Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Involvement

  • academic involvement
  • active involvement
  • activity involvement
  • alcohol involvement
  • anterior commissure involvement
  • bank involvement
  • bilateral involvement
  • body involvement
  • bone involvement
  • bone marrow involvement
  • bowel involvement
  • brain involvement
  • cardiac involvement
  • cardiovascular involvement
  • central nervous system involvement
  • children involvement
  • citizen involvement
  • civic involvement
  • cns involvement
  • colonic involvement
  • commissure involvement
  • community involvement
  • consumer involvement
  • cord involvement
  • cortical involvement
  • critical involvement
  • cutaneous involvement
  • differential involvement
  • direct involvement
  • disease involvement
  • drug involvement
  • early involvement
  • emotional involvement
  • employee involvement
  • esophageal involvement
  • extensive involvement
  • extracutaneou involvement
  • extranodal involvement
  • facial involvement
  • family involvement
  • father involvement
  • follicular involvement
  • frequent involvement
  • functional involvement
  • gland involvement
  • government involvement
  • gray matter involvement
  • greater involvement
  • heart involvement
  • hepatic involvement
  • hippocampal involvement
  • increased involvement
  • initial involvement
  • internal organ involvement
  • intestinal involvement
  • job involvement
  • joint involvement
  • laryngeal involvement
  • limb involvement
  • limited involvement
  • liver involvement
  • lobe involvement
  • lung involvement
  • lymph node involvement
  • major involvement
  • management involvement
  • margin involvement
  • marrow involvement
  • matter involvement
  • mediastinal involvement
  • metastatic involvement
  • mucosal involvement
  • multiorgan involvement
  • multiple organ involvement
  • multisystem involvement
  • muscle involvement
  • myocardial involvement
  • nail involvement
  • nerve involvement
  • nervous system involvement
  • neurological involvement
  • neuromuscular involvement
  • neuropsychiatric involvement
  • nodal involvement
  • node involvement
  • ocular involvement
  • optic nerve involvement
  • oral involvement
  • orbital involvement
  • organ involvement
  • parenchymal involvement
  • parent involvement
  • parental involvement
  • paternal involvement
  • patient involvement
  • pericardial involvement
  • peripheral nerve involvement
  • peripheral nervous system involvement
  • personal involvement
  • physician involvement
  • political involvement
  • possible involvement
  • potential involvement
  • predominant involvement
  • primary involvement
  • private-sector involvement
  • product involvement
  • public involvement
  • pulmonary involvement
  • pulpal involvement
  • receptor involvement
  • regional lymph node involvement
  • relative involvement
  • religious involvement
  • renal involvement
  • resection margin involvement
  • right ventricular involvement
  • secondary involvement
  • selective involvement
  • seminal vesicle involvement
  • service user involvement
  • severe involvement
  • significant involvement
  • skeletal involvement
  • skeletal muscle involvement
  • skin involvement
  • social involvement
  • specific involvement
  • spinal cord involvement
  • stakeholder involvement
  • strong involvement
  • student involvement
  • subclinical cardiac involvement
  • supplier involvement
  • system involvement
  • systemic involvement
  • temporal involvement
  • tissue involvement
  • tract involvement
  • tumor involvement
  • user involvement
  • vascular involvement
  • ventricular involvement
  • vesicle involvement
  • vessel involvement
  • visceral involvement
  • widespread involvement

  • Terms modified by Involvement

  • involvement level
  • involvement screening test
  • involvement strategy

  • Selected Abstracts


    Mehmet Bektas
    A case of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in a 70-year-old man who was using corticosteroid for the treatment of asthma is presented. KS lesions occurred in the skin, colon, and rectum. Macroscopic appearances of the lesions varied from polypoid, hemorrhagic mucosal nodules and ulcers to red macules in the mucosal plane to plaque-like indurations of the wall. As the case was HIV negative, it is believed that KS developed due to corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2009
    Seth J. Schwartz
    The present study investigated the extent to which young adults' reports of,and desires for,maternal and paternal involvement differed between intact and divorced families. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,376 young adults completed measures of reported and desired mothering and fathering across 20 parenting domains. Results indicated that both reports of and desires for father involvement differed sharply by family form (intact versus divorced), whereas few family form differences emerged for reported or desired mother involvement. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for custody and access decisions within the family court system. [source]


    ABSTRACT Sap (latex) that oozes out from mango during harvest, upon contact with the fruit, causes dark spots (sap-injury) on the peel and reduces consumer acceptance and shelf-life of fruit. In this investigation different components responsible for sap-injury were identified. Mango saps from four Indian varieties were collected and separated into aqueous and nonaqueous phases. Whole sap, aqueous phase and nonaqueous phase were tested for their ability to cause sap-injury (browning) on mangoes. The nonaqueous phase caused maximum injury and the extent of injury caused by nonaqueous phases from different varieties was varied. Limonene, ocimene and ,-myrcene, the major terpenoids identified in saps of Indian varieties, caused injury. Similar type of injury on mangoes was also caused by organic solvents. Damage on Totapuri mango fruit was significantly lower compared to other varieties, whereas Totapuri nonaqueous phase caused injury on all other varieties. The peel of Totapuri variety had very low level of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and polyphenols compared to other varieties. Thus, a clear relation was found between the peel polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase activities, the polyphenol content in the peel and the extent of injury. Further, nonaqueous phase applied on peels previously heat-treated at 95C for 5 min, neither caused injury nor showed any enzyme activity. Thus, the results indicated that the terpenoid components of sap and polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, polyphenols of peel are involved in sap-injury. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    Tatsuya Oda
    Heterocapsa circularisquama Horiguchi is lethal to shellfish, particularly bivalves such as pearl oysters (Pinctada fucata Gould). No detrimental effects of this flagellate on fish have been observed thus far. In this study, we found that H. circularisquama causes mammalian erythrocytes to lyse. Among the erythrocytes tested, rabbit erythrocytes showed the highest susceptibility, whereas erythrocytes from cattle, sheep, and human were relatively insensitive. Heterocapsa triquetra Stein, which is morphologically similar to H. circularisquama but not toxic to bivalves, showed no hemolytic activity toward rabbit erythrocytes. Culture supernatant or ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama showed only weak hemolytic activity. Hemolytic activity was found in the ethanol extract of H. circularisquama cells, suggesting that the hemolytic agents may be more stable in ethanol than in aqueous solution. Both an intact flagellate cell suspension and the ethanol extract caused morphological changes and eventual collapse of unfertilized eggs of Pacific oyster. Furthermore, the ethanol extract was lethal to the microzooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis Müller, which is highly sensitive to H. circularisquama. Our results suggest that a hemolytic toxin produced by H. circularisquama may be one of the causative agents responsible for the shellfish toxicity. [source]


    C. Di Girolamo
    Immunological studies document the role of HLA in psoriasis and the correlation between neuropeptides, psoriasis, and related arthritis. Some anecdotal case reports, moreover, describe a noncasual association between peripheral neuropathy and psoriatic manifestations. To verify a possible subclinical peripheral nerve involvement in this disimmune pathology, we started a pilot study in twenty patients with psoriatic arthritis and in whom other common causes of peripheral neuropathies had been ruled out. We performed a complete clinical neurological examination and a neurophysiological examination (orthodromic sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in median and tibial nerves; antidromic sensory nerve conduction velocity in sural nerve). In 40% of the patients there was a mild but definite "glove-stocking" hypoesthesia, while hypopallesthesia was detected in only 20%. Electrophysiologic examinations were less informative borderline distal conduction velocities in 30% of patients. These preliminary data suggest a peripheral nerve involvement in this pathology, mainly affecting the small nerve fibres. [source]


    POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 4 2000
    Darryl L. McMiller
    Empirical investigations of black political activity either do not include measures for associational affiliation among blacks or take into consideration differences among black organizations in their capacity to promote political activity among their members. In this investigation, a model of black political behavior was presented that included not only the standard predictors of political activity, but also incorporated measures for membership in different types of voluntary associations. Two important conclusions emerge from this study. First, this investigation demonstrated that since the 1960s, there has been an important transformation in the organizational infrastructure of the black community: blacks changed their voluntary memberships from political to nonpartisan organizations. Second, these findings showed that the decline in group-based political mobilization since the 1960s is partly the result of this shift from partisan to nonpolitical affiliations. [source]


    Xu-Ping Qin
    SUMMARY 1Previous studies indicate that rutaecarpine blocks increases in blood pressure and inhibits vascular hypertrophy in experimentally hypertensive rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the effects of rutaecarpine are related to activation of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP). 2Renovascular hypertensive rats (Goldblatt two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C)) were developed using male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic treatment with rutaecarpine (10 or 40 mg/kg per day) or losartan (20 mg/kg per day) for 4 weeks to the hypertensive rats caused a sustained dose-dependent attenuation of increases in blood pressure, increased lumen diameter and decreased media thickness, which was accompanied by a similar reduction in the media cross-sectional area : lumen area ratio in mesenteric arteries compared with untreated hypertensive rats. 3Angiotensin (Ang) II expression was significantly increased in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats compared with sham-operated rats. No significant differences in plasma AngII levels were observed between untreated hypertensive and sham-operated rats. Hypertensive rats treated with high-dose rutaecarpine had significantly decreased Ang II levels in both the plasma and mesenteric arteries. 4Expression of PRCP protein or kallikrein mRNA was significantly inhibited in the right kidneys and mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats. However, expression of PRCP protein and kallikrein mRNA was significantly increased after treatment with rutaecarpine or losartan (20 mg/kg per day). 5The data suggest that the repression of increases in systolic blood pressure and reversal of mesenteric artery remodelling by rutaecarpine may be related to increased expression of PRCP in the circulation and small arteries in 2K1C hypertensive rats. [source]


    Ching-Ming Chien
    SUMMARY 1Cardiotoxin (CTX) III, a basic polypeptide with 60 amino acid residues isolated from Naja naja atra venom, has been reported to have anticancer activity. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of CTX III in human leukaemia (HL-60 cells). 2Cardiotoxin III activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway of apoptosis in HL-60 cells, as indicated by increased levels of calcium and glucose-related protein 78 (Grp78), and triggered the subsequent activation of µ-calpain and caspase 12. 3In addition, CTX III initiated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HL-60 cells, as evidenced by an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase 9. 4In the presence of 50 µmol/L Z-ATAD-FMK (a caspase 12 inhibitor) and 100 µmol/L Z-LEHD-FMK (a caspase 9 inhibitor), the CTX III-mediated activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 was significantly reduced. There was no significant effect of the caspase 12 inhibitor Z-ATAD-FMK on mitochondrial cytochrome c release. 5Cardiotoxin III-mediated activation of caspase 12 was not abrogated in the presence of the caspase 9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, indicating that caspase 12 activation was not downstream of caspase 9. 6These results indicate that CTX III induces cell apoptosis via both ER stress and a mitochondrial death pathway. [source]

    P16 Eyelid dermatitis with positive patch test to coconut diethanolamide

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Yves Dejobert
    Objective:, The aim was to detect a possible allergen in a patient with eyelid dermatitis. Patient and methods: a non atopic 27-year-old female presented with eyelid dermatitis since 3 months. This dermatitis persisted despite the fact she had stopped the use of make up; she had acrylic artificial nails since 2 months and sometimes used hair dyes;patch tests were performed with Finn Chamber® tests with readings at D2 and D3, according ICDRG criteria, with European standard series, additional series (including toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin), cosmetic, acrylates, hairdressing series, in 3 patch test sessions, using Chemotechnique Diagnostics® allergens. Results:, The only positive patch test was coconut diethanolamide (0.5% pet.)++ at D2 and D3. After removal of the shampoo containing this allergen, the dermatitis cleared. Coconut diethanolamide (cocamide DEA), tensioactive synthesized with coconut oil is widely used in shampoos, soaps, shower gels, barrier creams, washing up liquids, metalworking fluids, hydraulic oils. Involvement of eyelids is not frequently described in the literature with this allergen. Conclusion:, Coconut diethanolamide should be added in cosmetic series, and it should be useful to test this allergen in patients with eyelid dermatitis. [source]

    Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    Elko Kleinschmidt
    Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed, functionally, geographically and culturally. To this end, an IT-communication strength is essential, one that is nested in an internal organizational environment that ensures its effective functioning. Using organizational information processing (OIP) theory as a framework, superior global NPD program performance is shown to result from an effective IT/Communication strength and the commitment components of the firm's internal environment, which are hypothesized to moderate this relationship. IT/Communication strength is identified in this study in terms of two components including the IT/Comm Infrastructure and IT/Comm Capability of the firm, whereas the moderating internal environment of the firm incorporates Resource Commitment and Senior Management Involvement. Data from a major empirical study of international NPD programs (382 SBUs) are used to develop and test this model. Based on a hierarchical regression analysis, the results are substantially supportive, with some unexpected findings. These shed light on the complex relationships of the firm's internal environment, OIP competency, and global NPD program performance. [source]

    Radiologic and Serologic Features of Extensive Venous Malformations Associated with Atrophy, Osteoporosis, and Visceral Involvement: Implications for Future Management

    First page of article [source]

    Involvement of canonical Wnt/Wingless signaling in the determination of the positional values within the leg segment of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    Taro Nakamura
    The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a hemimetabolous insect whose nymphs posses the ability to regenerate amputated legs. Previously, we showed that Gryllus orthologues of Drosophila hedgehog (Gb'hh), wingless (Gb'wg) and decapentaplegic (Gb'dpp) are expressed during leg regeneration and play essential roles in the establishment of the proximal-distal axis. Here, we examined their roles during intercalary regeneration: when a distally amputated tibia with disparate positional values is placed next to a proximally amputated host, intercalary growth occurs in order to regenerate the missing part. In this process, we examined expression patterns of Gb'hh and Gb'wg. We found that expressions of Gb'hh and Gb'wg were induced in a regenerate and the host proximal to the amputated region, but not in the grafted donor distal to the regenerate. This directional induction occurs even in the reversed intercalation. Because these results are consistent with a distal-to-proximal respecification of the regenerate, Gb'wg may be involved in the re-establishment of the positional values in the regenerate. Furthermore, we found that no regeneration occurs when Gb'armadillo (the orthologue of beta-catenin) was knocked down by RNA interference. These results indicate that the canonical Wnt/Wingless signaling pathway is involved in the process of leg regeneration and determination of positional information in the leg segment. [source]

    Involvement of BMP-4/msx-1 and FGF pathways in neural induction in the Xenopus embryo

    Akihiko Ishimura
    The msx homeodomain protein is a downstream transcription factor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 signal and a key regulator for neural tissue differentiation. Xmsx-1 antagonizes the dorsal expression of noggin and cerberus, as revealed by in situ hybridization and reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction assays. In animal cap explants, Xmsx-1 and BMP-4 inhibit the neural tissue differentiation induced by noggin or cerberus. A loss-of-function study using the Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion construct indicated that neural tissue formation was directly induced by the injection of fusion ribonucleic acid, although the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in the cap was less than that in the cap injected with tBR or noggin. In contrast to the single cap assay, unexpectedly, both BMP-4 and Xmsx-1 failed to inhibit neurulation in the ectodermal explants to which the organizer mesoderm was attached. The results of cell-lineage tracing experiments indicated that the neural cells were differentiated from the animal pole tissue where the excess RNA of either BMP-4 or Xmsx-1 was injected, whereas notochord was differentiated from the organizer mesoderm. Neural tissue differentiated from BMP-4 -injected ectodermal cells strongly expressed posterior neural markers, such as hoxB9 and krox20, suggesting that the posterior neural cells differentiated regardless of the existence of the BMP signal. The introduction of a dominant-negative form of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (XFD) into the ectodermal cells drastically reduced the expression of pan and posterior neural markers (N-CAM and hoxB-9) if co-injected with BMP-4 RNA, although XFD alone at the same dose did not shut down the expression of N-CAM in the combination explants. Therefore, it is proposed that an FGF-related molecule was involved in the direct induction of posterior neural tissue in the inducing signals from the organizer mesoderm in vivo. [source]

    Classical conditioning in the rat fetus: Involvement of mu and kappa opioid systems in the conditioned response

    William P. Smotherman
    Abstract When the Embryonic Day 20 (E20) rat fetus is given a conditioning trial involving a paired presentation of an artificial nipple (the conditioned stimulus; CS) with an intraoral infusion of milk (the unconditioned stimulus; US), it shows evidence of classical conditioning when again exposed to the CS during a test trial. Specifically, the fetus shows fewer oral grasp responses (the conditioned response; CR) when continuously presented with the artificial nipple. The present study further investigated this classically conditioned reduction in oral grasping. Separate experiments (a) examined the time course of the reduction in oral grasping (Experiment 1), (b) characterized the time course of mu opioid (Experiment 2) and kappa opioid (Experiment 3) involvement in the CR, and (c) described changes in fetal behavior (Experiment 4) associated with mu and kappa opioid effects on responding to the artificial nipple. The results are discussed in terms of opioid involvement in establishing and maintaining early suckling behavior. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 40: 104,115, 2002. DOI 10.1002/dev.10016 [source]

    Diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic mesenchymal tumors by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration,

    Linda Varghese M.D.
    Abstract Involvement of the pancreas by metastatic sarcoma is rare, and can prove challenging to differentiate from sarcomatoid carcinomas which occur more commonly. The endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) technique has been successfully used for the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinomas whether primary or metastatic, and is now considered the most effective noninvasive method for the identification of pancreatic metastases. However, to date very few reports detail the diagnosis of mesenchymal neoplasms by EUS-FNA. Herein, we report a series of four patients who underwent EUS-FNA of the pancreas, where the diagnosis of metastatic sarcoma was made based on morphology and ancillary studies. The cases include metastases of leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. The history of a primary sarcoma of the chest wall, mediastinum, and respectively lower extremity was known for the first three of these patients while in the case of the solitary fibrous tumor a remote history of a paraspinal "hemangiopericytoma" was only elicited after the EUS-FNA diagnosis was made. We conclude that EUS-FNA is efficient and accurate in providing a diagnosis of sarcoma, even in patients without a known primary sarcoma, thus allowing institution of therapy without additional biopsies. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Unsuspected systemic amyloidosis diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration of the salivary gland: Case report

    Ph.D., Tamar Giorgadze M.D.
    Abstract Amyloidosis of the head and neck region may represent a local amyloidoma or a manifestation of systemic disease. Involvement of major salivary glands by either primary or secondary forms of amyloidosis is very rare. We describe a case of systemic amyloidosis that initially presented as submandibular gland mass and was diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 69-year-old male presented with submandibular mass. His past medical history was significant for left forearm melanoma that was excised 6 years ago and tricuspid valve endocarditis after valvular replacement 3 months prior to FNA of the submandibular gland. The patient had no symptoms or clinical and laboratory data suggestive of amyloidosis. FNA specimen showed salivary gland tissue and abundant amorphous material, which stained positive for amyloid with Congo red stain and showed typical birefringence when examined by polarized microscopy. Further workup of the patient revealed generalized amyloidosis with multiorgan involvement by the disease. This case demonstrates that FNA can be a useful technique in the diagnosis of unsuspected amyloidosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;31:57,59. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Enders K.W. Ng
    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterized by the formation of multiple blue or purplish rubbery cavernous hemangiomas on the skin and other epithelial surfaces. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is common and often presents with crippling anemia as a result of chronic occult blood loss. While surgical extirpation is an option for symptomatic hemangiomas in the intestine, endoscopic therapy is more appealing for lesions found in the stomach and colon. Here we report the successful use of argon plasma coagulation in the management of an adult with multiple hemangiomas in her colon and terminal ileum. [source]

    Integrating DNA data and traditional taxonomy to streamline biodiversity assessment: an example from edaphic beetles in the Klamath ecoregion, California, USA

    Ryan M. Caesar
    ABSTRACT Conservation and land management decisions may be misguided by inaccurate or misinterpreted knowledge of biodiversity. Non-systematists often lack taxonomic expertise necessary for an accurate assessment of biodiversity. Additionally, there are far too few taxonomists to contribute significantly to the task of identifying species for specimens collected in biodiversity studies. While species level identification is desirable for making informed management decisions concerning biodiversity, little progress has been made to reduce this taxonomic deficiency. Involvement of non-systematists in the identification process could hasten species identification. Incorporation of DNA sequence data has been recognized as one way to enhance biodiversity assessment and species identification. DNA data are now technologically and economically feasible for most scientists to apply in biodiversity studies. However, its use is not widespread and means of its application has not been extensively addressed. This paper illustrates how such data can be used to hasten biodiversity assessment of species using a little-known group of edaphic beetles. Partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I was sequenced for 171 individuals of feather-wing beetles (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae) from the Klamath ecoregion, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot, the California Floristic Province. A phylogram of these data was reconstructed via parsimony and the strict consensus of 28,000 equally parsimonious trees was well resolved except for peripheral nodes. Forty-two voucher specimens were selected for further identification from clades that were associated with many synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide changes. A ptiliid taxonomic expert identified nine species that corresponded to monophyletic groups. These results allowed for a more accurate assessment of ptiliid species diversity in the Klamath ecoregion. In addition, we found that the number of amino acid changes or percentage nucleotide difference did not associate with species limits. This study demonstrates that the complementary use of taxonomic expertise and molecular data can improve both the speed and the accuracy of species-level biodiversity assessment. We believe this represents a means for non-systematists to collaborate directly with taxonomists in species identification and represents an improvement over methods that rely solely on parataxonomy or sequence data. [source]

    An active role for patients in clinical research?

    Deirdre O'Connell
    Abstract In the context of stricter control of clinical research, more informed patients, and a growing number of patient organizations, an active role for patients in clinical research has more than one meaning. Patient involvement in research as subjects is insufficient and can be improved by the information provided by patient groups and by better collaboration between the research community and patient groups. Knowledge about and understanding of clinical trials is central to greater participation. Involvement in the research process provides another role for patients and patient groups and a number of studies have examined such involvement. Patient advocacy groups are involved in training initiatives to enable effective patient involvement in the administration and conduct of clinical research. Various national and European research and regulatory organizations now work with patient representatives, often providing training for them. A third role for patient organizations lies in supporting the research community in lobbying for increased funding, especially for independent clinical research. The area of clinical research outside randomized clinical trials needs also to be carefully considered, in particular the Outcomes Research field. Drug Dev. Res. 67:188,192, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Right Ventricular Dimensions and Function in Isolated Left Bundle Branch Block: Is There Evidence of Biventricular Involvement?

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2008
    Jeroen Van Dijk M.D.
    Background: Isolated left bundle branch block (LBBB) may be an expression of idiopathic cardiomyopathy affecting both ventricles. The present study was conducted to evaluate right ventricular (RV) dimensions and function in asymptomatic LBBB patients with mildly depressed left ventricular (LV) function. Methods: Fifteen patients with asymptomatic LBBB in whom coronary artery disease, hypertension, and valvular pathology was excluded were studied. Fifteen healthy volunteers and 15 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy LBBB patients served as controls. RV long axis and tricuspid annulus diameter were obtained, as were tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak systolic velocity (Sm) of the RV free wall annulus. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jets (peak TR jets) were used for RV pressure assessment. Results: RV dimensions were comparable between the asymptomatic LBBB patients and controls. RV functions of healthy volunteers and asymptomatic LBBB patients were similar (TAPSE: 24 ± 3 and 24 ± 4 mm, Sm: 13 ± 2 and 13 ± 3 cm/s, respectively), whereas functional parameters in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients were significantly reduced (TAPSE: 19 ± 5 mm, Sm: 9 ± 2 cm/s, both P < 0.01 by analysis of variance [ANOVA]). For the three groups combined, a significant inverse correlation between RV pressure (peak TR jets) and RV function (Sm) was observed (r =,0.52, P = 0.017). Conclusions: In patients with an asymptomatic LBBB, RV dimensions and function are within normal range. The present study suggests that screening of RV functional parameters in asymptomatic LBBB patients is not useful for identification of an early-stage cardiomyopathy, and RV dysfunction is merely a consequence of increased RV loading conditions caused by left-sided heart failure and does not indicate a generalized cardiomyopathy affecting both ventricles. [source]

    Detection of Subclinical Cardiac Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis by Echocardiographic Strain Imaging

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Alper Kepez M.D.
    Background: Cardiac involvement is one of the major problems in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Subclinical cardiac involvement has a higher frequency than thought previously. In this study we investigated whether subclinical cardiac involvement can be detected by using echocardiographic strain imaging in SSc patients without pulmonary hypertension. Methods: Echocardiographic examinations were performed to 27 SSc patients and 26 healthy controls. Left ventricular strain parameters were obtained from apical views and average strain value was calculated from these measurements. Results: There were no significant differences between patients and controls regarding two-dimensional (2D), conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler velocity measurements. Strain was reduced in 6 of 12 segments of the left ventricle (LV) and in 1 of 2 segments of the right ventricle (RV). Strain rate (SR) was reduced in 2 of 12 segments of the LV and 1 of 2 segments of the RV in SSc patients as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for all). These involvements did not match any particular coronary artery distribution. More important differences were detected by average strain and SR values of the LV between patients and controls (19.78 ± 3.00% vs 23.41 ± 2.73%, P < 0.001; 2.01 ± 0.41 vs 2.23 ± 0.27/sec, P = 0.026, respectively). Furthermore, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) in scleroderma patients significantly correlated with LV average strain (r = 0.59; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Evaluation of ventricular function by using echocardiographic strain imaging appears to be useful to detect subclinical cardiac involvement in SSc patients with normal standard echocardiographic and tissue Doppler velocity findings. [source]

    Tricuspid Valve Involvement in Carcinoid Disease

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Bernard Abi-Saleh M.D.
    (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume **, **********) [source]

    Evaluation of Cardiac Involvement in Hypereosinophilic Syndrome: Complementary Roles of Transthoracic, Transesophageal, and Contrast Echocardiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2006
    Rajesh Shah M.D.
    Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a rare but important systemic disease with multiple clinical presentations. Approximately 40% of these cases have cardiac involvement. Echocardiography is the most easily available and versatile imaging modality in assessing cardiac involvement in this disease process. As described and reviewed in this case, it may be the first imaging modality to raise suspicion of this disease entity. Hence, clinicians interpreting echocardiograms and caring for patients need to be aware of the manifestations and complementary roles of various echo techniques in delineating cardiac involvement. Furthermore, the importance of a thorough history and laboratory review prior to echocardiography may provide valuable clues which may otherwise be missed. [source]

    Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium: Report of Two Cases With Bicuspid Aortic Valve Demonstrating Poor Prognosis and With Prominent Right Ventricular Involvement

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2003
    Yuksel Cavusoglu
    Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare, unclassified cardiomyopathy due to an arrest of myocardial morphogenesis. The characteristic echocardiographic findings consist of multiple, prominent myocardial trabeculations and deep intertrabecular spaces communicating with the left ventricular (LV) cavity. The disease typically involves the LV myocardium, but right ventricular (RV) involvement is not uncommon. The clinical manifestations include heart failure (HF) signs, ventricular arrhythmias and cardioembolic events. Noncompacted myocardium may occur as an isolated cardiac lesion, as well as it can be in association with congenital anomalies. We describe two illustrative cases of noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium, a 19-year-old male with bicuspid aortic valve and progressive worsening of HF, and a 61-year-old male with marked RV involvement in addition to LV apical involvement, both with the typical clinical and echocardiographic features of the disease. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, May 2003) [source]

    Involvement in Knowledge-Acquisition Activities by Venture Team Members and Venture Performance

    Gaylen N. Chandler
    This research uses concepts of organizational learning to analyze knowledge acquisition by management teams in emerging firms. Involvement in ongoing knowledge-acquisition activities is positively and significantly related to venture performance. In addition, task environment dynamism is a positive moderator of the relationship between involvement in knowledge-acquisition activities and venture performance. [source]

    Involvement of the thalamocortical network in TLE with and without mesiotemporal sclerosis

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2010
    Susanne G. Mueller
    Summary Purpose:, The thalamus plays an important role in seizure propagation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study investigated how structural abnormalities in the focus, ipsilateral thalamus and extrafocal cortical structures relate to each other in TLE with mesiotemporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) and without hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-no). Methods:, T1 and high-resolution T2 images were acquired on a 4T magnet in 29 controls, 15 TLE-MTS cases, and 14 TLE-no. Thalamus volumes were obtained by warping a labeled atlas onto each subject's brain. Deformation-based morphometry was used to identify regions of thalamic volume loss and FreeSurfer for cortical thickness measurements. CA1 volumes were obtained from high-resolution T2 images. Multiple regression analysis and correlation analyses for voxel- and vertex-based analyses were performed in SPM2 and FreeSurfer. Results:, TLE-MTS had bilateral volume loss in the anterior thalamus, which was correlated with CA1 volume and cortical thinning in the mesiotemporal lobe. TLE-no had less severe volume loss in the dorsal lateral nucleus, which was correlated with thinning in the mesiotemporal region but not with extratemporal thinning. Discussion:, The findings suggest that seizure propagation from the presumed epileptogenic focus or regions close to it into the thalamus occurs in TLE-MTS and TLE-no and results in circumscribed neuronal loss in the thalamus. However, seizure spread beyond the thalamus seems not to be responsible for the extensive extratemporal cortical abnormalities in TLE. [source]

    fMRI Lateralization of Expressive Language in Children with Cerebral Lesions

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2006
    Dianne P. Anderson
    Summary:,Purpose: Lateralization of language function is crucial to the planning of surgery in children with frontal or temporal lobe lesions. We examined the utility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as a determinant of lateralization of expressive language in children with cerebral lesions. Methods: fMRI language lateralization was attempted in 35 children (29 with epilepsy) aged 8,18 years with frontal or temporal lobe lesions (28 left hemisphere, five right hemisphere, two bilateral). Axial and coronal fMRI scans through the frontal and temporal lobes were acquired at 1.5 Tesla by using a block-design, covert word-generation paradigm. Activation maps were lateralized by blinded visual inspection and quantitative asymmetry indices (hemispheric and inferior frontal regions of interest, at p < 0.001 uncorrected and p < 0.05 Bonferroni corrected). Results: Thirty children showed significant activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. Lateralization by visual inspection was left in 21, right in six, and bilateral in three, and concordant with hemispheric and inferior frontal quantitative lateralization in 93% of cases. Developmental tumors and dysplasias involving the inferior left frontal lobe had activation overlying or abutting the lesion in five of six cases. fMRI language lateralization was corroborated in six children by frontal cortex stimulation or intracarotid amytal testing and indirectly supported by aphasiology in a further six cases. In two children, fMRI language lateralization was bilateral, and corroborative methods of language lateralization were left. Neither lesion lateralization, patient handedness, nor developmental versus acquired nature of the lesion was associated with language lateralization. Involvement of the left inferior or middle frontal gyri increased the likelihood of atypical language lateralization. Conclusions: fMRI lateralizes language in children with cerebral lesions, although caution is needed in interpretation of individual results. [source]

    Proteomic Identification of the Involvement of the Mitochondrial Rieske Protein in Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2005
    Heike Junker
    Summary:,Purpose: Kindled seizures are widely used to model epileptogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the attainment of kindling status are largely unknown. Recently we showed that achievement of kindling status in the Sprague,Dawley rat is associated with a critical developmental interval of 25 ± 1 days; the identification of this long, well-defined developmental interval for inducing kindling status makes possible a dissection of the cellular and genetic events underlying this phenomenon and its relation to normal and pathologic brain function. Methods: By using proteomics on cerebral tissue from our new rat kindling model, we undertook a global analysis of protein expression in kindled animals. Some of the identified proteins were further investigated by using immunohistochemistry. Results: We report the identification of a modified variant of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, a component of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex, whose isoelectric point is shifted toward more alkaline values in the hippocampus of kindled rats. By immunohistochemistry, the Rieske protein is well expressed in the hippocampus, except in the CA1 subfield, an area of selective vulnerability to seizures in humans and animal models. We also noted an asymmetric, selective expression of the Rieske protein in the subgranular neurons of the dorsal dentate gyrus, a region implicated in neurogenesis. Conclusions: These results indicate that the Rieske protein may play a role in the response of neurons to seizure activity and could give important new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of epilepsy. [source]

    Involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 HiF(1,) in IgE-mediated primary human basophil responses

    Vadim V. Sumbayev
    Abstract Basophils play a pivotal role in regulating chronic allergic inflammation as well as angiogenesis. Here, we show for the first time that IgE-mediated activation of primary human basophils results in protein accumulation of the ,-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, (HIF-1,), which is differentially regulated compared with signals controlling histamine release. HIF-1 facilitates cellular adaptation to hypoxic conditions such as inflammation and tumour growth by controlling glycolysis, angiogenesis and cell adhesion. ERK and p38 MAPK, but not reactive oxygen species (ROS), ASK1 or PI 3-kinase, were critical for IgE-mediated accumulation of HIF-1,, although the latter crucially affected degranulation. Abrogating HIF-1, expression in basophils using siRNA demonstrated that this protein is essential for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression and, consequently, release of VEGF protein. In addition, HIF-1, protein alters IgE-induced ATP depletion in basophils, thus also supporting the production of the pro-allergic cytokine IL-4. [source]

    Signaling events leading to the curative effect of cystatin on experimental visceral leishmaniasis: Involvement of ERK1/2, NF-,B and JAK/STAT pathways

    Susanta Kar
    Abstract Curative effect of cystatin, a natural cystein protease inhibitor, on experimental visceral leishmaniasis was associated with strong upregulation of iNOS. The transductional mechanisms underlying this cellular response was investigated in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in the BALB/c mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis. Cystatin synergizes with IFN-, in inducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF-,B DNA-binding activity. Pretreatment of cells with specific inhibitors of NF-,B or ERK1/2 pathway blocked the cystatin plus IFN-,-inducible NF-,B activity and markedly reduced the expression of iNOS at both mRNA and protein levels. Silencing of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 significantly reduced cystatin-mediated NF-,B-dependent iNOS gene transcription suggesting the involvement of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 activation in ERK1/2 signaling. DNA binding as well as silencing experiments revealed the requirement of IFN-,-mediated JAK-STAT activation even though cystatin did not modulate this signaling cascade by itself. In the in vivo situation, key steps in the activation cascade of NF-,B, including nuclear translocation of NF-,B subunits, I,B phosphorylation and I,B kinase, are all remarkably enhanced in Leishmania -infected mice by cystatin. Understanding the molecular mechanisms through which cystatin modulates macrophage effector responses will contribute to better define its potential for macrophage-associated diseases, in general. [source]