Invasive Phenotype (invasive + phenotype)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Annexin VII as a Novel Marker for Invasive Phenotype of Malignant Melanoma

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2000
Tatsuki R. Kataoka
Both F10 and BL6 sublines of B16 mouse melanoma cells are metastatic after intravenous injection, but only BL6 cells are metastatic after subcutaneous injection. While examining the genetic difference between the two sublines, we found a marked reduction of annexin VII expression in BL6 cells. In addition, fusion cell clones of both sublines, were as poorly metastatic as F10 cells after subcutaneous injection, and contained the annexin VII message as abundantly as F10 cells. Hence, we examined whether the annexin VII expression was correlated with the less malignant phenotype of clinical cases by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivities to anti-annexin VII antibody in melanoma cells were evaluated quantitatively by using skin mast cells as an internal positive control. Eighteen patients with malignant melanoma were divided into two groups: lymph node metastasis-negative and positive groups. The ratio of numbers of patients positive versus negative to the antibody was significantly larger in the former than in the latter group. These results not only indicated that annexin VII serves as a marker for less invasive phenotype of malignant melanoma, but also suggested a possible role of annexin VII in tumor suppression. [source]

The origin of the endothelial cells: an evo-devo approach for the invertebrate/vertebrate transition of the circulatory system

R. Muñoz-Chápuli
Summary Circulatory systems of vertebrate and invertebrate metazoans are very different. Large vessels of invertebrates are constituted of spaces and lacunae located between the basement membranes of endodermal and mesodermal epithelia, and they lack an endothelial lining. Myoepithelial differentation of the coelomic cells covering hemal spaces is a frequent event, and myoepithelial cells often form microvessels in some large invertebrates. There is no phylogenetic theory about the origin of the endothelial cells in vertebrates. We herein propose that endothelial cells originated from a type of specialized blood cells, called amoebocytes, that adhere to the vascular basement membrane. The transition between amoebocytes and endothelium involved the acquisition of an epithelial phenotype. We suggest that immunological cooperation was the earliest function of these protoendothelial cells. Furthermore, their ability to transiently recover the migratory, invasive phenotype of amoebocytes (i.e., the angiogenic phenotype) allowed for vascular growth from the original visceral areas to the well-developed somatic areas of vertebrates (especially the tail, head, and neural tube). We also hypothesize that pericytes and smooth muscle cells derived from myoepithelial cells detached from the coelomic lining. As the origin of blood cells in invertebrates is probably coelomic, our hypothesis relates the origin of all the elements of the circulatory system with the coelomic wall. We have collected from the literature a number of comparative and developmental data supporting our hypothesis, for example the localization of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 ortholog in hemocytes of Drosophila or the fact that circulating progenitors can differentiate into endothelial cells even in adult vertebrates. [source]

Differentiation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice with recombinant adenovirus carrying hepatocyte nuclear factor-4, gene,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Chuan Yin
Previous studies have shown that hepatocyte nuclear factor-4, (HNF4,) is a central regulator of differentiated hepatocyte phenotype and forced expression of HNF4, could promote reversion of tumors toward a less invasive phenotype. However, the effect of HNF4, on cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with HNF4, have not been reported. In this study, an adenovirus-mediated gene delivery system, which could efficiently transfer and express HNF4,, was generated to determine its effect on hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) in vitro and investigate the anti-tumor effect of HNF4, in mice. Our results demonstrated that forced re-expression of HNF4, induced the differentiation of hepatoma cells into hepatocytes, dramatically decreased "stemness" gene expression and the percentage of CD133+ and CD90+ cells, which are considered as cancer stem cells in HCC. Meanwhile, HNF4, reduced cell viability through inducing apparent apoptosis in Hep3B, while it induced cell cycle arrest and cellular senescence in HepG2. Moreover, infection of hepatoma cells by HNF4, abolished their tumorigenesis in mice. Most interestingly, systemic administration of adenovirus carrying the HNF4, gene protected mice from liver metastatic tumor formation, and intratumoral injection of HNF4, also displayed significant antitumor effects on transplanted tumor models. Conclusion: The striking suppression effect of HNF4, on tumorigenesis and tumor development is attained by inducing the differentiation of hepatoma cells,especially CSCs,into mature hepatocytes, suggesting that differentiation therapy with HNF4, may be an effective treatment for HCC patients. Our study also implies that differentiation therapy may present as one of the best strategies for cancer treatment through the induction of cell differentiation by key transcription factors. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

Compact spheroid formation by ovarian cancer cells is associated with contractile behavior and an invasive phenotype

Katharine L. Sodek
Abstract Ovarian cancer cells are present in malignant ascites both as individual cells and as multicellular spheroid aggregates. Although spheroid formation affords protection of cancer cells against some chemotherapeutic agents, it has not been established whether a relationship exists between invasive behavior and predisposition to spheroid formation. Aspects of spheroid formation, including cell-matrix adhesion, remodeling and contractility are characteristic myofibroblast-like behaviors associated with fibrosis that contribute to tumor growth and dissemination. We explored the possibility that cell behaviors that promote spheroid formation also facilitate invasion. Our analysis of 6 human ovarian cancer cell lines indicated that ovarian cancer cells possessing myofibroblast-like properties formed compact spheroids and invaded 3D matrices. These cells readily contracted collagen I gels, possessed a spindle-like morphology, and had elevated expression of genes associated with the TGF,-mediated fibrotic response and/or ,1 integrin function, including fibronectin (FN), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), lysyl oxidase (LOX1), tissue transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) and urinary plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Whereas cell aggregation was induced by TGF,, and by ,1-integrin overexpression and activation, these treatments did not stimulate the contractile activity required for spheroid compaction. The positive relationship found between compact spheroid formation and invasive behavior implies a preferential survival of an invasive subpopulation of ovarian cancer cells, as cells in spheroids are more resistant to several chemotherapeutics. Preventing the formation of ovarian cancer spheroids may represent a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of existing therapeutics. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Nicotine induces cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a variety of human cancer cell lines

Piyali Dasgupta
Abstract Cigarette smoking is strongly correlated with the onset of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nicotine, an active component of cigarettes, has been found to induce proliferation of lung cancer cell lines. In addition, nicotine can induce angiogenesis and confer resistance to apoptosis. All these events are mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on lung cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that nicotine can promote anchorage-independent growth in NSCLCs. In addition, nicotine also induces morphological changes characteristic of a migratory, invasive phenotype in NSCLCs on collagen gel. These morphological changes were similar to those induced by the promigratory growth factor VEGF. The proinvasive effects of nicotine were mediated by ,7-nAChRs on NSCLCs. RT-PCR analysis showed that the ,7-nAChRs were also expressed on human breast cancer and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Nicotine was found to promote proliferation and invasion in human breast cancer. The proinvasive effects of nicotine were mediated via a nAChR, Src and calcium-dependent signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. In a similar fashion, nicotine could also induce proliferation and invasion of Aspc1 pancreatic cancer cells. Most importantly, nicotine could induce changes in gene expression consistent with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by reduction of epithelial markers like E-cadherin expression, ZO-1 staining and concomitant increase in levels of mesenchymal proteins like vimentin and fibronectin in human breast and lung cancer cells. Therefore, it is probable that the ability of nicotine to induce invasion and EMT may contribute to the progression of breast and lung cancers. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

From anchorage dependent proliferation to survival: Lessons from redox signalling

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 5 2008
Paola Chiarugi
Abstract Anchorage to extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for the execution of the mitotic program of nontransformed cells as they need simultaneous signals starting from mitogenic molecules, as growth factors (GFs), and adhesive agents belonging to ECM. Reactive oxygen species play a key function during both GF and integrin receptor signalling and are therefore recognised to have a synergistic function with several others transducers for anchorage-dependent growth (ADG). Indeed, redox-regulated proteins include protein tyrosine phosphatases, protein tyrosine kinases, small GTPases, cytoskeleton proteins, as well as several transcription factors. In this review, we focus on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as key second messengers granting a proper executed mitosis for anchorage-dependent cells through redox regulation of several downstream targets. Besides, redox signals elicited by ECM contact assure a protection from anoikis, a specific apoptosis induced by lack of anchorage. Cancer cells frequently show a deregulation of ROS production and a constitutive oxidative stress has been associated to the achievement of an invasive phenotype. Hence, in cancer cells, the constitutive deregulation of both mitogenic and survival pathways, likely mimicking autocrine/adhesive signals, helps to guide the transformed cells to escape the innate apoptotic response to abolish the signals started by cell/ECM contact, thus sustaining the spreading of anchorage-independent cancer cells and the metastases growth. © 2008 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 60(5): 301,307, 2008 [source]

Gorham-Stout Syndrome: A Monocyte-Mediated Cytokine Propelled Disease,

Silvia Colucci
Abstract We studied the biological features and the immunophenotype of a cell culture established from the lesion of soft tissues of a woman affected by Gorham-Stout syndrome. We found that these cells belonged to a monocytic lineage with some characteristics of immature osteoclasts and were able to release large amounts of osteoclastogenic and angiogenic molecules that may contribute to disease progression. Introduction: Gorham-Stout syndrome is a rare disease characterized by osteolysis and proliferation of vascular or lymphatic vessels, with a severe outcome. Its etiology and the identification of the cell types involved are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: A cell culture from a lesion of soft tissues was established, and its behavior in vitro and in immunodeficient mice was studied. We analyzed (1) the cell phenotype by flow cytometry; (2) the adhesive and migratory properties on different substrates; (3) the ability to differentiate into mature osteoclasts; (4) the production of osteclastogenic and angiogenic molecules; (5) the in vivo angiogenic activity of the cells subcutaneously implanted in mouse in a Matrigel plug; and (6) the ability to recapitulate the disease when transplanted in nude mice. Results and Conclusions: The established culture consisted of a morphologically homogeneous cell population belonging to a monocytic lineage having some features of an osteoclast-like cell type. Cells had an invasive phenotype, were angiogenic, and produced osteoclastogenic (IL-6, TGF-,1, IL-1,) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor-A {VEGF-A}, CXCL-8) molecules when challenged with inflammatory cytokines. Immunodeficient mice injected with these cells did not show any bone lesions or vascular alteration, but had high amounts of circulating human IL-6 and VEGF-A. Cells isolated from a cutaneous lymphangiomatosis did not show any of these findings. These data suggest that cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage play an essential role in the pathogenesis of Gorham-Stout disease, whose progression is propelled by cytokine circuits that accelerate angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. [source]

Molecular Reproduction & Development: Volume 76, Issue 12

Article first published online: 15 OCT 200
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) at the fetal-maternal interface in the human placenta. Extravillous trophoblast cells, marked by cytokeratin 7 (red), invade interstitially into the uterine decidua. Trophoblast and some resident uterine cells produce HBEGF (green), which stimulates trophoblast differentiation to an invasive phenotype and limits cell death during gestation. Nuclei are counterstained with DAPI (blue). See the accompanying article by Jessmon et al. in this issue. [source]

Differential detection of S100A8 in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by pair wise tissue proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis

Abstract The search for novel molecular markers of tumor invasion is vital if strategies are to become more effective in the diagnostic and prognostic management of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Up to 50% of tumors detected at stage,1 (pT1) progress to a higher grade even after endoscopic surgical resection, and there are currently no protein markers of this aggressive, invasive phenotype. We have combined SELDI-TOF-MS, ClinProt magnetic bead enrichment, Nano-LC-ESI-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry and immunohistochemical analysis to the study of 12,invasive bladder cancer tissue biopsies paired with normal bladder tissue samples obtained from the same patients for the definition and identification of proteins up-regulated in the tumors. We report the inflammation-associated calcium binding protein,S100A8 (MRP-8, calgranulin,A) to be highly expressed in tumor cells in contrast to normal urothelium in 50% of the samples, as well as two unidentified protein markers at 5.75 and 6.89,kDa that were differentially detected in 9/12 and 10/12,tumor samples, respectively. These new markers, when fully characterized, may contribute to new target proteins for the prediction of aggressive, invasive bladder tumors. [source]

Cadherin switching dictates the biology of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: ex vivo and in vitro studies,

RT Bryan
Abstract Bladder cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in the UK. Clinically, the most important process in determining prognosis is the development of invasion, initially of the lamina propria and then beyond as these transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) progress from stage pT1 to stages T2+. Cadherins and catenins are the main mediators of cell,cell interactions in epithelial tissues, and loss of membranous E-cadherin immunoreactivity is strongly correlated with high grade, advanced stage and poor prognosis in bladder cancer and other malignancies. However, the role of P-cadherin is yet to be fully elucidated in bladder TCC. The objectives of this study were to establish how the expression of cadherins and catenins determines clinical and in vitro behaviour in bladder TCC. Utilizing immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting, we demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of E-cadherin and ,-catenin as grade and stage of bladder TCC progress, accompanied by a significant increase in P-cadherin expression (all p < 0.05, Pearson's ,2 test). Increased P-cadherin expression was also associated with a significantly worse bladder cancer-specific survival (log rank p = 0.008), with Cox regression showing P-cadherin to be an independent prognostic factor. Utilizing a variety of tissue culture models in a range of functional studies, we demonstrated that P-cadherin mediates defective cell,cell adhesion and enhances anchorage-independent growth. The results provide evidence that increased P-cadherin expression promotes a more malignant and invasive phenotype of bladder cancer, and appears to have a novel role late in the disease. Copyright © 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interspecies comparison of prostate cancer gene-expression profiles reveals genes associated with aggressive tumors

THE PROSTATE, Issue 10 2009
Itai Kela
Abstract Prostate cancer (PC) is a heterogeneous disease whose aggressive phenotype is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. The identification of key molecules and pathways that play a pivotal role in PC progression towards an aggressive form is crucial. A major effort towards this end has been taken by global analyses of gene expression profiles. However, the large body of data did not provide a definitive idea about the genes which are associated with the aggressive growth of PC. In order to identify such genes, we performed an interspecies comparison between several human data sets and high quality microarray data that we generated from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) strain. The TRAMP PC mimics the histological and pathological appearance as well as the aggressive phenotype of human PC (huPC). Analysis of the microarray data, derived from microdissected TRAMP specimens removed at different stages of the disease yielded genetic signatures delineating the TRAMP PC development and progression. Comparison of the TRAMP data with a set of genes representing the core expression signature of huPC yielded a limited set genes. Some of these genes are known predictors of poor prognosis in huPC. Interestingly, the modulation of genes responsible for the invasive phenotype of huPC occurs in TRAMP already during the transition to prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and onwards to localized tumors. We therefore suggest that critical oncogenic events leading to an aggressive phenotype of huPC can be studied in the PIN stage of TRAMP. Prostate 69:1034,1044, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of the different phosphorylated Smad2 protein localizations on the invasive breast carcinoma phenotype,

APMIS, Issue 2 2007
Smad2 participates in the TGF-, signaling pathway, where it cooperates with transcription factors to regulate expression of defined genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2) in association with clinicopathological parameters and biological markers of proliferation and invasion. Immunohistochemistry was applied on paraffin-embedded sections from 164 patients with invasive breast carcinomas to detect the expression of the proteins pSmad2, ER, PR, Ki67, topoisomerase IIa, ERK2, catenin-p120, MMP-14 and TIMP-2. pSmad2 protein was detected in the nuclei of the malignant cells (68.1%) and in the tumor fibroblasts (55.2%). Nuclear pSmad2 was inversely correlated with histological grade and LN (p=0.047 and p=0.05) as well as with Ki67 and topoIIa (p=0.003 and p=0.021, respectively). There was also an inverse relation between nuclear pSmad2 and normal immunoexpression of the adhesion molecule catenin-p120 (p=0.028). Both nuclear and stromal pSmad2 were positively correlated with ERK2 of tumor fibroblasts (p=0.008 and p=0.0001, respectively), while stromal pSmad2 was furthermore related to stromal MMP-14 and tumor TIMP-2 (p=0.006 and p=0.022, respectively). Patients with high expression of cancerous pSmad2 tended to have a better prognosis, although statistic significance was never reached. pSmad2 was found to play a dual role, according to its distribution. Nuclear localization was thus found to be related to a less aggressive tumor phenotype, whereas stromal location was associated with an invasive phenotype. [source]

Establishment of a matrix-associated transepithelial resistance invasion assay to precisely measure the invasive potential of synovial fibroblasts

Christina Wunrau
Objective Synovial fibroblasts (SFs) contribute to several aspects of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and have been implicated most prominently in the progressive destruction of articular cartilage. Targeting the invasive phenotype of RASFs has therefore gained increasing attention, but the precise measurement of their invasive capacity and the evaluation of potential treatment effects constitute a challenge that needs to be addressed. This study used a novel in vitro invasion assay based on the breakdown of transepithelial electrical resistance to determine the course of fibroblast invasion into extracellular matrix. Methods A matrix-associated transepithelial resistance invasion (MATRIN) assay was used to assess SFs from patients with RA in comparison with SFs from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The SFs were grown on a commercially available collagen mix that was placed onto the upper side of a Transwell polycarbonate membrane. In addition, freshly isolated cartilage extracts were studied to assess the conditions in vivo. Under this membrane, a monolayer of MDCK-C7 cells was seeded to create a high electrical resistance. Results Invasion of fibroblasts into the matrix affected the integrity of the MDCK-C7 monolayer and led to a measurable decrease and subsequent breakdown of electrical resistance. Unlike in the assay with OASFs, which did not achieve a breakdown of resistance up to 72 hours, RASFs exhibited a pronounced invasiveness in this assay, with a 50% breakdown after 42 hours. Treatment of fibroblasts with either a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor or antibodies against ,1 integrin significantly reduced the invasiveness of RASFs. Conclusion The MATRIN assay is a valuable and sensitive biologic assay system that can be used to determine precisely the invasive potential of RASFs in vitro, and thus would be suitable for screening anti-invasion compounds. [source]

The src-family kinase inhibitor PP2 suppresses the in vitro invasive phenotype of bladder carcinoma cells via modulation of Akt,

George J. Chiang
OBJECTIVE To evaluate PP2 as a modulator of the cadherin/catenin complex in late-stage bladder carcinoma cells, and to assess its potential invasion-suppressor activity in this model. MATERIALS AND METHODS A panel of five human bladder carcinoma cells, characterizing late-stage disease, was used to determine the concentration for 50% inhibition of PP2 in cell-proliferation assays. Modulation of cadherin/catenin expression by PP2 was determined in Western blot analysis, with an assessment of the activation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt signalling pathways. Altered invasive capacity linked to these variables was determined in standard in vitro invasion assays. RESULTS PP2 elicited concentration-dependent growth inhibition in all bladder cell lines within the panel, with growth suppression recorded at 10,35 µmol/L PP2. Distinct morphological changes were recorded in cell lines exposed to PP2, accompanied by up-regulation of plakoglobin expression in a subset of lines. Exposure of cells to PP2 resulted in inactivation of Akt in all cells and a concomitant reduction in in vitro invasive capacity. CONCLUSIONS These results show that PP2 inhibits bladder carcinoma cell growth and can modulate plakoglobin expression in a subset of cell lines. In addition, PP2 can suppress the in vitro invasive capacity of bladder carcinoma cells by modulating the activation status of Akt. [source]

T-cadherin loss induces an invasive phenotype in human keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells in vitro and is associated with malignant transformation of cutaneous SCC in vivo

D. Pfaff
Summary Background, Cadherins play important roles in controlling keratinocyte growth, differentiation and survival. Atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored T-cadherin (T-cad) is highly expressed in the basal keratinocyte layer of skin. The role of T-cad in keratinocyte biology and pathology is unclear. Objectives, To define the role of T-cad in the pathogenesis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in vitro and through examination of T-cad expression patterns in human cutaneous SCC specimens in relation to histological classification of degree of tumour differentiation. Methods,In vitro studies employed lentiviral-mediated overexpression/silencing of T-cad in normal human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and SCC (A431) cell lines, monolayer and multicellular spheroid culture models, cell morphology analyses and assays of random motility and invasion. Immunohistochemistry was performed on skin specimens from patients with actinic keratosis, Bowen disease or SCC. Results,In vitro, silencing of T-cad induced a morphologically elongated and disorganized cell phenotype, increased random motility and markedly enhanced invasive potential. Overexpression of T-cad induced a morphologically spread and compact cell phenotype and blunted invasive potential. In vivo, regional loss of T-cad expression was more frequent and prominent in SCC classified as moderately-to-poorly differentiated than in SCC classified as well differentiated. However, in both categories aberrant and/or absence of T-cad expression was associated with histological features of a potentially more malignant and invasive phenotype of cutaneous SCC. Conclusions, T-cad is a controlling determinant of SCC phenotype and invasive behaviour and its loss is associated with the process of malignant transformation from noninvasive to invasive SCC. [source]

Candidate therapeutic agents for hepatocellular cancer can be identified from phenotype-associated gene expression signatures

CANCER, Issue 16 2009
Chiara Braconi MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: The presence of vascular invasion in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) correlates with prognosis, and is a critical determinant of both the therapeutic approach and the recurrence or intrahepatic metastases. The authors sought to identify candidate therapeutic agents capable of targeting the invasive phenotype in HCC. METHODS: A gene expression signature associated with vascular invasion derived from 81 human cases of HCC was used to screen a database of 453 genomic profiles associated with 164 bioactive molecules using the connectivity map. Candidate agents were identified by their inverse correlation to the query gene signature. The efficacy of the candidate agents to target invasion was experimentally verified in PLC/PRF-5 and HepG2 HCC cells. RESULTS: The gene signature associated with vascular invasion in HCC comprised of 47 up-regulated and 26 down-regulated genes. Computational bioinformatics analysis revealed several putative candidates, including resveratrol and 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG). Both of these agents reduced HCC cell invasion at noncytotoxic concentrations. 17-AAG, a heat shock protein 90 (HSP-90) inhibitor, was shown to modulate the expression of several diverse cancer-associated genes, including ADAMTS1, part of the query signature, and maspin, an HSP-90,associated protein with a tumor suppressor role in HCC. CONCLUSIONS: Candidates for further evaluation as therapies to limit invasion in HCC have been identified using a computational bioinformatics analysis of phenotype-associated gene expression. Phenotype targeting using genomic profiling is a rational approach for drug discovery. Therapeutic strategies targeting a defined cancer-associated phenotype can be identified without a detailed knowledge of individual downstream targets. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]

Role of the aging vasculature and Erb B-2 signaling in epidermal growth factor-dependent intravasion of breast carcinoma cells,

CANCER, Issue 1 2004
Daniel J. Price Ph.D.
Abstract BACKGROUND The risks for developing breast carcinoma and dying from the disease increase with age. Mortality from breast carcinoma usually is due to metastatic disease. Metastatic cells are able to invade into the vascular tissue in a growth factor-dependent manner. Because breast carcinoma mortality increases with age, examination of breast carcinoma interactions with young and aged endothelial cells is essential. METHODS We studied a series of breast epithelial cells (HMT-3522 cells) that exhibited either noninvasive characteristics (S-1 cells) or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent invasive characteristics (T4-2 cells). RESULTS Increased invasion of HMT-3522 cells was observed across an aged rat brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) monolayer that was isolated from aged rats (24 months) compared with young rats (age 1 month). This increased invasion was inhibited by the specific EGF receptor inhibitor, AG1478, and by the Erb B-2-specific inhibitor, AG825. To analyze further the contribution of Erb B-2 to the EGF-dependent invasion of HMT-3522 cells, T4-2 cells were treated with the Erb B-2-specific therapeutic antibody trastuzumab and with the specific inhibitor AG825 and were then assayed for invasion. Both inhibitors led to a significant decrease in EGF-dependent invasion. Erb B-2 expression was found to be elevated in T4-2 cells (, 5-fold higher) compared with S-1 cells. However, treatment of T4-2 cells with the specific Erb B-2 inhibitor, AG825, failed to inhibit EGF-mediated signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS The current study findings indicate that aging of endothelium may contribute to the invasive phenotype of breast carcinoma cells and that "cross-talk" between Erb B-2 and EGF receptor is required for the intravasion of these cells into the surrounding vasculature. Cancer 2004. © 2004 American Cancer Society. [source]

R-Ras promotes tumor growth of cervical epithelial cells

CANCER, Issue 3 2003
Héctor Rincón-Arano B.S.
Abstract BACKGROUND R-Ras is 55% identical to H-Ras. However, these two oncogenes seem to have different tumor-transforming potential. R-Ras induced cell transformation in fibroblasts but not in other cell types. R-Ras also reportedly induces a more invasive phenotype in breast epithelial cells through integrin activation. The authors studied the mechanisms whereby R-Ras induces a malignant phenotype. METHODS Dominant negative (R-Ras43N) and constitutively active (R-Ras87L) mutants of R-Ras were stably transfected into human cervical epithelium C33A cells. Transfected cells were analyzed for adhesion, cell spreading, migration, and growth in culture and in nude mice. The activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) also was determined by Western blot analysis and by in vitro kinase assays. RESULTS R-Ras87L-transfected cells, but not R-Ras43 N-transfected cells, had a higher growth rate in nude mice and in culture compared with control cells. None of the transfected C33A cells showed an increase in cell adhesion to fibronectin or collagen I, nor did they show an increment of ,1 integrin affinity. However, cells that expressed R-Ras87L, but not cells that expressed R-Ras 43N, presented a marked increase in cell spreading and migration through collagen-coated membranes. Increases in cell proliferation, spreading, and migration induced by R-Ras87L were inhibited by the PI 3-K inhibitor LY294002. In addition, PI 3-K activity, but not ERK activity, was increased only in cells that expressed R-Ras87L. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that the oncogene R-Ras promotes tumor growth of cervical epithelial cells and increases their migration potential over collagen through a pathway that involves PI 3-K. Cancer 2003;97:575,85. © 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11093 [source]

Annexin VII as a Novel Marker for Invasive Phenotype of Malignant Melanoma

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2000
Tatsuki R. Kataoka
Both F10 and BL6 sublines of B16 mouse melanoma cells are metastatic after intravenous injection, but only BL6 cells are metastatic after subcutaneous injection. While examining the genetic difference between the two sublines, we found a marked reduction of annexin VII expression in BL6 cells. In addition, fusion cell clones of both sublines, were as poorly metastatic as F10 cells after subcutaneous injection, and contained the annexin VII message as abundantly as F10 cells. Hence, we examined whether the annexin VII expression was correlated with the less malignant phenotype of clinical cases by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivities to anti-annexin VII antibody in melanoma cells were evaluated quantitatively by using skin mast cells as an internal positive control. Eighteen patients with malignant melanoma were divided into two groups: lymph node metastasis-negative and positive groups. The ratio of numbers of patients positive versus negative to the antibody was significantly larger in the former than in the latter group. These results not only indicated that annexin VII serves as a marker for less invasive phenotype of malignant melanoma, but also suggested a possible role of annexin VII in tumor suppression. [source]