Intrinsic Growth Rate (intrinsic + growth_rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2006
Stephen A. Arnott
Abstract There is strong evidence that genetic capacity for growth evolves toward an optimum rather than an absolute maximum. This implies that fast growth has a cost and that trade-offs occur between growth and other life-history traits, but the fundamental mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous work on the Atlantic silverside fish Menidia menidia has demonstrated a trade-off between growth and swimming performance. We hypothesize that the trade-off derives from the competing metabolic demands associated with growth and swimming activity. We tested this by measuring standard metabolic rate (MSTD), maximum sustainable metabolic rate (MACT) and metabolic scope of laboratory-reared silversides originating from two geographically distinct populations with well-documented differences in genetic capacity for growth. The fast-growth genotype had a significantly greater MSTD than the slow-growth genotype, but a similar MACT when swum to near exhaustion. The scope for activity of the fast-growth genotype was lower than that of the slow-growth genotype. Furthermore, the fast-growth genotype eats larger meals, thereby incurring a greater postprandial oxygen demand. We conclude that a metabolic trade-off occurs between growth and other metabolic demands and that this trade-off provides a general mechanism underlying the evolution of growth rate. [source]

Effects of the past and the present on species distribution: land-use history and demography of wintergreen

Kathleen Donohue
Summary 1,Past land use can have long-term effects on plant species' distributional patterns if alterations in resources and environmental conditions have persistent effects on population demography (environmental change) and/or if plants are intrinsically limited in their colonization ability (historical factors). 2,We evaluated the role of environmental alteration vs. historical factors in controlling distributional patterns of Gaultheria procumbens, a woody, clonal understorey species with a pronounced restriction to areas that have never been ploughed, and near absence from adjoining areas that were ploughed in the 19th century. The demographic study was conducted in scrub oak and hardwood plant communities on an extensive sand plain, where it was possible to control for the effect of variation in environment prior to land use. 3,The observed demographic effects were contrary to the hypothesis that persistent environmental alteration depressed demographic performance and limited the distribution of G. procumbens. We observed no overall effect of land-use history on stem density, stem recruitment or flower production. In fact, some aspects of performance were enhanced in previously ploughed areas. Populations in previously ploughed areas exhibited less stem mortality in scrub oak transitions, an increase in germination, seedling longevity and proportion of potentially reproductive stems in both plant communities, a trend for slower observed rates of population decline in both plant communities, and a higher projected rate of population growth in the scrub oak transitions. Thus, particularly in scrub oak communities, the lower abundance of G. procumbens in formerly ploughed than in unploughed areas contrasted with its performance. 4,The limited occurrence of G. procumbens in formerly farmed areas was explained instead by its slow intrinsic growth rate, coupled with limited seedling establishment. Lateral population extension occurred exclusively through vegetative growth, allowing a maximum expansion of 43 cm year,1. 5,We conclude that inherent limitations in the colonizing ability of some plant species may present a major obstacle in the restoration or recovery of plant communities on intensively disturbed sites, even in the absence of persistent environmental effects that depress population growth. [source]

Demography, life history and migrations in a Mexican mantled howler group in a rainforest fragment

Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez
Abstract This paper represents the results of a long-term study (1996,2003) on the demographic changes over time of a Mexican mantled howler (Alouatta palliata mexicana) group in a rainforest fragment (40,ha) in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, with a follow-up census 3 years later (2006). In addition to demographic and life history parameters, we describe six dispersal events. Our results suggest that this group has been expanding during the study period, growing from six to 12 individuals, with an annual average intrinsic growth rate of 0.07, an infant survivorship of 67%, and an average immature to female ratio of 0.90. This increase in size is probably related to the high food availability in their home range. However, fragment isolation may be negatively affecting the dispersal patterns typical of the species, which could result in a loss of genetic variability over time. Am. J. Primatol. 70:114,118, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Parameter Estimation in a Gompertzian Stochastic Model for Tumor Growth

BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2000
L. Ferrante
Summary. The problem of estimating parameters in the drift coefficient when a diffusion process is observed continuously requires some specific assumptions. In this paper, we consider a stochastic version of the Gompertzian model that describes in vivo tumor growth and its sensitivity to treatment with antiangiogenic drugs. An explicit likelihood function is obtained, and we discuss some properties of the maximum likelihood estimator for the intrinsic growth rate of the stochastic Gompertzian model. Furthermore, we show some simulation results on the behavior of the corresponding discrete estimator. Finally, an application is given to illustrate the estimate of the model parameters using real data. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2003
Stephan B. Munch
Abstract Several recent studies have demonstrated that rapid growth early in life leads to decreased physiological performance. Nearly all involved experiments over short time periods (<1 day) to control for potentially confounding effects of size. This approach, however, neglects the benefits an individual accrues by growing. The net effect of growth can only be evaluated over a longer interval in which rapidly growing individuals are allowed the time required to attain the expected benefits of large size. We used two populations of Menidia menidia with disparate intrinsic growth rates to address this issue. We compared growth and survivorship among populations subject to predation in mesocosms under ambient light and temperature conditions for a period of up to 30 days to address two questions: Do the growth rates of fish in these populations respond differently to the presence of predators? Is the previously demonstrated survival cost of growth counterbalanced by the benefits of increased size? We found that growth was insensitive to predation risk: neither population appeared to modify growth rates in response to predation levels. Moreover, the fast-growing population suffered significantly higher mortality throughout the trials despite being 40% larger than the slow-growing population at the experiment's end. These results confirm that the costs of rapid growth extend over prolonged intervals and are not ameliorated merely by the attainment of large size. [source]