Inverse Kinematics (inverse + kinematics)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Interactive low-dimensional human motion synthesis by combining motion models and PIK

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 4-5 2007
Schubert R. Carvalho
Abstract This paper explores the issue of interactive low-dimensional human motion synthesis. We compare the performances of two motion models, i.e. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) or Probabilistic PCA (PPCA), for solving a constrained optimization problem within a low-dimensional latent space. We use PCA or PPCA as a first step of preprocessing to reduce the dimensionality of the database to make it tractable, and to encapsulate only the essential aspects of a specific motion pattern. Interactive user control is provided by formulating a low-dimensional optimization framework that uses a Prioritized Inverse Kinematics (PIK) strategy. The key insight of PIK is that the user can adjust a motion by adding constraints with different priorities. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach by synthesizing various styles of golf swing. This movement is challenging in the sense that it is highly coordinated and requires a great precision while moving with high speeds. Hence, any artifact is clearly noticeable in the solution movement. We simultaneously show results comparing local and global motion models regarding synthesis realism and performance. Finally, the quality of the synthesized animations is assessed by comparing our results against a per-frame PIK technique. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Using an Intermediate Skeleton and Inverse Kinematics for Motion Retargeting

COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2000
Jean-Sébastien Monzani
In this paper, we present a new method for solving the Motion Retargeting Problem, by using an intermediate skeleton. This allows us to convert movements between hierarchically and geometrically different characters. An Inverse Kinematics engine is then used to enforce Cartesian constraints while staying as close as possible to the captured motion. [source]


OPTIMAL MECHANISM DESIGN AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A 3-LEG 6-DOF LINEAR MOTOR BASED PARALLEL MANIPULATOR

ASIAN JOURNAL OF CONTROL, Issue 1 2004
Thong-Shing Hwang
ABSTRACT This paper presents the optimal mechanism design and dynamic analysis of a prototype 3-leg 6-DOF (degree-of-freedom) parallel manipulator. Inverse kinematics, forward kinematics, inverse dynamics and working space characterizing the platform motion are derived. In the presented architecture, the base platform has three linear slideways individually actuated by a synchronous linear servo motor, and each extensible vertical link connecting the upper and base platforms is actuated by an inductive AC servo motor. The linear motors contribute high-speed movements to the upper platform. This kind of architecture using hybrid (linear and AC) motors yields high level performance of motions, especially in the working space. The novel result of maximal working angles is the significant contribution of this architecture. The Taguchi Experimental Method is applied to design the optimal mechanism of the platform system, and the result is used as the actual data to build this system. [source]


Analytical inverse kinematics with body posture control

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 2 2008
Marcelo Kallmann
Abstract This paper presents a novel whole-body analytical inverse kinematics (IK) method integrating collision avoidance and customizable body control for animating reaching tasks in real-time. Whole-body control is achieved with the interpolation of pre-designed key body postures, which are organized as a function of the direction to the goal to be reached. Arm postures are computed by the analytical IK solution for human-like arms and legs, extended with a new simple search method for achieving postures avoiding joint limits and collisions. In addition, a new IK resolution is presented that directly solves for joints parameterized in the swing-and-twist decomposition. The overall method is simple to implement, fast, and accurate, and therefore suitable for interactive applications controlling the hands of characters. The source code of the IK implementation is provided. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Approximating character biomechanics with real-time weighted inverse kinematics

COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS (PREV: JNL OF VISUALISATION & COMPUTER ANIMATION), Issue 4-5 2007
Michael Meredith
Abstract In this paper we show how the expensive, offline dynamic simulations of character motions can be approximated using the cheaper weighted inverse kinematics (WIK)-based approach. We first show how a dynamics-based approach can be used to produce a motion that is representative of a real target actor using the motion of a different source actor and the biomechanics of the target actor. This is compared against a process that uses WIK to achieve the same motion mapping goal without direct biomechanical input. The parallels between the results of the two approaches are described and further reasoned from a mathematical perspective. Thus we demonstrate how character biomechanics can be approximated with real-time WIK. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Animating Quadrupeds: Methods and Applications

COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 6 2009
Ljiljana Skrba
I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: 3D Graphics and Realism , Animation Abstract Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In order to achieve this, several challenges need to be overcome: gathering and processing data that embodies the natural motion of an animal , which is made more difficult by the fact that most animals cannot be easily motion-captured; building accurate kinematic models for animals, with adapted animation skeletons in particular; and developing either kinematic or physically-based animation methods, either by embedding some a priori knowledge about the way that quadrupeds locomote and/or adopting examples of real motion. In this paper, we present an overview of the common techniques used to date for realistic quadruped animation. This includes an outline of the various ways that realistic quadruped motion can be achieved, through video-based acquisition, physics based models, inverse kinematics or some combination of the above. [source]


A natural redundancy-resolution for 3-D multi-joint reaching under the gravity effect

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 11 2005
Masahiro Sekimoto
A simple control method for 3-dimensional multi-joint reaching movements under redundancy of degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed, which need neither introduce any performance index to solve inverse kinematics uniquely nor calculate pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian matrix of task coordinates with respect to joint coordinates. The proposed control signal is composed of linear superposition of three terms: (1) angular-velocity feedback for damping shaping, (2) task-space position error feedback with a single stiffness parameter, and (3) compensation for gravity force on the basis of estimates for uncertain parameters of the potential energy without calculation any inverse joint position to the target in task space. Through a theoretical analysis of the closed-loop dynamics and a variety of computer simulations by using a whole arm model with five DOFs, the importance of synergistic adjustments of damping factors as well as its relation to selection of the stiffness parameter is pointed out. It is shown that if damping factors are chosen synergistically corresponding to the inertia matrix at the initial time and the stiffness parameter then the endpoint converges asymptotically to the target position and reaches it smoothly without incurring any self-motion. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


A Class of Transpose Jacobian-based NPID Regulators for Robot Manipulators with an Uncertain Kinematics

JOURNAL OF FIELD ROBOTICS (FORMERLY JOURNAL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEMS), Issue 11 2002
C. Q. Huang
Transpose Jacobian-based controllers present an attractive approach to robot set-point control in Cartesian space that derive the end-effector posture to a specified desired position and orientation with neither solving the inverse kinematics nor computing the inverse Jacobian. By a Lyapunov function with virtual artificial potential energy, a class of complete transpose Jacobian-based Nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative regulators is proposed in this paper for robot manipulators with uncertain kinematics on the basis of the set of all continuous differentiable increasing functions. It shows globally asymptotic stability for the result closed-loop system on the condition of suitable feedback gains and suitable parameter selection for the corresponding function set as well as artificial potential function, and only upper bound on Jacobian matrix error and Cartesian dynamics parameters are needed. The existing linear PID (LPID) regulators are the special cases of it. Nevertheless, in the case of LPID regulators, only locally asymptotic stability is guaranteed if the corresponding conditions are satisfied. Simulations demonstrate the result and robustness of transpose Jacobian-based NPID regulators. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]