Invasive Techniques (invasive + techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Infection with Fasciola hepatica

D. Y. Aksoy
Abstract Fascioliasis, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, is an infection that occurs worldwide, although humans are accidental hosts. F. hepatica infection comprises two stages, hepatic and biliary, with different signs and symptoms. Stool examination and ELISA can be used for the initial diagnosis. Radiographic techniques, such as computerised tomography and ultrasonography, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, are used widely for confirmation and follow-up of the disease. Invasive techniques, such as percutaneous cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and liver biopsy, may aid in the diagnosis but are not essential. Triclabendazole is recommended as the first-line agent for the treatment of F. hepatica infection, with bithionol as an alternative. [source]

Medical imaging and MRI in nail disorders: report of 119 cases and review of the literature

Bertrand Richert
Radiographs remain the golden standard for exploration of the bony structures located beneath the nail plate, but they provide no information on the perionychium. Until a few years ago the nail apparatus was deprived of investigative medical imaging. Glomus tumor was the only condition that was explored using invasive techniques such as angiography or scintigraphy. High-frequency ultrasound rapidly came up against technical limits. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a superior alternative in detection of distal lesions as well as their relationship with the adjacent structures. MRI provides an accurate analysis of the nail apparatus with detection of lesions as small as 1 mm. This noninvasive technique will allow us to better understand, diagnose, and treat pathologies of the distal phalanx. [source]

Current management of esophageal perforation: 20 years experience

A. Eroglu
SUMMARY Esophageal perforations are surgical emergencies associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. No single strategy has been sufficient to deal with the majority of situations. We aim to postulate a therapeutic algorithm for this complication based on 20 years of experience and also on data from published literature. We performed a retrospective clinical review of 44 patients treated for esophageal perforation at our hospital between January 1989 and May 2008. We reviewed the characteristics of these patients, including age, gender, accompanying diseases, etiology of perforation, diagnosis, location, time interval between perforation and diagnosis, treatment of the perforation, morbidity, hospital mortality, and duration of hospitalization. Perforation occurred in the cervical esophagus in 14 patients (31.8%), thoracic esophagus in 18 patients (40.9%), and abdominal esophagus in 12 patients (27.3%). Management of the esophageal perforation included primary closure in 23 patients (52.3%), resection in 7 patients (15.9%), and nonsurgical therapy in 14 patients (31.8%). In the surgically treated group, the mortality rate was 3 of 30 patients (10%), and 2 of 14 patients (14.3%) in the conservatively managed group. Four of the 14 nonsurgical patients were inserted with covered self-expandable stents. The specific treatment of an esophageal perforation should be selected according to each individual patient. To date, the most effective treatment would appear to be operative management. With improvements in endoscopic procedures, the morbidity and mortality rates of esophageal perforations are significantly decreased. We suggest that minimally invasive techniques for the repair of esophageal perforations will be very important in the future treatment of this condition. [source]

Angiolipoma of the esophagus: a rare clinical dilemma

E. H. Jensen
SUMMARY., Benign tumors of the esophagus are a rare but diverse group of lesions. Although non-malignant in biology, their presence can cause significant morbidity, including dysphagia, bleeding, gastrointestinal obstruction, and even asphyxiation. Diagnosis is frequently made using radiographic and endoscopic means, even in the absence of definitive biopsy. If discovered early, endoscopic or minimally invasive techniques may be used to excise these lesions, with essentially 100% cure rates. However, if discovered late, open excision or even esophagectomy may be required. Angiolipoma represents perhaps one of the rarest of the benign entities to affect the esophagus, with only a few cases reported in the current literature. We present the case of an 85-year-old man who developed complete esophageal obstruction due to a large, pedunculated angiolipoma, requiring open surgical excision. [source]

Current status of minimally invasive necrosectomy for post-inflammatory pancreatic necrosis

HPB, Issue 2 2009
Benoy Idicula Babu
Abstract Objective:, This paper reviews current knowledge on minimally invasive pancreatic necrosectomy. Background:, Blunt (non-anatomical) debridement of necrotic tissue at laparotomy is the standard method of treatment of infected post-inflammatory pancreatic necrosis. Recognition that laparotomy may add to morbidity by increasing postoperative organ dysfunction has led to the development of alternative, minimally invasive methods for debridement. This study reports the status of minimally invasive necrosectomy by different approaches. Methods:, Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for the period 1996,2008 were undertaken. Only studies with original data and information on outcome were included. This produced a final population of 28 studies reporting on 344 patients undergoing minimally invasive necrosectomy, with a median (range) number of patients per study of nine (1,53). Procedures were categorized as retroperitoneal, endoscopic or laparoscopic. Results:, A total of 141 patients underwent retroperitoneal necrosectomy, of whom 58 (41%) had complications and 18 (13%) required laparotomy. There were 22 (16%) deaths. Overall, 157 patients underwent endoscopic necrosectomy; major complications were reported in 31 (20%) and death in seven (5%). Laparoscopic necrosectomy was carried out in 46 patients, of whom five (11%) required laparotomy and three (7%) died. Conclusions:, Minimally invasive necrosectomy is technically feasible and a body of evidence now suggests that acceptable outcomes can be achieved. There are no comparisons of results, either with open surgery or among different minimally invasive techniques. [source]

Identification of priorities for nursing research in Spain: a Delphi study*

Teresa Moreno-Casbas MSc RN
Identification of priorities for nursing research in Spain: a Delphi study Aim.,The aim of this work was to identify priorities for nursing research in Spain. The Co-ordination and Development of Nursing Research Centre (Investén-isciii group) carried out the study using the Delphi technique during the period April 1998 to January 1999. Methods.,Study subjects were professionals involved in different nursing activities. From 1250 eligible professionals initially contacted, 452 (38%) responded in round 1 and 258 (57%) in round 2. But only 189 filled out correctly the questionnaires from both rounds of data collection (overall response rate was 21·6%). Results.,The participants identified priorities related to continuity and co-ordination of nursing care, quality of nursing care, impact of invasive techniques and treatments on the quality of life of patients, needs of the primary care givers, quality of life among elders, satisfaction of customers and needs of terminal patients and their families. [source]

The potential for non-invasive study of mummies: validation of the use of computerized tomography by post factum dissection and histological examination of a 17th century female Korean mummy

Do-Seon Lim
Abstract The socio-cultural antipathies of some descendants with regard to invasive examinations of age-old human remains make permission for dissection of Korean mummies of the Joseon Dynasty (1392,1910) difficult to obtain. Overcoming this obstacle necessitated the use of non-invasive techniques, such as multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic examination, enabling determination of the preservation status of internal organs of mummies without significantly damaging the mummies themselves. However, MDCT alone cannot clearly differentiate specific mummified organs. Therefore, in much the same way as diagnostic radiologists make their MDCT readings on living patients more reliable by means of comparison with accumulated post-factum data from autopsies or histological studies, examinations of mummies by invasive techniques should not be decried as mere destruction of age-old human remains. Rather, providing that due permission from descendants and/or other relevant authorities can be obtained, dissection and histological examination should be performed whenever opportunities arise. Therefore, in this study, we compared the radiological data acquired from a 17th century mummy with our dissection results for the same subject. As accumulation of this kind of data could be very crucial for correct interpretation of MDCT findings on Korean mummies, we will perform similar trials on other Korean mummies found in forthcoming days if conditions permit. [source]

Endoscopic investigation of the internal organs of a 15th-century child mummy from Yangju, Korea

Seok Bae Kim
Abstract Our previous reports on medieval mummies in Korea have provided information on their preservation status. Because invasive techniques cannot easily be applied when investigating such mummies, the need for non-invasive techniques incurring minimal damage has increased among researchers. Therefore, we wished to confirm whether endoscopy, which has been used in non-invasive and minimally invasive studies of mummies around the world, is an effective tool for study of Korean mummies as well. In conducting an endoscopic investigation on a 15th-century child mummy, we found that well-preserved internal organs remained within the thoracic, abdominal and cranial cavities. The internal organs , including the brain, spinal cord, lung, muscles, liver, heart, intestine, diaphragm and mesentery , were easily investigated by endoscopy. Even the stool of the mummy, which accidentally leaked into the abdominal cavity during an endoscopic biopsy, was clearly observed. In addition, unusual nodules were found on the surface of the intestines and liver. Our current study therefore showed that endoscopic observation could provide an invaluable tool for the palaeo-pathological study of Korean mummies. This technique will continue to be used in the study of medieval mummy cases in the future. [source]

Aging well , the role of minimally invasive aesthetic dermatological procedures in women over 65

Uwe Wollina MD
Summary Background, The western world is getting older. Aging well has become the new target of preventative medicine. Aesthetic dermatology can contribute to this quest. Females over 65 represent an important and growing group of consumers of cosmetic procedures. In this group, there is a paucity of scientific evaluation of aesthetic procedures. Objective, To review the use of minimally invasive procedures for facial rejuvenation in women over 65. Methods, Drawing from both the literature and personal experience, the opportunities, modifications, and limitations of minimally invasive techniques for facial rejuvenation in older women are considered. Results, In this older age group, dermal fillers, chemical and laser peels, and nonablative photorejuvenation remain useful and can each be used as stand-alone treatments. In this age group, botulinum toxin (BTX) injections are more often used in combination with other procedures. Conclusions, With respect to aesthetic procedures, women over 65 are different from younger women. More scientific investigation is necessary to better meet needs of this growing part of the population. Available data suggest that aesthetic dermatology can make a major contribution to the complex matter of aging well. [source]

ADVANCES IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: New endoscopic and surgical treatment options for early esophageal adenocarcinoma

Susan Gan
Abstract Although the outcome for advanced stage esophageal cancer is poor, the early detection and treatment of early stage disease is usually associated with a much better outcome. Until recently, esophagectomy has been the treatment of choice in fit patients. However, morbidity is significant, and this has encouraged the development of newer endoscopic treatments that preserve the esophagus. These techniques include ablation and mucosal resection. Promising results are described, and endoscopic methods might provide a reasonable alternative for the treatment of early esophageal cancer. However, follow-up remains short and endoscopic treatment does not deal with potential lymphatic spread. Hence, careful selection is required. Minimally invasive techniques for esophageal resection have also been shown to be feasible, although there is only limited evidence that they reduce postoperative morbidity. Better data are still required to demonstrate improved outcomes from endoscopic treatment and minimally invasive esophagectomy. [source]

A study on plucked hair as a substrate for direct immunofluorescence in pemphigus vulgaris

M Daneshpazhooh
Abstract Background, It has recently been demonstrated in a study on 15 patients that plucked hair can be used as a substrate for direct immunofluorescence (DIF) in pemphigus. Objective, Our aim was to assess the sensitivity of DIF on plucked hairs in pemphigus vulgaris (PV) patients with positive DIF of oral mucosa. Methods, One hundred and ten new PV patients were enrolled in the study. They all showed the typical clinical and histological findings as well as positive DIF of the oral mucosa, diagnostic for PV. Approximately 30 hairs were obtained in the same way as for the trichogram. The hairs with their outer root sheaths (ORS) were processed for DIF in order to detect immunoglobulin G and C3. Results, Immunodeposits favouring PV were demonstrated in the ORS of 100 cases showing a sensitivity of 91%. Conclusion, Regarding the relatively high sensitivity of DIF on plucked hair in PV patients with positive oral mucosal DIF in our study, it seems that hair plucking is a suitable alternative to the more invasive techniques of skin or mucosal biopsy for obtaining specimens for DIF in PV. Conflicts of interest None declared [source]

Transarterial Coil Embolization of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Small Dogs with 0.025-Inch Vascular Occlusion Coils: 10 Cases

Daniel F. Hogan
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital cardiac disease in the dog and generally leads to severe clinical signs, including left-sided congestive heart failure. Historically, definitive treatment consisted of surgical ligation; however, the use of vascular occlusion devices by minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity in veterinary medicine during the past decade. Adequate vascular access is a major limiting factor for these minimally invasive techniques, precluding their use in very small dogs. The clinical management of PDA with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils in a minimally invasive transarterial technique in 10 dogs is described. The dogs were small (1.38 ± 0.22 kg), were generally young (6.70 ± 5.74 months), and had small minimal ductal diameters (1.72 ± 0.81 mm from angiography). Vascular access was achieved, and coil deployment was attempted in all dogs with a 3F catheter uncontrolled release system. Successful occlusion, defined as no angiographic residual flow, was accomplished in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Successful occlusion was not achieved in 2 dogs (20%), and both dogs experienced embolization of coils into the pulmonary arterial tree. One of these dogs died during the procedure, whereas the other dog underwent a successful surgical correction. We conclude that transarterial PDA occlusion in very small dogs is possible with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils by means of a 3F catheter system and that it represents a viable alternative to surgical ligation. The risk of pulmonary arterial embolization is higher with this uncontrolled release system, but this risk may decrease with experience. [source]

Systematic review: open, small-incision or laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis

Summary Background, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the method of choice for gallbladder removal, although evidence of superiority over open and small-incision cholecystectomy is lacking. Aim, To compare the effects of open, small-incision and laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques for patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Methods, We conducted updated searches until January 2007 in multiple databases. We assessed bias risk. Results, Fifty-nine trials randomized 5556 patients. No significant differences in primary outcomes (mortality and complications) were found among all three techniques. Both minimal invasive techniques show advantages over open cholecystectomy in terms of convalescence. Small-incision cholecystectomy showed shorter operative time compared with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (random effects, weighted mean difference, 16.4 min; 95% confidence interval, 8.9,23.8), but the two techniques did not differ regarding hospital stay and conversions. Conclusions, No significant differences in mortality and complications were found among all three techniques. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and small-incision cholecystectomy are preferred over open cholecystectomy for quicker convalescence. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and small-incision cholecystectomy show no clear differences on patient outcomes. [source]

Pressure-rate product and phase angle as measures of acute inspiratory upper airway obstruction in rhesus monkeys

FAAP, Patrick A. Ross MD
Abstract Rationale There are limited validated, objective, and minimally invasive techniques for the bedside evaluation of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in sick infants, despite its frequency in pediatric medicine. Prior techniques include pressure-rate product (PRP), a product of esophageal pressure and respiratory rate and phase angles (PAs), a measure of asynchrony between ribcage and abdominal respiratory movements in infants with UAO. The purpose of this study is to validate the PRP and compare it to a previously validated PA in rhesus monkeys. Methods Calibrated resistors were applied to the inspiratory limb of 10 anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing rhesus monkeys (weight 8.7,±,2.5,kg). Airway pressure, respiratory rate, PAs, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were recorded. Obstruction was applied in random order as 0, 5, 20, 200, 500, and 1,000,cmH2O/L/sec for 2-min periods, the last 15,sec (10,20 breaths) were analyzed for each timeframe. Results PA increased significantly at the 200,cmH2O/L/sec level but it reached a plateau above 500,cmH2O/L/sec. PRP rose progressively and was significantly different at all levels of obstruction. Esophageal pressure change was progressively and statistically significantly different from baseline and each other at 200, 500, and 1,000,cmH2O/L/sec (P,<,0.001). Conclusions In this model of UAO, PRP tracks increasing inspiratory load better than PA. PRP continued to be linear up through the highest inspiratory resistance where the change in PA reached a plateau before the highest load. The assessment of esophageal pressure changes may offer the simplest objective measure of UAO. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010; 45:639,644. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Endoscopic laser coagulation of feeding vessels in large placental chorioangiomas: report of three cases and review of invasive treatment options

Waldo Sepulveda
Abstract Objective To report three cases of large placental chorioangiomas managed with endoscopic laser coagulation of the feeding vessels, and review the literature regarding cases of chorioangioma treated with invasive techniques. Methods Intrauterine endoscopic surgery was performed using a 2.5-mm fetoscope under epidural anesthesia. Coagulation of the feeding vessels was attempted with laser energy, and the operation was completed with amniodrainage. Results The feeding vessels were successfully coagulated in one case, resulting in a term delivery. Histopathologic examination of the placenta confirmed a capillary chorioangioma with extensive necrosis. There were intraoperative complications in the other two cases, including bleeding at the site of coagulation requiring intrauterine transfusion in one, and incomplete vascular ablation in the other. In the former case the infant was born prematurely and developed chronic renal insufficiency. In the latter, the fetus died within the first week of the surgery. Conclusions There are limited interventions available for the management of large, symptomatic placental chorioangiomas. Although they can be treated with endoscopic laser coagulation of the feeding vessels, fetal bleeding, exsanguination, and death are potential complications of the procedure; therefore, this technique should be used with caution. The role of this treatment modality in the early devascularization of placental chorioangiomas prior to the development of significant complications warrants consideration. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Robotic systems in total hip arthroplasty , is the time ripe for a new approach?

F Mantwill
Abstract The technical aspects of manual total hip arthroplasty are briefly described. The development, technique and technical problems of previous robotic systems in total hip arthroplasty are described with special details of the Robodoc® - System(1). Recent advances regarding the minimally invasive technique of total-hip implantation and navigation are described. The current development of a robotic assisted system for total hip arthroplasty is presented. This project aims to combine the advantages of minimally invasive techniques and navigational systems with the accuracy that robotic assisted bone milling can provide. The project-name is RomEo© (Robotic minimally invasive Endoprosthetics), the main project partners are the Helmut-Schmidt-University/Hamburg and the Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics of the BG Trauma Hospital Hamburg. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Outcome of minimally invasive management of salivary calculi in 4,691 patients

Heinrich Iro MD
Abstract Objective: To evaluate the application of minimally invasive techniques in the management of salivary stones. Background: The incidence of salivary calculi is 60 cases/million/year, with most stones situated in the mid or proximal duct. The current treatment of these stones is adenectomy. This paper reports the results of minimally invasive methods of stone removal that avoid gland excision. Methods: Observational study of 5,528 consecutive patients treated by lithotripsy, endoscopy, basket retrieval, and /or surgery in five centers from 1990 to 2004 inclusive. A total of 567cases were excluded, leaving 4,691 patients (parotid n = 1,165, submandibular n = 3,526) for analysis. Results: Salivary calculi were eliminated in 3,775/4,691 (80.5%) of cases and partly cleared in 782/4,691 (16.7%). Salivary glands were removed in 134/4,691 (2.9%) of patients with symptoms in whom treatment failed. Conclusions: Minimally invasive techniques move treatment of salivary calculi to an outpatient or a day case setting. They are reliable ways of both retrieving stones and eliminating symptoms, and mean that the gland rarely has to be removed. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]

The impact of the evolution of invasive surgical procedures for low back pain: a population based study of patient outcomes and hospital utilization

Rachael Elizabeth Moorin
Abstract Background:, Low back pain (LBP) is a ubiquitous health problem in Western societies, and while clinical decision making for patients requiring hospitalization for LBP has changed significantly over the past two decades, knowledge of the net impact on patient outcomes and health care utilization is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of changes in the medical control of lumbar back pain in Western Australia in terms of the rate of patient readmission and the total bed days associated with readmissions. Methods:, A record linkage population-based study of hospitalization for LBP from 1980,2003 in Western Australia was performed. The rate of admission for LBP, changes in re-admission rates and number of bed days accrued 1 and 3 years post-initial admission over time adjusted for potential confounders was evaluated. Results:, The annual rate of first-time hospitalization for LBP halved. The proportion of females admitted increased (+6%). The disease severity increased and the proportion of individuals having an invasive procedure also increased (+75%) over the study period. While rate of readmission for non-invasive procedures fell, readmission for invasive procedures increased over the study period. Overall, the number of bed days associated with readmission reduced over time. Conclusion:, Between 1980 and 2003, there has been a shift from non-invasive procedural treatments towards invasive techniques both at the time of initial hospitalization and upon subsequent readmission. While overall readmission rates were unaffected, there was a reduction in the number of bed days associated with readmissions. [source]


Mark Clayer
Background: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are a rare condition in adolescents and teenagers but may result in pain, fracture and growth abnormalities. The gold standard of open curettage carries the risk of surgical complications and still a local recurrence rate of 20,30%. Percutaneous treatment of ABC have rarely been reported and a poor response the usual outcome. This study investigated a new technique of percutaneous aspiration and injection of ABC using an aqueous solution of calcium sulphate. Methods: A radiological diagnosis of a bone cyst was made in 15 consecutive patients and pathologically confirmed as ABC. Most had already sustained a fracture and/or had been previously unsuccessfully treated by minimally invasive techniques including embolization or methylprednisolone injection. The procedure of aspiration and injection with calcium sulphate was undertaken, and the patients were reviewed regularly both clinically and radiologically for a minimum of 2 years. Results: The calcium sulphate cement was reabsorbed completely within 8 weeks. The first osseous response was periosteal new bone formation circumferentially followed by gradual opacification of the cystic cavity. All except one patient that described pain before the procedure reported complete relief of symptoms by 4 weeks. Two patients developed a local recurrence of the cyst, and one subsequently developed a pathological fracture. Two patients sustained pathological fractures through healed cysts, 12 and 22 months after the procedure, respectively. Conclusions: This new technique has shown good early clinical and radiological responses and a low complication rate in a consecutive group of patients with ABC. [source]

Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism using carbon track localization

Robert J. Kennedy
Background: The present study documents the use of carbon tracking to localize parathyroid adenomas in three patients with persistent or recurrent parathyroid disease. Methods: Three patients requiring second or third operations for hyperparathyroidism were operated upon after the parathyroid lesion had been localized preoperatively using a suspension of carbon particles in water. The enlarged parathyroid glands were identified by using one or more of the following: computed axial tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound or Sestamibi nuclear scan. The lesion was then localized with ultrasound or computed axial tomography and a carbon track was inserted from the lesion to the skin, leaving a small skin tattoo as a marker for the surgeon. Each patient underwent a minimally invasive parathyroid operation. Results: For each of the three patients the recurrent or persistent parathyroid adenoma was successfully identified and removed via a small incision. Conclusion: Minimally invasive techniques for primary hyperparathyroidism are changing our approach to parathyroid surgery. However, a minimally invasive technique is less applicable when the disease is persistent or recurrent. Although, when the recurrent or persistent parathyroid adenoma can be identified, localization and carbon tracking have proved useful in allowing the surgeon to remove the lesion via a minimally invasive technique. [source]

Original Article: Randomised prospective study of abdominal wall closure in patients with gynaecological cancer

Background:, Median laparotomy is the most common approach to the abdominopelvic cavity in patients with gynaecological tumours. Aims:, The primary endpoint of the study was to evaluate the onset of incisional hernia. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate the onset of infection, wound dehiscence, wound infection, and scar pain during the post-operative period. Methods:, A total of 191 patients were eligible for the study. They were divided into three groups. Group A underwent en bloc closure of the peritoneum and fascia with Premilene® suture, Group B en bloc closure of the peritoneum and fascia with Polydioxanone suture, and Group C separate closure of the peritoneum and fascia with single stitches of Ethibond suture. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences 12.0. Results:, Group A and Group B comprised 63 patients, and Group C included 65 patients. The three groups proved homogeneous on statistical analysis (P > 0.05). The statistical analysis did not reveal significant differences between the different suture types and techniques with respect to the incidence of incisional hernia (P > 0.05). Conclusion:, In our study, the incidence of incisional hernia was 8%. Randomised patients were homogeneous for sample size and risk factors. No significant differences were found between suture types or techniques. Currently, there is no suture material or technique that can be considered superior to others. When possible, we believe that the best way to prevent incisional hernia is to preserve the integrity of the abdominal wall using minimally invasive techniques. [source]

Use of Green Fluorescent Protein-Conjugated ,-Actin as a Novel Molecular Marker for in Vitro Tumor Cell Chemotaxis Assay

Louis Hodgson
To study the dynamics of actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in living cells, an eukaryotic expression vector expressing a ,-actin-GFP fusion protein was generated. The expression construct when transfected into NIH3T3 fibroblast, A2058 human melanoma and 293T human embryonic kidney carcinoma cell lines expressed ,-actin-GFP fusion protein, which colocalized with endogenous cellular actin as determined by histoimmunofluorescence staining. The ,-actin-GFP was also observed to be reorganized in response to treatments with the chemoattractant type IV collagen. Cells extended pseudopodial protrusions and altered the morphology of their cortical structure in response to type IV collagen stimulation. More importantly, ,-actin-GFP accumulated in areas undergoing these dynamic cytoskeleton changes, indicating that ,-actin-GFP could participate in actin polymerization. Although ectopic expression of ,-actin-GFP lead to minor side effects on cell proliferation, these studies suggest that this strategy provides an alternative to the invasive techniques currently used to study actin dynamics and permits real-time visualization of actin rearrangements in response to environmental cues. [source]

Laparoscopic ureterolysis with omental wrap for idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis

Robert J. Stein
Study Type , Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 OBJECTIVE To describe various approaches for ureterolysis with an omental wrap using minimally invasive techniques, as surgery for idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis includes tissue biopsy, ureterolysis, and intraperitonealization or omental wrap. PATIENTS AND METHODS Since 2006 we have performed ureterolysis in four patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal fibrosis in two institutions. The ureterolysis in two cases was bilateral, using a standard laparoscopic approach for one case and a hand-assisted technique for the other. Unilateral ureterolysis was completed using a standard laparoscopic approach in one case and was converted to a hand-assisted technique in the other due to difficulty with ureteric identification. An omental wrap was used after ureterolysis for all renal units. RESULTS A minimally invasive technique was used for all ureterolysis procedures and none required open conversion. There was fascial dehiscence after surgery at the hand-port site in one patient, and required re-operation for wound closure. The median (range) hospital stay for all patients was 2.5 (2,10) days and the median blood loss was 100 (50,550) mL. No patient required a blood transfusion. At a median 16.5 (12,32) months of follow-up, there was symptomatic and radiographic success in all patients. CONCLUSIONS Ureterolysis can be a challenging operation depending on the extent of the retroperitoneal mass. An understanding of various laparoscopic techniques can provide the flexibility for successful completion of nearly all of these procedures using a minimally invasive approach. [source]

Nephron-sparing surgery: a call for greater application of established techniques

James G. Young
OBJECTIVES To examine the results of open partial nephrectomy (OPN) over a 15-year period in a large UK teaching hospital and to compare results with other series including minimally invasive techniques, as nephron-sparing techniques are still under-utilized in the surgical treatment of renal carcinoma. A standardized technique is described that we think minimizes the risk of postoperative urinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed a series of 141 patients who underwent OPN performed over a 15-year period in one centre by the senior author (D.M.A.W.). A notable feature of this series compared with others is the high proportion of patients undergoing other major synchronous surgery. RESULTS In all, 141 patients underwent 147 OPNs, with six undergoing bilateral procedures, of which 82 were for imperative indications (single kidney, bilateral synchronous tumours, or pre-existing renal impairment). There were three perioperative deaths, two in patients undergoing other synchronous major surgery. In all, 38 patients had postoperative complications: 28 patients required blood transfusion (four required intervention for their bleeding), five required acute dialysis and three late dialysis. There was a 90% cancer-specific survival rate at a median follow-up of 2 years. CONCLUSIONS This series confirms the trend towards improved outcomes and decreased complications in OPN at a time when its place is challenged by minimally invasive techniques. [source]

Manipulation of the small intestine as a cause of the increased inflammatory response after open compared with laparoscopic surgery,,

N. Hiki
Background: Laparoscopic surgery of the gastrointestinal tract involves a reduced immune response compared with open surgery. The aim of this study was to assess manual handling of the gut in open procedures as the principal cause of the enhanced immune response. Methods: Eighteen Landrace pigs underwent gastrectomy by three different methods: conventional open wound with bowel manipulation, laparoscopically assisted gastrectomy, and gastrectomy without manipulation using a combination of open wound and laparoscopic surgical devices. Local inflammatory changes were assessed by ascites formation, intestinal adhesion development and intestinal inflammatory gene expression. Associated systemic inflammatory changes were determined by measuring portal and systemic plasma endotoxin levels, plasma inflammatory cytokine levels, liver inflammatory gene expression and transaminase levels. Results: Significantly more postoperative intra-abdominal fluid and adhesions were seen in the open group. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was significantly greater in the intestine and liver in the open group. Portal and systemic levels of endotoxin, inflammatory cytokines and transaminases were also higher. Conclusion: Manual handling of organs during gastrectomy is an important contributor to the molecular and humoral inflammatory response to surgery, supporting the use of minimally invasive techniques in gastrointestinal surgery. Copyright © 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Trends towards increased use of the laparoscopic approach in colorectal surgery

J. Lengyel
Abstract Aim, The aim of the study was to identify the trend towards laparoscopic resection in the practice of one surgeon and to determine whether the default approach to all colorectal procedures could be by means of minimally invasive techniques with an associated low rate of conversion. Method, A prospective database of primary colorectal resections under the care of one colorectal surgeon collected between July 2003 and December 2008 was analysed to determine the trend in the use of the laparoscopic approach and the rate of conversion of an intention-to-treat policy for laparoscopic procedures. Patients with recurrent rectal or colonic malignancy were excluded from the study. Results, A total of 598 patients underwent elective colorectal resection of which 371 (62%) were carried out laparoscopically with a rate of conversion of 3.2%. The proportion of all colorectal resections that were undertaken laparoscopically in the first 1 year was 26% (22/85) (no conversions). This proportion rose to 100% (127/127) in the fifth year of the study of which 4.0% were converted. The introduction of more complex procedures did not have an adverse effect on the trend towards more laparoscopic resections The commencement of a laparoscopic colorectal fellowship in 2006 was associated with a marked increase in the number of laparoscopic cases. Conclusion, A conscious decision to make the laparoscopic approach the default for all colorectal resections can be achieved safely with a low conversion rate. This can be achieved within the context of training a ,novice' laparoscopic colorectal surgeon. [source]