, K-12 teachers and principals are expected to have a sophisticated understanding of standardized test results, use them to improve instruction, and communicate them to others. The goal of our project, funded by the National Science Foundation, was to develop and evaluate three Web-based instructional modules in educational measurement and statistics to help school personnel acquire the "assessment literacy" required for these roles. Our first module, "What's the Score?" was administered in 2005 to 113 educators who also completed an assessment literacy quiz. Viewing the module had a small but statistically significant positive effect on quiz scores. Our second module, "What Test Scores Do and Don't Tell Us," administered in 2006 to 104 educators, was even more effective, primarily among teacher education students. In evaluating our third module, "What's the Difference?" we were able to recruit only 33 participants. Although those who saw the module before taking the quiz outperformed those who did not, results were not statistically significant. Now that the research phase is complete, all ITEMS instructional materials are freely available on our Website. [source]


    Wolfgang Von Renteln-Kruse MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Aika Yamaguchi
    The genus Protoperidinium is an assemblage of heterotrophic dinoflagellates, several species of which have been successfully cultured in the past using various photosynthetic algae as a food source. We succeeded in culturing Protoperidinium crassipes (Kof.) Balech on three separate occasions for periods ranging from 2 to 21 months using rice flour as a food source. In these cultures, unusual small types of cells that were never observed to actively feed sometimes appeared. We confirmed that P. crassipes in culture exhibited bioluminescence. [source]


    Summary. The ring-shaped idol pendant, a distinctive type of Chalcolithic ritual (?) jewellery, is discussed with regard to its chronology in the Balkans in light of its occasional appearance in Asia Minor. Known from domestic contexts, funerals and hoards (?), none of the so far documented Anatolian pendants (clearly another aspect testifying to the well-known Anatolian,Balkan connections in the fourth millennium BC) can be dated later than the Late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age I. This fact provides further evidence for the developing hypothesis that certain inventories from ,kiztepe, the only prehistoric reference site on the Turkish Black Sea coast excavated on a large scale, need some profound chronological redating. Selected features and levels dated to ,Early Bronze Age II,III' at ,kiztepe seem to be several centuries older than currently believed, which has implications for the overall chronological range of these pendants. [source]

    Identifying Sources of Differential Item and Bundle Functioning on Translated Achievement Tests: A Confirmatory Analysis

    Mark J. Gierl
    Increasingly, tests are being translated and adapted into different languages. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are often used to identify non-equivalent items across language groups. However, few studies have focused on understanding why some translated items produce DIF. The purpose of the current study is to identify sources of differential item and bundle functioning on translated achievement tests using substantive and statistical analyses. A substantive analysis of existing DIF items was conducted by an 11-member committee of testing specialists. In their review, four sources of translation DIF were identified. Two certified translators used these four sources to categorize a new set of DIF items from Grade 6 and 9 Mathematics and Social Studies Achievement Tests. Each item was associated with a specific source of translation DIF and each item was anticipated to favor a specific group of examinees. Then, a statistical analysis was conducted on the items in each category using SIBTEST. The translators sorted the mathematics DIF items into three sources, and they correctly predicted the group that would be favored for seven of the eight items or bundles of items across two grade levels. The translators sorted the social studies DIF items into four sources, and they correctly predicted the group that would be favored for eight of the 13 items or bundles of items across two grade levels. The majority of items in mathematics and social studies were associated with differences in the words, expressions, or sentence structure of items that are not inherent to the language and/or culture. By combining substantive and statistical DIF analyses, researchers can study the sources of DIF and create a body of confirmed DIF hypotheses that may be used to develop guidelines and test construction principles for reducing DIF on translated tests. [source]

    Challenging behaviours should not be considered as depressive equivalents in individuals with intellectual disability

    J. A. Tsiouris
    Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common forms of psychopathology in people with intellectual disability (ID). The present study evaluated the utility of an expanded assessment of psychiatric symptoms and challenging behaviours, as measured by the Clinical Behavior Checklist for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (CBCPID). Methods The CBCPID was administered to 92 people with ID, 35 of whom were diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Results Item and factor analysis of the scale indicated that depression was best assessed using the core DSM-IV symptoms of depressive disorder. Challenging behaviours such as self-injury or aggression were not closely associated with depression. Short scales using the core DSM-IV symptoms of depression were highly internally consistent. There was also evidence of the validity of these scales. Conclusions This study found no evidence that challenging behaviours were depressive equivalents in this population. The present authors conclude that the assessment of depression in people with ID should focus on the core DSM-IV symptoms of depression. [source]

    Soleus H-reflex inhibition during gait initiation in Parkinson's disease

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 7 2005
    Koichi Hiraoka PT
    Abstract The soleus H-reflex excitability during gait initiation was investigated in Parkinson's disease. Eleven patients participated in this study. Patients stepped forward as soon as the start signal flashed. Soleus H-reflex was evoked from the trailing leg 100, 300, or 600 msec after the start signal. The electromyographic activity in the soleus muscle immediately before evoking the H-reflex and the ankle joint motion were recorded. The soleus H-reflex was inhibited 300 msec after the start signal. The amount of the soleus H-reflex inhibition was inversely correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr stage; Items 14, 29, and 31 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; and the delay of the onset of the ankle dorsiflexion from the start signal. In contrast, the amount of electromyographic activity immediately before evoking the H-reflex was not significantly correlated with those measures but was significantly correlated with Item 22 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Those findings indicate that the amount of soleus H-reflex inhibition during gait initiation depends on the severity of the disease. Abnormality of descending command may be related to the severity-dependent H-reflex inhibition. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Development of the Chinese language paediatric daily occupation scale in Taiwan

    Jin-ling Lo
    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the development of the paediatric daily occupation scale (PDOS) that was validated with Taiwanese children aged from birth to 72 months. Item,scale correlation coefficient was also used to select items. The psychometric properties of PDOS were examined based on the results of 957 children who participated in the study. The Chinese child development inventory (CCDI) was used as a standard to examine the concurrent validity of PDOS on two different samples. The PDOS, completed by parents, contains 340 items with good internal consistency (Cronbach's , = 0.99), test,retest reliability (r = 0.99) and concurrent validity (r = 0.88 between PDOS and CCDI). The sensitivity of PDOS (83%) in detecting children with developmental problems was much higher than CCDI (33%). Because the PDOS is developed and examined on children from greater Taipei area, when using the PDOS with children from different socio-cultural environments, the results need to be interpreted cautiously. Further research of the PDOS to justify its use as a screening tool for early detecting of children with developmental problems is suggested. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Brief Pain Inventory and Its "Pain At Its Worst in the Last 24 Hours" Item: Clinical Trial Endpoint Considerations

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 3 2010
    Thomas M. Atkinson PhD
    Abstract Context., In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a draft Guidance for Industry on the use of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) Measures in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling Claims. This draft guidance outlines psychometric aspects that should be considered when designing a PRO measure, including conceptual framework, content validity, construct validity, reliability, and the ability to detect clinically meaningful score changes. When finalized, it may provide a blueprint for evaluations of PRO measures that can be considered by sponsors and investigators involved in PRO research and drug registration trials. Objective., In this review we examine the short form of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and particularly the "pain at its worst in the last 24 hours" item in the context of the FDA draft guidance, to assess its utility in clinical trials that include pain as a PRO endpoint. Results and Conclusions., After a systematic evaluation of the psychometric aspects of the BPI, we conclude that the BPI and its "pain at its worst in the last 24 hours" item generically satisfy most key recommendations outlined in the draft guidance for assessing a pain-reduction treatment effect. Nonetheless, when the BPI is being considered for assessment of pain endpoints in a registration trial, sponsors and investigators should consult with the appropriate FDA division early during research design to discuss whether there is sufficient precedent to use the instrument in the population of interest or whether additional evaluations of measurement properties are advisable. [source]

    Advanced Heart Failure: Prognosis, Uncertainty, and Decision Making

    Jane G. Zapka ScD
    Heart failure is a serious clinical management challenge for both patients and primary care physicians. The authors studied the perceptions and practices of internal medicine residents and faculty at an academic medical center in the Southeast to guide design of strategies to improve heart failure care. Data were collected via a self-administered survey. Eighty-nine faculty and resident physicians in general internal medicine and geriatrics participated (74% response rate). Items measured perceived skills and barriers, adherence to guidelines, and physician understanding of patient prognosis. Case studies explored practice approaches. Clinical knowledge and related scales were generally good and comparable between physician groups. Palliative care and prognostic skills were self-rated with wide variance. Physicians rated patient noncompliance and low lifestyle change motivation as major barriers. Given the complexities of caring for elderly persons with heart failure and comorbid conditions, there are significant opportunities for improving physician skills in decision making, patient-centered counseling, and palliative care. [source]

    The Assessment of Emergency Physicians by a Regulatory Authority

    Jocelyn M. Lockyer PhD
    Abstract Objectives To determine whether it is possible to develop a feasible, valid, and reliable multisource feedback program (360° evaluation) for emergency physicians. Methods Surveys with 16, 20, 30, and 31 items were developed to assess emergency physicians by 25 patients, eight coworkers, eight medical colleagues, and self, respectively, using five-point scales along with an "unable to assess" category. Items addressed key competencies related to communication skills, professionalism, collegiality, and self-management. Results Data from 187 physicians who identified themselves as emergency physicians were available. The mean number of respondents per physician was 21.6 (SD ± 3.87) (93%) for patients, 7.6 (SD ± 0.89) (96%) for coworkers, and 7.7 (SD ± 0.61) (95%) for medical colleagues, suggesting it was a feasible tool. Only the patient survey had four items with "unable to assess" percentages ,15%. The factor analysis indicated there were two factors on the patient questionnaire (communication/professionalism and patient education), two on the coworker survey (communication/collegiality and professionalism), and four on the medical colleague questionnaire (clinical performance, professionalism, self-management, and record management) that accounted for 80.0%, 62.5%, and 71.9% of the variance on the surveys, respectively. The factors were consistent with the intent of the instruments, providing empirical evidence of validity for the instruments. Reliability was established for the instruments (Cronbach's , > 0.94) and for each physician (generalizability coefficients were 0.68 for patients, 0.85 for coworkers, and 0.84 for medical colleagues). Conclusions The psychometric examination of the data suggests that the instruments developed to assess emergency physicians were feasible and provide evidence for validity and reliability. [source]

    A Framework for Facilitating Sourcing and Allocation Decisions for Make-to-Order Items

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 4 2004
    Nagesh N. Murthy
    ABSTRACT This paper provides a fundamental building block to facilitate sourcing and allocation decisions for make-to-order items. We specifically address the buyer's vendor selection problem for make-to-order items where the goal is to minimize sourcing and purchasing costs in the presence of fixed costs, shared capacity constraints, and volume-based discounts for bundles of items. The potential suppliers for make-to-order items provide quotes in the form of single sealed bids or participate in a dynamic auction involving open bids. A solution to our problem can be used to determine winning bids amongst the single sealed bids or winners at each stage of a dynamic auction. Due to the computational complexity of this problem, we develop a heuristic procedure based on Lagrangian relaxation technique to solve the problem. The computational results show that the procedure is effective under a variety of scenarios. The average gap across 2,250 problem instances is 4.65%. [source]

    Refining and validating the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale

    R. Nicholas Carleton M.A.
    Abstract Background: The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale6 are companion measures for assessing symptoms of social anxiety and social phobia. The scales have good reliability and validity across several samples,3, 6 however, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have yielded solutions comprising substantially different item content and factor structures. These discrepancies are likely the result of analyzing items from each scale separately or simultaneously. The current investigation sets out to assess items from those scales, both simultaneously and separately, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in an effort to resolve the factor structure. Methods: Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n5353; 54% women) and an undergraduate sample (n5317; 75% women) who completed the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale, along with additional fear-related measures to assess convergent and discriminant validity. Results: A three-factor solution with a reduced set of items was found to be most stable, irrespective of whether the items from each scale are assessed together or separately. Items from the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale represented one factor, whereas items from the Social Phobia Scale represented two other factors. Conclusion: Initial support for scale and factor validity, along with implications and recommendations for future research, is provided. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Development and responsiveness of a scale to measure clinicians' attitudes to people with mental illness (medical student version)

    A. Kassam
    Kassam A, Glozier N, Leese M, Henderson C, Thornicroft G. Development and responsiveness of a scale to measure clinicians' attitudes to people with mental illness (medical student version). Objective:, We report the rationale, reliability, validity and responsiveness studies of the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes (MICA) Scale, a 16-item scale designed to measure attitudes of health care professionals towards people with mental illness. Method:, Items were generated through focus groups with service users, carers, medical students and trainee psychiatrists. Psychometric testing was completed in a number of student samples. The responsiveness of the scale was tested after a 1.5 h mental illness stigma related intervention with medical students. Results:, The MICA scale showed good internal consistency, , = 0.79. The test,retest reliability (concordance) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68,0.91). The standardised response mean for the scale was 0.4 (95% CI 0.02,0.8) after a mental illness related stigma intervention. Conclusion:, The MICA scale is a responsive, reliable and valid tool, which can be used in medical education and mental health promotion settings and studies. [source]

    Panic disorder phenomenology in urban self-identified caucasian,non-hispanics and caucasian,hispanics

    Michael Hollifield M.D.
    Abstract The epidemiology of panic disorder is well known, but data about some phenomenological aspects are sparse. The symptom criteria for panic disorder were developed largely from rational expert consensus methods and not from empirical research. This fact calls attention to the construct validity of the panic disorder diagnosis, which may affect accuracy of epidemiological findings. Seventy self-identified Non-Hispanic,Caucasian (Anglo) and Hispanic,Caucasian (Hispanic) people who were diagnosed with DSM-III-R panic disorder with or without agoraphobia were invited to complete a Panic Phenomenological Questionnaire (PPQ), which was constructed for this study from the Hamilton Anxiety Scale Items and The DSM-III-R panic symptoms. Fifty (71%) subjects agreed to participate, and there was no response bias detected. Seven symptoms on the PPQ that are not in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were reported to occur with a high prevalence in this study. Furthermore, many symptoms that occurred with a high frequency and were reported to be experienced as severe are also not included in current nosology. A few of the DSM-IV criterion symptoms occurred with low prevalence, frequency, and severity. Cognitive symptoms were reported to occur with higher frequency and severity during attacks than autonomic or other symptoms. There were modest differences between ethnic groups with regard to panic attack phenomena. Further research using multiple empirical methods aimed at improving the content validity of the panic disorder diagnosis is warranted. This includes utilizing consistent methods to collect data that will allow for rational decisions about how to construct valid panic disorder criteria across cultures. Depression and Anxiety 18:7,17, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The antecedents of non-affective psychosis in a birth-cohort, with a focus on measures related to cognitive ability, attentional dysfunction and speech problems

    J. Welham
    Welham J, Scott J, Williams GM, Najman JM, Bor W, O'Callaghan M, McGrath J. The antecedents of non-affective psychosis in a birth-cohort, with a focus on measures related to cognitive ability, attentional dysfunction, and speech problems. Objective:, Adults with non-affective psychosis show subtle deviations in a range of developmental trajectories as children and adolescents. Method:, Based on a birth-cohort (n = 3801), we examined the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPTV) at age 5, and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) and Wide Range Achievement Test reading scale (WRAT-R) at age 14. Items related to speech problems and attentional dysfunction were available from maternal- or self-report. At age 21, we identified 60 cohort members who were screen-positive for non-affective psychosis (SP-NAP). Results:, Impaired performance on the PPVT and RSPM (but not WRAT-R) predicted SP-NAP for males only. Male cohort members in the highest quartile for attentional dysfunction at ages 5 and 14 were about 5,8 times more likely to develop SP-NAP. SP-NAP in males was significantly associated with speech problems at age 14. Conclusion:, Males who develop non-affective psychoses have subtle impairments in cognitive capacity prior to the development of their psychotic disorder. [source]

    Three Options Are Optimal for Multiple-Choice Items: A Meta-Analysis of 80 Years of Research

    Michael C. Rodriguez
    Multiple-choice items are a mainstay of achievement testing. The need to adequately cover the content domain to certify achievement proficiency by producing meaningful precise scores requires many high-quality items. More 3-option items can be administered than 4- or 5-option items per testing time while improving content coverage, without detrimental effects on psychometric quality of test scores. Researchers have endorsed 3-option items for over 80 years with empirical evidence,the results of which have been synthesized in an effort to unify this endorsement and encourage its adoption. [source]

    Analysis of 25 Years of Technology Research as Reported in Two Professional Journals: Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences and Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal

    Amy J. Leahy
    During the past 25 years, the evaluation and exploration of technological advances within family and consumer sciences (FCS) have played a vital role in the evolution of the discipline. The goal of this investigation was to provide an historical perspective of the reporting of technology or technological innovations within the field of FCS. Titles of articles published in the Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences and the Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal as well as theses and dissertations completed as listed in the Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal were examined from 1982 to 2007. Items were included in this analysis if technology or technological content was included in the title. This study provides an analysis of various areas of interest, including geographic location of the author, FCS area, and individual focus or topic of the article, theses, or dissertation. [source]

    Selection Criteria for Emergency Medicine Residency Applicants

    Joseph T. Crane MD
    Abstract: Objectives: To determine the criteria used by emergency medicine (EM) residency selection committees to select their residents, to determine whether there is a consensus among residency programs, to inform programs of areas of possible inconsistency, and to better educate applicants pursuing careers in EM. Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 20 items based on the current Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) guidelines was mailed to the program directors of all 118 EM residencies in existence in February 1998. The program directors were instructed to rank each item on a five-point scale (5 = most important, 1 = least important) as to its importance in the selection of residents. Followup was done in the form of e-mail and facsimile. Results: The overall response rate was 79.7%, with 94 of 118 programs responding. Items ranking as most important (4.0-5.0) in the selection process included: EM rotation grade (mean ± SD = 4.79 ± 0.50), interview (4.62 ± 0.63), clinical grades (4.36 ± 0.70), and recommendations (4.11 ± 0.85). Moderate emphasis (3.0-4.0) was placed on: elective done at program director's institution (3.75 ± 1.25), U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step II (3.34 ± 0.93), interest expressed in program director's institution (3.30 ± 1.19), USMLE step I (3.28 ± 0.86), and awards/achievements (3.16 ± 0.88). Less emphasis (<3.0) was placed on Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society (AOA) status (3.01 ± 1.09), medical school attended (3.00 ± 0.85), extracurricular activities (2.99 ± 0.87), basic science grades (2.88 ± 0.93), publications (2.87 ± 0.99), and personal statement (2.75 ± 0.96). Items most agreed upon by respondents (lowest standard deviation, SD) included EM rotation grade (SD 0.50), interview (SD 0.63), and clinical grades (SD 0.70). Of the 94 respondents, 37 (39.4%) replied they had minimum requirements for USMLE step I (195.11 ± 13.10), while 30 (31.9%) replied they had minimum requirements for USMLE step II (194.27 ± 14.96). Open-ended responses to "other" were related to personal characteristics, career/goals, and medical school performance. Conclusions: The selection criteria with the highest mean values as reported by the program directors were EM rotation grade, interview, clinical grades, and recommendations. Criteria showing the most consistency (lowest SD) included EM rotation grade, interview, and clinical grades. Results are compared with those from previous multispecialty studies. [source]

    A brief haemophilia pain coping questionnaire

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2008
    Summary., Pain coping strategies are important influences on outcomes among people with painful chronic conditions. The pain coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) was previously adapted for sickle cell disease and haemophilia, but those versions have 80 items, and a briefer version with similar psychometric properties would facilitate research on pain coping. The full-length haemophilia-adapted CSQ, plus measures of pain frequency and intensity, pain acceptance, pain readiness to change, and health-related quality of life were completed by 190 men with haemophilia. Items were selected for a 27-item short form, which was completed 6 months later by 129 (68%) participants. Factor structure, reliability and concurrent validity were the same in the long and short forms. For the short form, internal reliabilities of the three composite scales were 0.86 for negative thoughts, 0.80 for active coping and 0.76 for passive adherence. Test,retest reliabilities were 0.73 for negative thoughts, 0.70 for active coping and 0.64 for passive adherence. Negative thoughts were associated with less readiness to change, less acceptance of pain and more impaired health-related quality of life, whereas active coping was associated with greater readiness to change and more acceptance of pain. The short form is a convenient brief measure of pain coping with good psychometric properties, and could be used to extend research on pain coping in haemophilia. [source]

    Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Hospital-Level Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey® Instrument

    Onyebuchi A. Arah
    Objectives. To assess the reliability and validity of a translated version of the American Hospital-level Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey® (H-CAHPS) instrument for use in Dutch health care. Data Sources/Study Setting. Primary survey data from adults aged 18 years or more who were recently discharged from two multispecialty city hospitals in the Netherlands. Study Design. We used forward and backward translation procedures and a panel of experts to adapt the 66-item pilot H-CAHPS into a 70-item Dutch instrument. Descriptive statistics and standard psychometric methods were then used to test the reliability and validity of the new instrument. Data Collection. From late November 2003 to early January 2004, the survey was administered by mail to 1,996 patients discharged within the previous 2 months. Principal Findings. Analyses supported the reliability and validity of the following 7-factor H-CAHPS structure for use in Dutch hospitals: on doctor's communication, nurses' communication, discharge information, communication about medication, pain control, physical environment of hospital, and nursing services. The internal consistency reliability of the scales ranged from 0.60 to 0.88. Items related to "family receiving help when on visit,""hospital staff introducing self," and "admission delays" did not improve the psychometric properties of the new instrument. Conclusions. These findings suggest that the H-CAHPS instrument is reliable and valid for use in the Dutch context. However, more research will be needed to support its equivalence to the United States version, and its use for between-hospital comparisons. [source]

    Black and white women managers: Access to opportunity

    Linda M. Hite
    This study explores the differing views of Black and White female managers regarding access to key career opportunities for White women and women of color. Items addressed include access to hiring, promotions, key assignments, salary increases, acknowledgment for work, and mentors. Access to each is described by comparing White women and women of color to one another, to White men, and to men of color. Chi-square analyses of survey responses from the 276 U.S. participants showed that most of the White respondents consistently perceived equal access to career opportunities for women of color. In contrast, most of the Black participants indicated that disparity exists in career opportunities available to women of color compared to White men and women. The implications of these results are discussed. [source]

    Quantification of termite attack on lying dead wood by a line intersection method in the Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysia

    Abstract., 1A line intersection method was used to estimate abundance (technically linear abundance: m1 m,2), biovolume (m3 ha,1) and size class distribution (defined by diameter) of lying dead wood in tropical forest. Additional semi-quantitative protocols assessed decay state (4 classes), termite attack (5 classes) and live termite occupancy (3 classes). 2Three forest types (kerangas, alluvial and sandstone) were sampled in the Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve of Eastern Sabah, using plots of 30 × 30 m. Approximately 50 man-hours were required per site, at a replication of three plots per site and three well-separated sites per forest type. 3Mean biovolume of lying dead wood exceeded 8 × 103 m3 ha,1 in kerangas (= heath) forest, with lower values in other types. Large items (> 19 cm diameter) were less than 10% of total abundance, but represented the largest biovolume, exceeding (alluvial) or equalling (kerangas) the total biovolumes of smaller categories combined. Most items (not less than 75%) were present as small wood (< 10 cm diameter). Items in the highest decay class had the highest biovolume. 4Termite attack was greater in the kerangas, where nearly 90% of items showed evidence of consumption, compared with 58% in the alluvial and 40% in the sandstone forests. Over 40% of items in the kerangas contained live termites compared with 25% in the alluvial and 15% in the sandstone. Items in the highest attack class (= almost total internal destruction) represented about one-half of the total biovolume available in the alluvial and kerangas forest types, and about one-third in the sandstone. [source]

    Gender difference in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms,,

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore PhD
    Abstract Objective: This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method: A random sample of members (ages 18,35 years) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating, whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observed, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes ("Number Needed to Treat") were small to moderate. Discussion: Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

    Evaluation of a computer-adaptive test for the assessment of depression (D-CAT) in clinical application

    Herbert Fliege
    Abstract In the past, a German Computerized Adaptive Test, based on Item Response Theory (IRT), was developed for purposes of assessing the construct depression [Computer-adaptive test for depression (D-CAT)]. This study aims at testing the feasibility and validity of the real computer-adaptive application. The D-CAT, supplied by a bank of 64 items, was administered on personal digital assistants (PDAs) to 423 consecutive patients suffering from psychosomatic and other medical conditions (78 with depression). Items were adaptively administered until a predetermined reliability (r , 0.90) was attained. For validation purposes, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Another sample of 114 patients was evaluated using standardized diagnostic interviews [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)]. The D-CAT was quickly completed (mean 74 seconds), well accepted by the patients and reliable after an average administration of only six items. In 95% of the cases, 10 items or less were needed for a reliable score estimate. Correlations between the D-CAT and the HADS, CES-D, and BDI ranged between r = 0.68 and r = 0.77. The D-CAT distinguished between diagnostic groups as well as established questionnaires do. The D-CAT proved an efficient, well accepted and reliable tool. Discriminative power was comparable to other depression measures, whereby the CAT is shorter and more precise. Item usage raises questions of balancing the item selection for content in the future. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Impact of Elaboration on Responding to Situational Judgment Test Items

    Filip Lievens
    Although faking has been identified as a potential problem in situational judgment tests (SJTs), no studies have investigated proactive approaches for controlling faking in SJTs. Therefore, this study examined the impact of elaboration on responding to SJT items. Elaboration was operationalized as reason-giving. Two hundred and forty-seven master students were assigned to either an honest or a fake condition, and to a non-elaboration or an elaboration condition. Results showed that elaboration decreased the effect of faking for items with high familiarity. Elaboration on familiar items also decreased the percentage of fakers in the top of the distribution. Next, participants in the elaboration condition rated the SJT significantly higher in terms of allowing them to present themselves more realistically and to demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and abilities. Finally, there were no significant differences in participants' satisfaction with the SJT across the elaboration and non-elaboration condition. [source]

    The Validity of Verifiable and Non-verifiable Biodata Items: An Examination Across Applicants and Incumbents

    Crystal M. Harold
    This study examines the influence of item verifiability (non-verifiable vs. verifiable), context (applicant vs. incumbent), and keying procedure on biodata mean test scores and validity. Concurrent and predictive validation studies were conducted using a sample of 425 call center incumbents and a sample of 410 call center applicants. Although applicants did not obtain significantly higher mean biodata scores, results provide support for the hypothesis that the non-verifiable biodata composite would be less valid in the applicant context, while the verifiable biodata composite would be equally valid across both the applicant and incumbent contexts. The same pattern of results was obtained using both item- and option-keying procedures. Implications for research and practice are discussed. [source]

    Laws and policies to support the wellbeing of children: an international comparative analysis

    Emily J. Nicklett
    Nicklett EJ, Perron BE. Laws and policies to support the wellbeing of children: an international comparative analysis Int J Soc Welfare 2010: 3,7 © 2009 The Author(s), Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the International Journal of Social Welfare. The international community has raised concerns regarding the extent to which countries have implemented laws and policies to support the rights and wellbeing of children. This study evaluates the progress of least-developed countries (LDCs) and middle-income countries (MICs) in developing such legislation. Surveys were sent to 131 UNICEF country offices. Items included efforts to promote family preservation and family ties, family-based care over institutionalization, and child participation in placement decisions. A total of 68 surveys were returned, reflecting a 52 percent response rate (LDC, n= 25; MIC, n= 43). Legislation that addressed abuse and neglect of children, maternity leave, removal of children from the family, family care, adoption, and guardianship was widespread. Chi-square tests indicated that MICs had a substantially higher number of laws and policies related to child allowances, school feeding programs, maternity leave, and day care. [source]

    The role and duties of scientific medical societies: The German Society of Dermatology from the member's perspective

    Peter Hensen
    Summary Background: The German Society of Dermatology is a scientific medical society that represents the interests of German-speaking dermatology. One recommendation of a strategic planning mission was to increase the involvement of society members. Methods: Based on an empirical approach (questionnaire survey) a systematic member inquiry was performed which focused on the motives for membership, the image of the society,the use of provided services,and expectations and needs. Items regarding profession and health politics, continuous education and specialist training, and scientific representation and research promotion were considered in equal measure. Results: In total, 931 usable questionnaires were available with a response rate of 28.4%. Various single results could be integrated in a subsequent strategic dialogue. The German Society of Dermatology is regarded as active and powerful in scientific issues and promotion of research. However, numerous expectations have been expressed to strengthen future activities in professional and health care related issues. Needs and demands differ if members are scientifically active or rather not. Conclusions: A scientific society in general acts in a permanent area of conflict and has to deal with multiple positions and interests. Thereby members' needs and demands may vary dependent on individual and professional backgrounds. Members who are not scientifically active should be more integrated in the society while at the same time the society's aims should be coordinated with that of the Berufsverband (organization of practicing dermatologists). Better networking is required both within the society and with outside groups. In addition, the primary aims and objectives of the society should be made even clearer to all interested parties. [source]