Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Inventory

  • agitation inventory
  • anger expression inventory
  • anxiety inventory
  • assessment inventory
  • beck anxiety inventory
  • beck depression inventory
  • behavior inventory
  • brief pain inventory
  • brief symptom inventory
  • burnout inventory
  • character inventory
  • children depression inventory
  • clinical multiaxial inventory
  • cohen-mansfield agitation inventory
  • communicative development inventory
  • coping inventory
  • cycle inventory
  • depression inventory
  • desire inventory
  • development inventory
  • disability inventory
  • disorder inventory
  • disorders inventory
  • distress inventory
  • dysfunction inventory
  • eating disorder inventory
  • eating disorders inventory
  • erectile dysfunction inventory
  • expression inventory
  • factor inventory
  • fatigue inventory
  • five-factor inventory
  • floristic inventory
  • forest inventory
  • handicap inventory
  • health inventory
  • learning transfer system inventory
  • life cycle inventory
  • life inventory
  • macarthur communicative development inventory
  • maslach burnout inventory
  • mental health inventory
  • millon clinical multiaxial inventory
  • minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
  • multiaxial inventory
  • multidimensional fatigue inventory
  • multiphasic personality inventory
  • neo five-factor inventory
  • neo personality inventory
  • neo-five factor inventory
  • neuropsychiatric inventory
  • pain inventory
  • personality assessment inventory
  • personality inventory
  • psychological inventory
  • quick inventory
  • revised neo personality inventory
  • screening inventory
  • self-esteem inventory
  • self-report inventory
  • species inventory
  • spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory
  • state trait anxiety inventory
  • state-trait anxiety inventory
  • strategy inventory
  • symptom inventory
  • system inventory
  • temperament inventory
  • trait anxiety inventory
  • transfer system inventory
  • urogenital distress inventory

  • Terms modified by Inventory

  • inventory cost
  • inventory data
  • inventory for children
  • inventory level
  • inventory model
  • inventory plot
  • inventory score
  • inventory system

  • Selected Abstracts


    Joseph P. Herring
    ABSTRACT: An observational study was conducted at the watershed scale using land cover (vegetation) data to assess the absence or presence of riparian buffers in three northeastern Missouri watersheds. Forests and grasslands lying within a 61 m (200 ft) parallel band directly adjacent to streams were considered "buffers" for improving or protecting water quality and were characterized according to their length, width, and vegetation type. Results indicated that riparian buffers were abundant throughout the watersheds but were typically narrow along first-order and second-order streams; in many cases they may not have been wide enough to provide adequate stream protection. At least 90 percent of all streams had buffer vegetation immediately adjacent to the streambanks, but as few as 31 percent of first-order streams had buffers extending to 61 m from the stream on at least one side. On-site evaluations are needed to determine the condition of these forests and grasslands and their ability to process nonpoint source pollutants. The results will be useful for providing natural resource managers with knowledge of current watershed conditions as well as in identifying specific locations for future conservation efforts within each watershed. [source]

    Perception of, and anxiety levels induced by, laser treatment in patients with sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2006
    A multicentre study
    Abstract Aims To investigate how laser treatment is perceived, in terms of anxiety and awareness, by diabetic patients attending four centres in Northern Italy with specific interest and expertise in diabetic retinopathy, where work settings and flow are organized differently. Methods The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Family Apgar-List of Threatening Experiences (FA-LTE), State-Trait Anxiety Inventories 1 and 2 (STAI-1 and STAI-2) questionnaires were completed by 259 patients, 131 waiting for laser treatment and 128 control subejcts awaiting non-intervention visits. Open questions were also asked on whether patients had ever heard the word ,laser' and whether they could describe laser treatment. Results High scores were detected by HADS, STAI-1 and STAI-2 among patients waiting for photocoagulation. Anxiety was greater in women and people with poor schooling. After controlling for centres, gender, previous laser treatment and schooling, HADS and STAI-1 remained significantly lower among persons waiting for non-intervention visits. Having received photocoagulation previously did not modify anxiety. Anxiety was lower in those centres where facilities and resources were more patient-oriented. Most patients could neither describe photocoagulation nor explain why they were about to receive it, but had a negative perception and some described it with words evoking cruelty and pain. Conclusions These data suggest that laser treatment is experienced as an event that causes anxiety. Preoperative education and counselling may help to reduce fear and patients' avoidance of treatment. [source]

    Financial Pressure, Monetary Policy Effects and Inventories: Firm-level Evidence from a Market-based and a Bank-based Financial System

    ECONOMICA, Issue 286 2005
    Andrew Benito
    This paper examines the adjustment of inventories by firms in the United Kingdom and Spain, which have two quite different financial systems. A widely held view is that a key channel for monetary policy is through the influencing of inventory accumulation. Using a large company-level panel data-set for both countries, significant effects associated with borrowing costs on inventories are estimated. Financial effects associated with liquidity and the borrowing ratio are estimated to be stronger in the UK than in Spain. Since the Spanish financial system is bank-based, while that of the UK is market-based, this is interpreted as contrary to the Bank Dependence Hypothesis. [source]

    The European carbon balance.

    Part 2: croplands
    Abstract We estimated the long-term carbon balance [net biome production (NBP)] of European (EU-25) croplands and its component fluxes, over the last two decades. Net primary production (NPP) estimates, from different data sources ranged between 490 and 846 gC m,2 yr,1, and mostly reflect uncertainties in allocation, and in cropland area when using yield statistics. Inventories of soil C change over arable lands may be the most reliable source of information on NBP, but inventories lack full and harmonized coverage of EU-25. From a compilation of inventories we infer a mean loss of soil C amounting to 17 g m,2 yr,1. In addition, three process-based models, driven by historical climate and evolving agricultural technology, estimate a small sink of 15 g C m,2 yr,1 or a small source of 7.6 g C m,2 yr,1. Neither the soil C inventory data, nor the process model results support the previous European-scale NBP estimate by Janssens and colleagues of a large soil C loss of 90 ± 50 gC m,2 yr,1. Discrepancy between measured and modeled NBP is caused by erosion which is not inventoried, and the burning of harvest residues which is not modeled. When correcting the inventory NBP for the erosion flux, and the modeled NBP for agricultural fire losses, the discrepancy is reduced, and cropland NBP ranges between ,8.3 ± 13 and ,13 ± 33 g C m,2 yr,1 from the mean of the models and inventories, respectively. The mean nitrous oxide (N2O) flux estimates ranges between 32 and 37 g C Eq m,2 yr,1, which nearly doubles the CO2 losses. European croplands act as small CH4 sink of 3.3 g C Eq m,2 yr,1. Considering ecosystem CO2, N2O and CH4 fluxes provides for the net greenhouse gas balance a net source of 42,47 g C Eq m,2 yr,1. Intensifying agriculture in Eastern Europe to the same level Western Europe amounts is expected to result in a near doubling of the N2O emissions in Eastern Europe. N2O emissions will then become the main source of concern for the impact of European agriculture on climate. [source]

    Exploring the relation between memory, gestural communication, and the emergence of language in infancy: a longitudinal study

    Mikael Heimann
    Abstract The relationship between recall memory, visual recognition memory, social communication, and the emergence of language skills was measured in a longitudinal study. Thirty typically developing Swedish children were tested at 6, 9 and 14 months. The result showed that, in combination, visual recognition memory at 6 months, deferred imitation at 9 months and turn-taking skills at 14 months could explain 41% of the variance in the infants' production of communicative gestures as measured by a Swedish variant of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). In this statistical model, deferred imitation stood out as the strongest predictor. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hybrid Framework for Managing Uncertainty in Life Cycle Inventories

    Eric D. Williams
    Summary Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly being used to inform decisions related to environmental technologies and polices, such as carbon footprinting and labeling, national emission inventories, and appliance standards. However, LCA studies of the same product or service often yield very different results, affecting the perception of LCA as a reliable decision tool. This does not imply that LCA is intrinsically unreliable; we argue instead that future development of LCA requires that much more attention be paid to assessing and managing uncertainties. In this article we review past efforts to manage uncertainty and propose a hybrid approach combining process and economic input,output (I-O) approaches to uncertainty analysis of life cycle inventories (LCI). Different categories of uncertainty are sometimes not tractable to analysis within a given model framework but can be estimated from another perspective. For instance, cutoff or truncation error induced by some processes not being included in a bottom-up process model can be estimated via a top-down approach such as the economic I-O model. A categorization of uncertainty types is presented (data, cutoff, aggregation, temporal, geographic) with a quantitative discussion of methods for evaluation, particularly for assessing temporal uncertainty. A long-term vision for LCI is proposed in which hybrid methods are employed to quantitatively estimate different uncertainty types, which are then reduced through an iterative refinement of the hybrid LCI method. [source]

    Irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia among women veterans: prevalence and association with psychological distress

    L. S. SAVAS
    Summary Background, The burden of functional GI disorders and their associations with psychological distress in women veterans is unclear. Aim, To examine 1-year prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and dyspepsia symptoms and their associations with anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among women veterans receiving primary care at a Veteran Affairs Medical Center Women's Clinic. Methods, Irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia and psychological distress were assessed using the validated self-administered Bowel Disorder Questionnaire, the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, as well as the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire. Results, We enrolled 248 women (84% participation rate). Ninety-three (38%) reported IBS and 51 (21%) dyspepsia symptoms. Women with IBS and dyspepsia reported higher mean scores of anxiety (IBS: 24 vs. 12, P < 0.0005 and dyspepsia: 26 vs. 12, P < 0.0005), depression (IBS: 22 vs. 11, P = 0.0005 and dyspepsia: 23 vs. 11, P < 0.0005) and PTSD (IBS: 87 vs. 69, P < 0.001 and dyspepsia: 86 vs. 69, P < 0.0005). Age- and ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression analyses showed a 3- to 46-fold increase in odds of IBS and dyspepsia among women with anxiety, depression or PTSD. Conclusion, Women veterans have high prevalence of IBS and dyspepsia symptoms, both of which are highly associated with presence of depression, anxiety and PTSD. [source]

    Approaches to learning and studying in medical students: validation of a revised inventory and its relation to student characteristics and performance

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 5 2004
    Karen Mattick
    Introduction, Inventories to quantify approaches to studying try to determine how students approach academic tasks. Medical curricula usually aim to promote a deep approach to studying, which is associated with academic success and which may predict desirable traits postqualification. Aims, This study aimed to validate a revised Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory (ALSI) in medical students and to explore its relation to student characteristics and performance. Methods, Confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the reported constructs in a sample of 128 Year 1 medical students. Models were developed to investigate the effect of age, graduate status and gender, and the relationships between approaches to studying and assessment outcomes. Results, The ALSI performed as anticipated in this population, thus validating its use in our sample, but a 4-factor solution had a better fit than the reported 5-factor one. Medical students scored highly on deep approach compared with other students in higher education. Graduate status and gender had significant effects on approach to studying and a deep approach was associated with higher academic scores. Conclusions, The ALSI is valid for use in medical students and can uncover interesting relationships between approaches to studying and student characteristics. In addition, the ALSI has potential as a tool to predict student success, both academically and beyond qualification. [source]

    Availability and Quality of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment in U.S. Emergency Departments

    Adit A. Ginde MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine the availability and quality of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment in U.S. emergency departments (EDs). The authors hypothesized that smaller, rural EDs have less availability and lower-quality equipment. Methods:, This was a random selection of 262 (5%) U.S. EDs from the 2005 National Emergency Department Inventories (NEDI)-USA ( The authors telephoned radiology technicians about the presence of CT and MRI equipment, availability for ED imaging, and number of slices for the available CT scanners. The analysis was stratified by site characteristics. Results:, The authors collected data from 260 institutions (99% response). In this random sample of EDs, the median annual patient visit volume was 19,872 (interquartile range = 6,788 to 35,757), 28% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 22% to 33%) were rural, and 27% (95% CI = 21% to 32%) participated in the Critical Access Hospital program. CT scanners were present in 249 (96%) institutions, and of these, 235 (94%) had 24/7 access for ED patients. CT scanner resolution varied: 28% had 1,4 slice, 33% had 5,16 slice, and 39% had a more than 16 slice. On-site MRI was available for 171 (66%) institutions, and mobile MRI for 53 (20%). Smaller, rural, and critical access hospitals had lower CT and MRI availability and less access to higher-resolution CT scanners. Conclusions:, Although access to CT imaging was high (>90%), CT resolution and access to MRI were variable. Based on observed differences, the availability and quality of imaging equipment may vary by ED size and location. [source]

    Evaluating the Effect of Conservation Policies on Agricultural Land Use: A Site-specific Modeling Approach

    Katsuya Tanaka
    This study evaluates quantitatively the effect of three policies (payments for cropland retirement, fertilizer use taxes and payments for crop rotations) on agricultural land use in the upper Mississippi River basin. This is done by estimating two logit models of land use decisions using data from the 1982, 1987,1992 and 1997 Natural Resource Inventories. The models predict farmers' crop choice, crop rotation and participation in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) at more than 48,000 Natural Resource Inventories sites under each of the three policies. Results suggest that an increase in the CRP rental rates would significantly increase the CRP acreage, but most of the acreage increase would come initially from less fertilizer-intensive crops. In contrast, a fertilizer use tax would significantly reduce acreage planted to more fertilizer-intensive crops, and thus would likely be cost effective for reducing agricultural chemical use and pollution. Although an incentive payment for a corn-soybean rotation would raise acreage of this rotation and reduce the acreage of continuous corn, the acreage response is in general quite inelastic. Cette étude évalue quantitativement les effets rovoqués par les trois politiques (paiements pour le retrait des terres cultivables, taxes sur l'utilisation d'engrais et paiements pour l'alternance des cultures) sur les terres agricoles du bassin supérieur du Mississipi. Ceci est obtenu en évaluant deux modéles logit des décisions sur l'utilisation des terres provenant des données des «Natural Resource Inventories» de 1982, 1987, 1992 et 1997. Les modéles prédisent le choix des cultures des agriculteurs, l'alternance des cultures et la participation du «Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)» dans plus de 48 000 Natural Resource Inventories dans le cadre de chacune des trois politiques. Les résultats suggérent qu'une augmentation des taux de location du CRP accroisse de maniére significative la surface de CRP, mais la majeure partie de cet accroissement de surface provenaient initialement de cultures moins intensives sans engrais. Cependant, l'utilisation d'une taxe sur l'utilisation d'engrais pouvait réduire de maniére significative la surface plantée avec des récoltes intensives utilisant plus d'engrais, et ainsi ce serait sans doute plus économique pour réduire la pollution et l'utilisation de produits chimiques en agriculture. Bien que des paiements incitatifs à l'alternance maïs-soja réduisent la surface d'une culture continue de maïs et augmentaient la surface de l'alternance maïs-soja, les résultats aux transformations des surfaces des terres seraient tout à fait rigides. [source]

    Measurement Properties of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at Ages One and Two Years

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2000
    Heidi M. Feldman
    In a prospective study of child development in relation to early-life otitis media, we administered the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) to a large (N = 2,156), sociodemographically diverse sample of 1- and 2-year-old children. As a prerequisite for interpreting the CDI scores, we studied selected measurement properties of the inventories. Scores on the CDI/Words and Gestures (CDI-WG), designed for children 8 to 16 months old, and on the CDI/Words and Sentences (CDI-WS), designed for children 16 to 30 months old, increased significantly with months of age. On several scales of both CDI-WG and CDI-WS, standard deviations approximated or exceeded mean values, reflecting wide variability in results. Statistically significant differences in mean scores were found according to race, maternal education, and health insurance status as an indirect measure of income, but the directionality of differences was not consistent across inventories or across scales of the CDI-WS. Correlations between CDI-WG and CDI-WS ranged from .18 to .39. Our findings suggest that the CDI reflects the progress of language development within the age range 10 to 27 months. However, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution in using results of the CDI to identify individual children at risk for language deficits, to compare groups of children with different sociodemographic profiles, or to evaluate the effects of interventions. [source]

    Invest in Opportunity, Not Inventory of Hotspots

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Contact allergy to isoeugenol and its derivatives: problems with allergen substitution

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 5-6 2004
    S. Tanaka
    A total of 2261 (808 male, 1453 female) consecutive patients attending contact dermatitis clinics were patch tested to isoeugenol and its derivatives listed in the EU Inventory of Fragrance Ingredients. Positive reactions were found to isoeugenol in 40, transisoeugenol in 40, isoeugenyl acetate in 19, isoeugenyl benzoate in 4, isoeugenyl phenylacetate in 16, isoeugenyl methyl ether in 6 and benzyl isoeugenyl ether in 2 patients. There was a concomitant reaction to isoeugenol in 36/40 of those positive to transisoeugenol, 13/19 of those to isoeugenyl acetate, 3/4 of those to isoeugenyl benzoate and 15/16 of those to isoeugenyl phenylacetate but in none of those 6 positive to isoeugenyl methyl ether and in neither of those 2 positive to benzyl isoeugenyl ether. Concomitant contact allergy between isoeugenol and its derivatives may occur through chemical cross-reactivity or local skin metabolism of the derivatives. It is more commonly observed with the esters rather than the ethers. Isoeugenyl acetate has been proposed as an alternative to isoeugenol, but there is a high degree of concomitant reactivity with isoeugenol. [source]

    Pollutant release and transfer registers: examining the value of government-led reporting on corporate environmental performance

    Rory Sullivan
    Abstract Within this paper, we argue that the data released by companies through corporate environmental reports are of very limited value, particularly for analysts seeking to benchmark the environmental performance of different companies or sites. We also argue that the data published by governments through pollutant release and transfer registers (PRTRs) such as the US Toxic Releases Inventory (TRI) or the EU Polluting Emissions Register (EPER) are of much greater value in comparative analyses. However, we recognize that PRTRs are limited in their scope and there are differences between the PRTRs that are in place in different countries. We find then that while PRTRs can inform comparative analyses within countries, their potential to provide a basis for benchmarking across different countries has not yet been fulfilled. Nonetheless, we conclude that PRTRs often provide the best available data for benchmarking corporate environmental performance and that increases in their scope and a harmonization of their design could play a significant role in illuminating variations in corporate environmental performance over time and across space. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Gender differences in jail inmates' symptoms of mental illness, treatment history and treatment seeking,

    Amy L. Drapalski
    Background,Rates of mental illness among prisoners are substantial, but little is known about the unique mental health needs of women in jail, those under pre-trial custodial remand or serving short sentences. Aims,To compare male and female jail inmates along a wide range of symptoms of mental illness using identical assessment methods, and to examine gender differences in treatment seeking before and during incarceration. Methods,Soon after incarceration in a county jail, 360 male and 154 female pre-trial and post-trial inmates completed the Personality Assessment Inventory, a wide-ranging measure of psychiatric symptoms. Treatment seeking information was taken from official jail records. Results,Women were more likely to report clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, borderline personality features, somatic concerns and trauma-related symptoms; however, trauma-related symptoms and borderline features were also common among male inmates. Although both men and women reported high rates of drug-related problems, alcohol-related problems were twice as prevalent among male inmates. Female inmates were more likely to seek and be enrolled in jail-based treatment; there were no differences in reported help seeking prior to incarceration. Conclusions,Female jail inmates are especially in need of mental health services. Effective interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder are needed in jail settings for both male and female inmates during incarceration and upon release. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The development of a specialist hostel for the community management of personality disordered offenders

    Stephen Blumenthal
    Background,Since the late 1990s, in England and in Wales, there has been increasing interest in the particular challenges of managing offenders with personality disorder (PD). In 1999, a specialist hostel, managed by the probation service but with a high level of forensic mental health service input, was opened to high-risk PD offenders. Aims,To describe the first 93 high-risk residents with PD who were completing sentences under life licence, parole or probation, and their outcome. Methods,We investigated the nature of the offences residents had previously committed, their psychological profile in terms of personality patterns on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as well as staff commentary on their progress, to establish whether these factors related to outcome in terms of completion of stay in the hostel or premature discharge. Curfew failures and rearrest rates were also measured. Results,Of the 80 men who completed their residency within the two years of the study, the majority (50) left the hostel for positive reasons under mutual agreement. One-fifth were rearrested while resident, which is a lower rate than would be expected for such a group of offenders. PCL-R scores were predictive of outcome, but so was previous offending history. Self-defeating traits on the MCMI-III and negative comments written by hostel staff were also associated with failure. Conclusions,The hostel development demonstrated that probation and health services can work together to manage violent offenders with high levels of psychological dysfunction, and the evaluation provided some indications of how such arrangements might be enhanced. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effect of discordance among violence and general recidivism risk estimates on predictive accuracy

    Jeremy F. Mills
    Introduction,Previous research has shown that the prediction of short-term inpatient violence is negatively affected when clinicians' inter-rater agreement is low and when confidence in the estimate of risk is low. This study examined the effect of discordance between risk assessment instruments used to predict long-term general and violence risk in offenders. Methods,The Psychopathy Checklist , Revised (PCL,R), Level of Service Inventory , Revised (LSI,R), Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), and the General Statistical Information on Recidivism (GSIR) were the four risk-prediction instruments used to predict post-release general and violent recidivism within a sample of 209 offenders. Results,The findings lend empirical support to the assumption that predictive accuracy is threatened where there is discordance between risk estimates. Discordance between instruments had the impact of reducing predictive accuracy for all instruments except the GSIR. Further, the influence of discordance was shown to be greater on certain instruments over others. Discordance had a moderating effect on both the PCL,R and LSI,R but not on the VRAG and GSIR. Conclusions,There is a distinct advantage when attempting to predict recidivism to employing measures such as the LSI-R, which includes dynamic variables and intervention-related criminogenic domains, over a measure purely of fixed characteristics, such as the GSIR; however, if there is discordance between the risk estimates, caution should be exercised and more reliance on the more static historically based instrument may be indicated. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Appraising, researching and conceptualizing criminal thinking: a personal view

    Background,It is argued that current interest in the concept of criminal thinking has its roots in traditional theories of criminology and criminal justice such as Sutherland's differential association model, neutralization theory, and Yochelson and Samenow's criminal personality. Aim,The purpose of this paper is to briefly review and summarize theory, research, and practice on criminal thinking as it relates to the author's work in this area. Conclusions,Three self-report inventories , the Criminal Sentiments Scale (CSS), the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and the Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA); three principal areas of research , criminal thinking as a predictor of criminal behaviour, offence as a moderator of criminal thinking, and changes in criminal thinking leading to changes in criminal behaviour; and a general theory of criminal thinking are briefly reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Criminal cognitions and personality: what does the PICTS really measure?

    Dr Vincent Egan
    Introduction The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is a measure of the criminal cognitions and thinking styles that maintain offending. The scale comprises 8 a priori thinking styles and two validation scales, the validation scales having been found to be unreliable. Owing to the large amount of apparently shared variance in the original validation study, this data matrix needs re-analysis. Results from the PICTS were examined in relation to general measures of individual differences, in order to link the PICTS to the broader literature on the characteristics of offenders. Method The original PICTS data-matrix was re-analysed using a more parsimonious method of analysis. The PICYS was also given to 54 detained, mentally disordered offenders along with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), the Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA) and, as a measure of general intelligence, the Standard Progressive Matrices. Results Principal components analysis suggested that the PICTS really comprised two factors: a lack of thoughtfulness (i.e. lack of attention to one's experience), and wilful hostility, with the first factor being most well defined. Intelligence was not associated with any factor of criminal thinking style. High scores on the ADSA and Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the SSS were associated with much greater endorsement of criminal sentiments; high Neuroticism, low Extroversion, and low Agreeableness were slightly lower correlates. Discussion The issues involved in criminogenic cognitions need clarification and to be linked to the broader literature on cognitive distortions and personality. Interventions targeted at dismantling impulsive destructive behaviour, whether it be thoughtlessness or wilful hostility, may be effected by increasing thinking skills, so breaking down the cognitions that maintain criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Knowledge Life Cycle, Knowledge Inventory, and Knowledge Acquisition Strategies,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 1 2010
    Andrew N. K. Chen
    ABSTRACT For a knowledge- and skill-centric organization, the process of knowledge management encompasses three important and closely related elements: (i) task assignments, (ii) knowledge acquisition through training, and (iii) maintaining a proper level of knowledge inventory among the existing workforce. Trade-off on choices between profit maximization in the short run and agility and flexibility in the long term is a vexing problem in knowledge management. In this study, we examine the effects of different training strategies on short-term operational efficiency and long-term workforce flexibility. We address our research objective by developing a computational model for task and training assignment in a dynamic knowledge environment consisting of multiple distinct knowledge dimensions. Overall, we find that organizational slack is an important variable in determining the effectiveness of training strategies. Training strategies focused on the most recent skills are found to be the preferred option in most of the considered scenarios. Interestingly, increased efficiencies in training can actually create preference conflict between employees and the firm. Our findings indicate that firms facing longer knowledge life cycles, higher slack in workforce capacity, and better training efficiencies actually face more difficult challenges in knowledge management. [source]

    Prevalence and handedness correlates of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors in 13,17-year-old adolescents in Erzurum, Turkey

    Varol Canakci
    Abstract ,,,The objectives of the present study were to explore the relationship between dental trauma and handedness, and to assess the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of 13,17-year-old patients, seeking treatment for various dental conditions in Erzurum, Turkey. A questionnaire focusing on handedness was administered to these patients. Handedness was assessed by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (Oldfield, 1971). Hand preference was divided into two classes for convenience in data analysis: (i) right-handers (GSc from 80 to 100); and (ii) left-handers (GSc from ,80 to ,100). This study included the 13,17-year-old group patients who had GSc as described above. Thus, the present study was carried out on 2180 (1252 male and 928 female, with a mean age of 14.9 years) out of 2392 patients. The clinical examinations and radiographic assessments were performed in full-designed dental chairs. Preliminary analysis showed no differences in rates of handedness with respect to sex and age. Overall, 10.4% of the patients were left-handers. A total of 292 (13.4%) of 2180 patients examined had one or more traumatized permanent incisors. The proportion of dental trauma was significantly higher in males than in females, 17.41% in males as compared to 7.97% in females; and ratio of the affected males to females was about 2.18. Sex difference in the prevalence of traumatized permanent incisors was statistically significant (P < 0.001). That is, males had a significantly higher risk of dental trauma than females (P < 0.001; odds ratio: 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88, 3.23). There was a higher level of traumatized permanent incisors among left-handers than among right-handers. 28.3% of left-handers and 11.7% of right-handers had dental trauma. This difference in the prevalence of traumatized permanent incisors for handedness was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Indeed, left-handers had a significantly higher risk on dental trauma than right-handers (P < 0.001; odds ratio: 3.09; 95% CI 2.23, 4.29). The primary causative factor in the occurrence of trauma was the fall (27.7%). Then came violence and fight as the second most frequent cause of trauma (24%), followed by sports injury (18.8%). Trauma resulting from collisions and traffic accidents were accounted as 13.7 and 11.3% of all cases, respectively. The other causes were 4.5%. In conclusion, the present study suggests that left-handed adolescents have more frequent permanent incisor tooth trauma than right-handed adolescents. Left-handedness, therefore, appears to be a risk factor for trauma in 13,17-year-old adolescents. [source]

    Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly

    P. M. Doraiswamy
    Doraiswamy PM, Bernstein IH, Rush AJ, Kyutoku Y, Carmody TJ, Macleod L, Venkatraman S, Burks M, Stegman D, Witte B, Trivedi MH. Diagnostic utility of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C16 and QIDS-SR16) in the elderly. Objective:, To evaluate psychometric properties and comparability ability of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) vs. the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology,Clinician-rated (QIDS-C16) and Self-report (QIDS-SR16) scales to detect a current major depressive episode in the elderly. Method:, Community and clinic subjects (age ,60 years) were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV and three depression scales randomly. Statistics included classical test and Samejima item response theories, factor analyzes, and receiver operating characteristic methods. Results:, In 229 elderly patients (mean age = 73 years, 39% male, 54% current depression), all three scales were unidimensional and with nearly equal Cronbach , reliability (0.85,0.89). Each scale discriminated persons with major depression from the non-depressed, but the QIDS-C16 was slightly more accurate. Conclusion:, All three tests are valid for detecting geriatric major depression with the QIDS-C16 being slightly better. Self-rated QIDS-SR16 is recommended as a screening tool as it is least expensive and least time consuming. [source]

    Employer burden of mild, moderate, and severe major depressive disorder: mental health services utilization and costs, and work performance,

    Howard G. Birnbaum Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: Treatment utilization/costs and work performance for persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) by severity of illness is not well documented. Methods: Using National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (2001,2002) data, US workforce respondents (n=4,465) were classified by clinical severity (not clinically depressed, mild, moderate, severe) using a standard self-rating scale [Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR)]. Outcomes included 12-month prevalence of medical services/medications use/costs and workplace performance. Treatment costs (employer's perspective) were estimated by weighing utilization measures by unit costs obtained for similar services used by MDD patients in claims data. Descriptive analysis across three severity groups generated ,2 results. Results: Using a sample of 539 US workforce respondents with MDD, 13.8% were classified mild, 38.5% moderate, and 47.7% severe cases. Mental health services usage, including antidepressants, increased significantly with severity, with average treatment costs substantially higher for severe than for mild cases both regarding mental health services ($697 vs. $388, ,2=4.4, P=.019) and antidepressants ($256 vs. $88, ,2=9.0, P=.001). Prevalence rates of unemployment/disability increased significantly (,2=11.7, P=.003) with MDD severity (15.7, 23.3, and 31.3% for mild, moderate, and severe cases). Severely and moderately depressed workers missed more work than nondepressed workers; the monthly salary-equivalent lost performance of $199 (severely depressed) and $188 (moderately depressed) was significantly higher than for nondepressed workers (,2=10.3, P<.001). Projected to the US workforce, monthly depression-related worker productivity losses had human capital costs of nearly $2 billion. Conclusions: MDD severity is significantly associated with increased treatment usage/costs, treatment adequacy, unemployment, and disability and with reduced work performance. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Severity of anxiety and work-related outcomes of patients with anxiety disorders

    Steven R. Erickson PharmD.
    Abstract Background: This study examined associations between anxiety and work-related outcomes in an anxiety disorders clinic population, examining both pretreatment links and the impact of anxiety change over 12 weeks of treatment on work outcomes. Four validated instruments were used to also allow examination of their psychometric properties, with the goal of improving measurement of work-related quality of life in this population. Methods: Newly enrolled adult patients seeking treatment in a university-based anxiety clinic were administered four work performance measures: Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), and Functional Status Questionnaire Work Performance Scale (WPS). Anxiety severity was determined using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The Clinical Global Impressions, Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I) was completed by patients to evaluate symptom change at a 12-week follow-up. Two severity groups (minimal/mild vs. moderate/severe, based on baseline BAI score) were compared to each other on work measures. Results: Eighty-one patients provided complete baseline data. Anxiety severity groups did not differ in job type, time on job, job satisfaction, or job choice. Patients with greater anxiety generally showed lower work performance on all instruments. Job advancement was impaired for the moderate/severe group. The multi-item performance scales demonstrated better validity and internal consistency. The WLQ and the WPAI detected change with symptom improvement. Conclusion: Level of work performance was generally associated with severity of anxiety. Of the instruments tested, the WLQ and the WPAI questionnaire demonstrated acceptable validity and internal reliability. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as an adjuvant to pharmacotherapy in patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder

    Yong Woo Kim M.D.
    Abstract Background: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been widely used to treat patients with depressive disorder to prevent relapse. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of newly developed MBCT program as an adjuvant to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. Methods: Forty-six patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder were assigned to either MBCT or an anxiety disorder education (ADE) program for a period of 8 weeks. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were used to assess the patients at 0 week and after the two programs had been running for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results: The MBCT group demonstrated significantly more improvement than the ADE group according to all anxiety (HAM-A, p<0.01; BAI, p<0.01; anxiety subscale of SCL-90-R, p=0.01) and depression (HAM-D, p<0.01; BDI, p<0.01; depression subscale of SCL-90-R, p<0.01) scale scores. The obsessive-compulsive and phobic subscales of the SCL-90-R also showed significantly more improvement in the MBCT group. However, no significant improvement was observed in the MBCT group versus the ADE group in terms of the somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, or psychoticism subscale scores of the SCL-90-R. Conclusions: MBCT may be effective at relieving anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. However, well-designed, randomized controlled trials are needed. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid social anxiety disorder

    Lenard A. Adler M.D.
    Abstract Background: To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine (ATX) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, conducted in adults with ADHD and social anxiety disorder. Patients received 40,100,mg ATX (n=224) or placebo (n=218) for 14 weeks following a 2-week placebo lead-in period. Efficacy measures included the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale: Investigator-Rated: Screening Version (CAARS:Inv:SV), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Clinical Global Impression-Overall-Severity (CGI-O-S), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report (SAS), and Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale-29 (AAQoL). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results: ATX mean change (,8.7±10.0) from baseline (29.6±10.4) on CAARS:Inv:SV Total ADHD Symptoms score was significantly greater than placebo mean change (,5.6±10.2) from baseline (31.2±9.4; P<.001). ATX mean change (,22.9±25.3) from baseline (85.3±23.6) on LSAS Total score was significant compared to placebo mean change (,14.4±20.3) from baseline (82.1±21.3; P<.001). The visit-wise analysis revealed greater improvement on the CAARS:Inv:SV Total ADHD Symptoms score and LSAS Total score for ATX at every time point throughout the study (P values ,.012). Mean changes in CGI-O-S, STAI-Trait Anxiety scores, and AAQoL Total score were significantly greater for ATX compared to placebo. Mean change for both groups on STAI-State Anxiety scores was comparable. Improvement on SAS for ATX compared to placebo was not significant. Rates of insomnia, nausea, dry mouth, and dizziness were higher with ATX than with placebo. Discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusions: ATX monotherapy effectively improved symptoms of ADHD and comorbid social anxiety disorder in adults and was well tolerated. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The relationship between quality of life and levels of hopelessness and depression in palliative care

    Kyriaki Mystakidou M.D., Ph.D.
    Abstract There is growing interest in the psychological distress and quality of life of cancer patients. The aim of this study was to compare the responses of 102 advanced cancer patients on a quality of life scale (as measured by the SF12) with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), as well as the impact of depression and hopelessness on quality of life. Significant associations were found between gender (P=.027), performance status (P=.003), opioids (P=.002), depression (P<.0005), and hopelessness (P<.0005) with the SF12-Mental Component Score (MCS). Gender (P=.07), metastasis (P=.001), opioids (P=.0005), and education (P=.045) correlated significantly with SF12-Physical Component Score (PCS). In the prediction of MCS, the dimensions of age, hopelessness, gender, and performance status were statistically significantly high (P<.0005), explaining 48% of variance. For PCS, the predictor variables were education, metastasis, and opioids (25% of variance). Quality of life, in this patient population, was predicted by the level of hopelessness and patients' demographic and clinical characteristics. Depression and Anxiety. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sexual dysfunction and physicians' perception in medicated patients with major depression in Taiwan

    Kao Ching Chen M.D.
    Abstract Although prevalent during antidepressant treatment, sexual dysfunction (SD) is frequently ignored by both physicians and patients in Asia. In spite of impact of SD on medicated patients with major depression, sexual issues and illness remain a forbidden topic for most Asian people. The aims of this study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of SD among stable outpatients taking different antidepressants in Taiwan; (2) investigate the factors related to SD; (3) compare physician-perceived with patient-reported prevalence rates of antidepressant-associated SD; and (4) study the differences of SD among antidepressant subgroups. In this cross-sectional observational study, 125 medicated patients with major depression were recruited. Patients were assessed using the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ), Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire (TDQ), Quality of Life Index (QOL), and neuroticism scores in the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI). Sixty-two physicians completed the Physician Antidepressant Experience Questionnaire. The estimated prevalence rate of SD was 53.6% (95% CI = 44.9,62.3%) in medicated patients with major depression. There were no significant differences in prevalence rate of SD among different antidepressants. The SD subgroup had poorer quality of life and lower moods than the non-dysfunction subgroup. An underestimation of the prevalence of SD by physicians was noted. Because antidepressant-associated SD is highly prevalent and seriously underestimated by physicians, greater physicians' recognition and better patients' education are imperative when prescribing antidepressants. Depression and Anxiety. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Parsing the general and specific components of depression and anxiety with bifactor modeling,

    Leonard J. Simms Ph.D.
    Abstract Recent hierarchical models suggest that both general and specific components are needed to fully represent the variation observed among mood and anxiety disorders. However, little is known about the relative size, severity, and psychological meaning of these components. We studied these features through bifactor modeling of the symptoms from the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms [IDAS; Watson et al., 2007] in 362 community adults, 353 psychiatric patients, and 673 undergraduates. Results revealed that although all IDAS symptom types loaded prominently both on a general factor as well as specific factors, some symptom groups,such as dysphoria, generalized anxiety, and irritability,were influenced more strongly by the general factor, whereas others,e.g., appetite gain, appetite loss, and low well-being,contained a larger specific component. Second, certain symptom groups,e.g., Suicidality, Panic, Appetite Loss, and Ill Temper,reflected higher severity than other symptom groups. Finally, general factor scores correlated strongly with markers of general distress and negative emotionality. These findings support a hierarchical structure among mood and anxiety symptoms and have important implications for how such disorders are described, assessed, and studied. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,13, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The catechol o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism modulates the association of serious life events (SLE) and impulsive aggression in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD)

    S. Wagner
    Wagner S, Baskaya Ö, Anicker NJ, Dahmen N, Lieb K, Tadi, A. The catechol o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism modulates the association of serious life events (SLE) and impulsive aggression in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Objective:, We analyzed i) the effects of serious life events (SLE) on impulsive aggression, and ii) modulating effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on the association between SLEs and impulsive aggression in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method:, One hundred and twelve female BPD patients from Germany were included in this study. Impulsive aggression was assessed by the Buss-Durkee-Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Results:, Childhood sexual abuse was associated with lower BDHI sum score (P = 0.003). In COMT Val158Val carriers, but not in Val/Met and Met/Met carriers, childhood sexual abuse and the cumulative number of SLEs were associated with lower BDHI sum scores (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, This study analyzing a specific gene × environment interaction in female BPD patients suggests an association between SLEs and impulsive aggression, as well as a modulating effect of the COMT Val158Val genotype on the relation between SLEs and impulsive aggression. [source]