Invasive Therapy (invasive + therapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Long-term results of three different minimally invasive therapies for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: Comparison at a single institute

Takashi Ohigashi
Objective: We analyzed the efficacy and durability of three different minimally invasive therapies (MIT) for lower urinary symptoms performed at a single institution based on a 5-year prospective cohort study. Methods: The pre- and postoperative evaluation was made in 103 patients with the following three MIT options: (i) transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT, n = 34); (ii) transurethral needle ablation (TUNA, n = 29); and (iii) transrectal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, n = 40). Results: All three treatments significantly improved the symptom scores up to 2 years after treatment. However, no statistical difference was observed in the efficacy between MIT. The percentage of men requiring the secondary treatment also showed no statistical differences. Cox's proportional hazards multivariate regression model revealed the baseline peak flow rate (Qmax) and total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) but the types of MIT are independent significant factors for determining the long-term clinical results of MIT. Conclusion: Our data showed no statistical differences in either the efficacy or in the durability between the three MIT. The baseline Qmax and total IPSS are the significant factors for determining the long-term results of MIT. [source]

Review article: pain and chronic pancreatitis

Summary Background, Pain in chronic pancreatitis chronic pancreatitis is a frustrating and challenging symptom for both the patient and clinician. It is the most frequent and most significant symptom. Many patients fail the currently available conservative options and require opiates or endoscopic/surgical therapy. Aim, To highlight the pathophysiology and management of chronic pancreatitis pain, with an emphasis on recent developments and future directions. Methods, Expert review, utilizing in addition a comprehensive search of PubMed utilizing the search terms chronic pancreatitis and pain, treatment or management and a manual search of recent conference abstracts for articles describing pain and chronic pancreatitis. Results, Pancreatic pain is heterogenous in its manifestations and pathophysiology. First-line medical options include abstinence from alcohol and tobacco, pancreatic enzymes, adjunctive agents, antioxidants, and non-opiate or low potency opiate analgesics. Failure of these options is not unusual. More potent opiates, neurolysis and endoscopic and surgical options can be considered in selected patients, but this requires appropriate expertise. New and better options are needed. Future options could include new types of pancreatic enzymes, novel antinociceptive agents nerve growth factors, mast cell-directed therapy, treatments to limit fibrinogenesis and therapies directed at the central component of pain. Conclusions, Chronic pancreatitis pain remains difficult to treat. An approach utilizing conservative medical therapies is appropriate, with more invasive therapies reserved for failure of this conservative approach. Treatment options will continue to improve with new and novel therapies on the horizon. [source]

Indication of Endoscopic Papillectomy for Tumors of the Papilla of Vater and Its Problems

Discussions have just started in Japan as to the indication, technique and complication of endoscopic papillectomy for tumors of the papilla of Vater. We indicate endoscopic papillectomy for tumors satisfying the following: 1exposed tumor-type adenoma, or carcinoma in adenoma; 2without invasion of duodenal muscularis; and 3no infiltration into the pancreas or the bile duct. Endoscopic papillectomy was performed on 12 patients with tumors of the papilla of Vater that satisfied the above criteria. En bloc snare excision was achieved in 11 out of 12 cases without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) or epinephrine injection. Pancreatic stenting was done in 8 cases for prevention of pancreatitis, and bile duct stenting in nine cases for prevention of cholangitis. Postoperative early complications were observed in 5 cases; pancreatitis in 2; pancreatitis and bleeding in 1; bleeding in 1; and bleeding and perforation in 1. Neither recurrence nor metastasis of tumor has been detected during the average postoperative period of 620 days. The treatment can be acknowledged as less invasive therapy. However, management of complications is important, for which further study needs to be accumulated. [source]

Sumatriptan in Patients With Postdural Puncture Headache

HEADACHE, Issue 4 2000
Neil Roy Connelly MD
Objective.,To determine the efficacy of sumatriptan in the management of patients presenting for an epidural blood patch for the management of postdural puncture headache. Background.,Postdural puncture headache can be quite severe, requiring invasive therapy (ie, epidural blood patch). Sumatriptan has been used successfully in patients with postdural puncture headache, however, its use has not been investigated in a controlled fashion. Methods.,Ten patients with postdural puncture headache presenting for an epidural blood patch were given either saline or sumatriptan subcutaneously. The severity of the headache was evaluated at baseline and 1 hour following injection. If the headache remained severe, an epidural blood patch was performed. Results.,Only one patient in each group received relief from the injection. Conclusions.,We do not recommend sumatriptan in patients who have exhausted conservative management of postdural puncture headache. [source]

Herpes zoster in older adults. (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC) Clinical Infectious Diseases.

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 4 2001
1486., 2001;32:148
Herpes zoster (HZ) strikes millions of older adults annually worldwide and disables a substantial number of them via postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Key aged-related clinical, epidemiological, and treatment features of zoster and PHN are reviewed in this article. HZ is caused by renewed replication and spread of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in sensory ganglia and afferent peripheral nerves in the setting of age-related, disease-related, and drug-related decline in cellular immunity to VZV. VZV-induced neuronal destruction and inflammation causes the principal problems of pain, interference with activities in daily living, and reduced quality of life in elderly patients. Recently, attempts to reduce or eliminate HZ pain have been bolstered by the findings of clinical trials that antiviral agents and corticosteroids are effective treatment for HZ and that tricyclic antidepressants, topical lidocaine, gabapentin, and opiates are effective treatment for PHN. Although these advances have helped, PHN remains a difficult condition to prevent and treat in many elderly patients. Comment by Miles Day, M.D. This article reviews the epidemiology clinical features diagnosis and treatment of acute herpes zoster. It also describes the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. While this is a good review for the primary care physician, the discussion for the treatment for both acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia do not mention invasive therapy. It is well documented in pain literature that sympathetic blocks with local anesthetic and steroid as well as subcutaneous infiltration of active zoster lesions not only facilitate the healing of acute herpes zoster but also prevents or helps decrease the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia. All patients who present to the primary care physician with acute herpes zoster should have an immediate referral to a pain management physician for invasive therapy. The treatment of postherpetic neuralgia is a challenging experience both for the patient and the physician. While the treatments that have been discussed in this article are important, other treatments are also available. Regional nerve blocks including intercostal nerve blocks, root sleeve injections, and sympathetic blocks have been used in the past to treat postherpetic neuralgia. If these blocks are helpful, one can proceed with doing crynourlysis of the affected nerves or also radio-frequency lesioning. Spinal cord stimulation has also been used for those patients who are refractory to noninvasive and invasive therapy. While intrathecal methylprednisolone was shown to be effective in the study quoted in this article one must be cautious not to do multiple intrathecal steroid injections in these patients. Multilple intrathecal steroid injections can lead to archnoiditis secondary to the accumulation of the steroid on the nerve roots and in turn causing worsening pain. [source]

POINT: A Prescription to Decrease Left Ventricular Function

Myrvin H. Ellestad MD
The Courage Trial, published in 2007, has significantly reduced the incidence of treating stable angina with angioplasty. The investigators randomized 2297 patients with documented cardiac ischemia to conservative or invasive therapy and concluded that there was no difference in major events during a follow-up of 2.5 to 7 years and that the urge to open the narrowed artery was unjustified. Over the years it has been well documented by myocardial biopsy that repeated ischemic episodes result in replacement of myocardial cells by fibrous tissue, loss of mitochondria, and deterioration of left ventricular function. Ischemic episodes often occur in the absence of angina so that it is impossible to determine whether the therapy is reducing the magnitude or duration of the process. Also, in their study, 32% of the conservatively treated patients crossed over to invasive. The evidence indicated that conservative treatment may result in a progressive decrease in left ventricular function. [source]

Ultrasound for Accurate Measurement of Invasive Breast Cancer Tumor Size

Ashraf Shoma FRCS
Abstract: Accurate presurgical assessment of tumor size is important for choosing appropriate treatment, especially with the increasing use of neoadjuvant and minimally invasive therapy. Breast sonography is increasingly used by breast surgeons as a part of their basic clinical evaluation. We undertook this study to compare clinical evaluation, mammography, and breast sonography for evaluating breast tumor size. A prospective analysis of 124 consecutive patients with palpable breast cancer was performed. Tumor masses belonging to T1 and small T2 were selectively selected. All women had clinical, mammographic, and sonographic assessment of tumor size. Measurements were compared to the pathologic tumor size of the surgical specimen. Both mammographic and sonographic measurements tend to underestimate tumor size, while clinical assessment tends to overestimate it. Ultrasound was significantly more accurate in determining tumor size. The maximal tumor diameter measured was within 2 mm of the pathologic tumor size in 45.2% of cases measured by breast ultrasound, 28.2% of cases measured by mammography, and 14.5% of cases measured clinically. These data suggest that ultrasound is more accurate than clinical breast examination and mammography in assessing breast cancer size. Ultrasound assessment should be used by surgeons as an accurate adjunct to clinical examination in outpatient breast clinics. [source]

Differential Classification of Acute Myocardial Infarction into ST- and Non-ST Segment Elevation Is Not Valid or Rational

Brendan Phibbs M.D., F.A.C.C.
Background: The distinction between ST elevation and nonST elevation infarcts is widely accepted and is employed as a guide to management. Aim: This is review of the world literature to assess the basis for this distinction, since the two studies on which it is based are seriously flawed in method and conclusions. Method: Pathologic and clinical studies were reviewed from the world literature. Finding: The pathology of the two subsets is identical as are the morbidity, mortality and clinical course. Non-ST elevation infarcts are likely to be subsequent, to occur in older patients and to involve the circumflex artery: this subset therefore includes a high-risk group. ST deviation in any part of the electric field of the heart will predictably be accompanied by reciprocal deviation if the entire field of the heart is mapped. Further, ST deviation of infarction is often transient, resolving in minutes so that infarcts will be predictably misclassified. ST deviation per se is therefore not a rational basis for classification of infarcts. In fact, invasive therapy is indicated in both subsets with identical results. Conclusion: The distinction between ST elevation and non-ST elevation infarcts is baseless. The high risk subgroup included in the non-ST elevation infarct set should not be denied the benefit of early invasive therapy. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2010;15(3):191,199 [source]

Short-term outcome after high-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of patients with high-risk prostate cancer

Vincenzo Ficarra
OBJECTIVE To assess the short-term outcome in patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated by transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). PATIENTS AND METHODS From April 2003 to November 2004, 30 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study; all had transurethral resection of the prostate before transrectal HIFU treatment, using the Ablatherm device (EDAP, Lyon, France) during the same session, associated with hormonal therapy with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues. After the procedure, all the patients were evaluated every 3 months by physical examination, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay and a continence questionnaire. The follow-up schedule also included a transperineal prostate biopsy 6 months after the treatment. All the patients had a minimum follow-up of 12 months. RESULTS The HIFU treatment took a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 140 (100,160) min. No complications were reported during treatment. The mean (IQR) hospitalization was 2.2 (1,4) days, and the suprapubic drainage tube was removed after 12 (7,18) days. The complications after treatment were: urinary tract infections in five patients (16%), stenosis of the intraprostatic and membranous urethra in three (10%), and secondary infravesical obstruction in four (13%). At 12 months after the procedure, 28 patients (93%) were continent. Seven of the 30 men (23%) had a positive prostate biopsy. At the 1-year follow-up only three of the 30 patients with high-risk prostate cancer had a PSA level of >0.3 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS HIFU is a modern, minimally invasive therapy for prostate cancer, often used in selected patients with localized disease. The present results show that HIFU was also feasible in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. The low complication rates and favourable functional outcome support the planning of further larger studies in such patients. The oncological efficacy of HIFU should be assessed in further studies with a longer follow-up. [source]

Polymorphisms in the ,1A -adrenoceptor gene do not modify the short- and long-term efficacy of ,1 -adrenoceptor antagonists in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

OBJECTIVE To determine whether a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ADRA1A gene encoding the ,1A -adrenoceptor modifies the short- and long-term efficacy of ,1 -adrenoceptor antagonists in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PATIENTS AND METHODS For 254 patients with BPH and/or lower urinary tract symptoms who received ,1 -adrenergic antagonists for ,,3 months, the ADRA1A genotype at position 1475 of the coding region was determined. The patients' short-term response to treatment was determined for four outcome measures, i.e. the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the IPSS quality-of-life score, peak urinary flow rate, and obstruction grade, stratified by genotype. Eventual BPH-related invasive therapy was used as the outcome for assessing the long-term response to treatment. Genetic variants at positions 834, 896, 898 and 1831 were too rare to be considered in the analysis. RESULTS There were no significant differences for the genotype strata in three of the four outcome measures. Patients with the CC genotype responded significantly better in quality-of-life perception than patients with the CT or TT genotype. There were also no significant differences in the risk of BPH-related invasive therapy among the three genotypes. CONCLUSIONS The 1475C,T SNP in the ADRA1A gene does not modify the short- and long-term efficacy of ,1 -adrenoceptor antagonists for treating BPH. There was a small effect on perceived quality of life but this was not reflected in other variables that measured the treatment response more directly. [source]

Treatment of recurrent colorectal liver metastases by interstitial laser photocoagulation

A. Shankar
Background: Hepatic resection improves survival in selected patients with colorectal liver metastases. The treatment of recurrent hepatic metastases after resection is controversial. Interstitial laser photocoagulation, performed under local anaesthesia, offers a minimally invasive option to repeat resection. The first series of patients with recurrent colorectal liver metastases treated with photocoagulation is reported. Methods: Nineteen patients (five women and 14 men, median age 57 (range 44,71) years) who developed recurrent colorectal liver metastases after hepatectomy (five with bilateral disease) were treated with photocoagulation between 1993 and 1997. Fifteen patients also received chemotherapy (14 systemic, one hepatic arterial) before photocoagulation. Results: There were no major complications or deaths related to the treatment. Six patients developed minor complications related to the procedure but did not require any form of intervention. Median survival from commencement of photocoagulation was 16 (range 4,36) months. Conclusion: Photocoagulation is a safe, minimally invasive therapy that may be used as an adjunct to chemotherapy and repeat resection in the treatment of recurrent colorectal liver metastases, and may lead to improved survival. 2000 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]