Invasive Methods (invasive + methods)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Minimal-Scar Segmental Extraction of Lipomas: Study of 122 Consecutive Procedures

Rajiv Y. Chandawarkar MD
Background Surgical extirpation of lipomas that occur in cosmetically conspicuous areas of the body leaves a visible scar that is usually disfiguring. Minimal-scar segmental extraction (MSE) employs a much smaller incision and extraction and is particularly useful in exposed parts of the body. It can be easily performed in an office setting. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the merits of MSE in clinical practice. Unlike other reports in the literature that describe, anecdotally, minimally invasive methods of lipoma removal, our study examined a new method by carefully measuring the results in a larger group of consecutive patients treated using this technique. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was performed using data from 91 consecutive patients with a total of 122 lipomas that were treated using MSE. MSE of lipomas consists of a small stab incision and blind dissection of the tumor followed by its extraction in a segmental fashion. This procedure involves small instrumentation, minimal dissection with preservation of contour, and complete removal of the lipoma, including substantial portions of the capsule. Clinical data, including complications, outcomes, and recurrence rates, were recorded. Results The procedure was well tolerated by patients, who were pleased with the results, particularly the small scar. The incidence of complications was 1.6% (n= 2) and consisted of hematoma (n= 1) and seroma (n= 1). The recurrence rate was 0.8% (n= 1). No long-term morbidity was noted. Conclusions The technical ease with which the MSE can be performed, coupled with a low recurrence rate, makes it a very cost-effective operation. The smaller postoperative scars, rapid healing, and low morbidity allow for better patient acceptance. We recognize the advantages and limitations of this procedure and encourage its use in selected patients. RAJIV Y. CHANDAWARKAR, MD, PEDRO RODRIGUEZ, MD, JOHN ROUSSALIS, MD, AND M. DEVIPRASAD TANTRI, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

Lurdes Monteiro
Abstract The articles published this last year in the field of Helicobacter pylori diagnosis reported the development of in vivo histology, small improvements in some invasive methods (urease test, culture, and histology) and new kits for the stool antigen tests. They also contributed to increasing our knowledge, by further exploration into specific conditions for the urea breath test and into the significance of cagA antibodies. The role of serum markers of atrophy was also confirmed. Molecular methods are still being developed for direct genotyping, detection of H. pylori and its clarithromycin resistance, either by polymerase chain reaction or fluorescent in-situ hybridization. For the first time, there was a report on a possible interest of magnetic resonance spectroscopy. [source]

Current status of minimally invasive necrosectomy for post-inflammatory pancreatic necrosis

HPB, Issue 2 2009
Benoy Idicula Babu
Abstract Objective:, This paper reviews current knowledge on minimally invasive pancreatic necrosectomy. Background:, Blunt (non-anatomical) debridement of necrotic tissue at laparotomy is the standard method of treatment of infected post-inflammatory pancreatic necrosis. Recognition that laparotomy may add to morbidity by increasing postoperative organ dysfunction has led to the development of alternative, minimally invasive methods for debridement. This study reports the status of minimally invasive necrosectomy by different approaches. Methods:, Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for the period 1996,2008 were undertaken. Only studies with original data and information on outcome were included. This produced a final population of 28 studies reporting on 344 patients undergoing minimally invasive necrosectomy, with a median (range) number of patients per study of nine (1,53). Procedures were categorized as retroperitoneal, endoscopic or laparoscopic. Results:, A total of 141 patients underwent retroperitoneal necrosectomy, of whom 58 (41%) had complications and 18 (13%) required laparotomy. There were 22 (16%) deaths. Overall, 157 patients underwent endoscopic necrosectomy; major complications were reported in 31 (20%) and death in seven (5%). Laparoscopic necrosectomy was carried out in 46 patients, of whom five (11%) required laparotomy and three (7%) died. Conclusions:, Minimally invasive necrosectomy is technically feasible and a body of evidence now suggests that acceptable outcomes can be achieved. There are no comparisons of results, either with open surgery or among different minimally invasive techniques. [source]

Injectable Biomaterials for Regenerating Complex Craniofacial Tissues,

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 32-33 2009
James D. Kretlow
Abstract Engineering complex tissues requires a precisely formulated combination of cells, spatiotemporally released bioactive factors, and a specialized scaffold support system. Injectable materials, particularly those delivered in aqueous solution, are considered ideal delivery vehicles for cells and bioactive factors and can also be delivered through minimally invasive methods and fill complex 3D shapes. In this review, we examine injectable materials that form scaffolds or networks capable of both replacing tissue function early after delivery and supporting tissue regeneration over a time period of weeks to months. The use of these materials for tissue engineering within the craniofacial complex is challenging but ideal as many highly specialized and functional tissues reside within a small volume in the craniofacial structures and the need for minimally invasive interventions is desirable due to aesthetic considerations. Current biomaterials and strategies used to treat craniofacial defects are examined, followed by a review of craniofacial tissue engineering, and finally an examination of current technologies used for injectable scaffold development and drug and cell delivery using these materials. [source]

Peripheral blood stem cell collection in pediatric patients: Feasibility of leukapheresis under anesthesia in uncompliant small children with solid tumors ,

Fernando Ravagnani
Leukapheresis demands patient's compliance and adequate vascular accesses, which can require invasive methods in very small children whose treatment protocol includes hemopoietic stem cell collection for myeloablative chemotherapy and stem cell rescue. Since 1998, at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan, in selected uncompliant small children, the placement of peripheral vascular accesses and leukapheresis have been performed at the same time under general anesthesia. Peripheral venous cannulas were positioned for blood collection, while blood was returned through either peripheral cannulas or mono-lumen central catheters previously installed for chemotherapy. A continuous-flow cell separator was used for leukapheresis. Between 1998 and 2003, 47 children with solid tumors underwent anesthesia for a total of 54 leukaphereses. The patients' age ranged from 12.7 to 93 months (median 30.3) and their weight ranged from 7 to 20 kg (median 14.1). Neither metabolic nor anesthesiological complications were recorded. In 89% of cases, the CD 34+ cell target was achieved at a single harvest; the median number of CD 34+ cells was 10.8 106/kg/leukapheresis (range 1,117) and the median collection efficiency was 63.4% (range 25,100.6). Leukapheresis under anesthesia is feasible and safe in very low-weight children whose compliance is lacking due to age and disease. J. Clin. Apheresis, 2005 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Outcome of minimally invasive management of salivary calculi in 4,691 patients

Heinrich Iro MD
Abstract Objective: To evaluate the application of minimally invasive techniques in the management of salivary stones. Background: The incidence of salivary calculi is 60 cases/million/year, with most stones situated in the mid or proximal duct. The current treatment of these stones is adenectomy. This paper reports the results of minimally invasive methods of stone removal that avoid gland excision. Methods: Observational study of 5,528 consecutive patients treated by lithotripsy, endoscopy, basket retrieval, and /or surgery in five centers from 1990 to 2004 inclusive. A total of 567cases were excluded, leaving 4,691 patients (parotid n = 1,165, submandibular n = 3,526) for analysis. Results: Salivary calculi were eliminated in 3,775/4,691 (80.5%) of cases and partly cleared in 782/4,691 (16.7%). Salivary glands were removed in 134/4,691 (2.9%) of patients with symptoms in whom treatment failed. Conclusions: Minimally invasive techniques move treatment of salivary calculi to an outpatient or a day case setting. They are reliable ways of both retrieving stones and eliminating symptoms, and mean that the gland rarely has to be removed. Laryngoscope, 2009 [source]

Manipulating sex ratios for conservation: short-term risks and long-term benefits

C. Wedekind
Manipulating family sex ratio is often possible, either through non-invasive methods like changing sex-determining ecological or social factors, or through more invasive methods such as hormone treatment of embryos or sperm sexing prior to using assisted reproductive technologies. If the number of available eggs limits population growth, the production of relatively more daughters than sons may eventually lead to increased population growth in terms of absolute numbers. However, any deviation of the effective sex ratio from equality increases the rate of inbreeding and the loss of genetic variance in the next generation. I show here that there is a range of female biased sex ratios where increased population growth outweighs the effect of an enhanced inbreeding rate during the first generation or the first few generations after the start of a sex ratio manipulation programme. This is especially so in small and declining populations, where some sex ratio manipulations not only increase the effective population number Ne, but also shift the population quickly into population numbers that are safe against the Allee effect. Consequently, an optimal sex ratio manipulation with respect to the genetic quality of a population means sending an endangered population first through a genetic bottleneck to achieve increased Ne, and hence decreased rates of inbreeding, in the long run. [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2009
ABSTRACT Nanotechnologies are an expression of the human ability to control and manipulate matter on a very small scale. Their use will enable an even and constant monitoring of human organisms, in a new and perhaps less invasive way. Debates at all levels , national, European and international , have pointed out the common difficulty of giving a complete, clear definition of nanotechnologies. This is primarily due to the variety of their components, to the fact that there is not just one technology but several. The most significant medical applications of nanotechnologies are in the diagnostic and the therapeutic fields, eg biosensors and molecular imaging, providing diagnosis and drug delivery with no invasive methods involved. Like any other emerging field, such technologies imply new possibilities for improving health but, on the other hand, they are still at an experimental stage and therefore should be implemented under rigorous safety testing before going on general release. For this purpose, the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) of nanotechnologies have been elaborated by study groups, in order to develop solutions before the results of the tests are diffused into medical practice. The aim of this paper is to define some of the ethical issues concerning biomedical applications and to evaluate whether there is a need for new or additional guidelines and regulations. [source]

The use of renal scintigraphy in assessing the potential for recovery in the obstructed renal tract in children

A. Thompson
Objective To assess the value of renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in predicting functional recovery after the surgical relief of obstructed kidneys in children. Patients and methods Forty-three children underwent surgery to relieve upper urinary tract obstruction; 37 had pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction and six had vesico-ureteric junction obstruction. The indication for surgery was a combination of an obstructed renogram with symptoms of either pain or pyelonephritis. Most children (41) had < 40% function on the affected side before surgery, with just two having hyperfunction (> 55%). In all patients intravenous urography before surgery showed hydronephrosis, and a micturating cystogram was used to exclude coexisting reflux in the presence of an associated megaureter. Diuretic renography (using 99mTc-mercaptoacetyl triglycine or 123I-hippuran) and DMSA scintigraphy were both carried out before surgery and the renography repeated 6 months afterward. Results The renographic drainage curves improved from obstructed to unobstructed or ,dilated unobstructed' on all postoperative studies. Regression analysis showed that preoperative DMSA scan was an excellent predictor of outcome (P < 0.001) whilst the preoperative renogram was a relatively poor predictor of the functional result. In four patients where the initial renographic function was < 10%, DMSA scintigraphy predicted correctly the capacity for recovery in three and the inability to improve in the fourth. Conclusion Before surgery, DMSA scintigraphy in children with upper urinary tract obstruction is a more useful estimate of probable long-term renal function than value from diuresis renography. If there is doubt about the desirability of reconstructive surgery, a DMSA scan may eliminate the need for more invasive methods of estimating recovery, e.g. a period of nephrostomy drainage. [source]