Intravenous Anesthesia (intravenous + anesthesia)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Intravenous Anesthesia

  • total intravenous anesthesia


  • Selected Abstracts


    EMLA® Cream coated on the rigid bronchoscope for tracheobronchial foreign body removal in children

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2009
    Hai Yu MD
    Abstract Objectives: Removal of a tracheal or bronchial foreign body is a common emergent surgical procedure in children. The anesthetic management can be challenging. EMLA® Cream (EC) has been widely used to provide topical anesthesia. In the present study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of EC coated on the rigid bronchoscope for tracheobronchial foreign body removal in children undergoing intravenous anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation. Study Design: The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to receive either EC or placebo (lubricant ointment) coated on the rigid bronchoscope. Intravenous anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation were performed in all patients. Heart rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and frequency and degree of breath holding were recorded. After surgery, the bronchoscopist rated overall surgical manipulation as excellent, fair, and poor. The durations of postoperative care were also recorded. Results: Episodes of oxygen desaturation (SpO2 < 90%) occurred in 3/15 (20%) patients in the EC group and in 9/15 (60%) patients in the control group (P < .05). Occurrences and degrees of breath holding were less in the EC group than that in the control group (P < .05). Ranks of surgical manipulation were excellent in 80% of patients in the EC group versus 13% of patients in the control group (P < .05). The durations of postoperative care were shorter in the EC group than that in the control group (P < .05). Conclusions: EC coated on the rigid bronchoscope combined with intravenous anesthesia could provide more efficacious and safer anesthesia for tracheobronchial foreign body removal in children under spontaneous ventilation. Laryngoscope, 119:158,161, 2009 [source]


    The incidence of intra-operative awareness during general anesthesia in China: a multi-center observational study

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 7 2009
    L. XU
    Background: The incidence of awareness in patients undergoing general anesthesia is 0.1,0.2% in Western countries. The medical literatures about awareness during general anesthesia are still rare in China, but some previous studies have reported a higher incidence (1.4,6%) of intra-operative awareness. To find out the reason why the incidence reported in China is much higher than that in Western countries, we performed a prospective, multicenter, non-randomized observational study to determine the true incidence of intra-operative awareness in China. Methods: This is a prospective, non-randomized descriptive cohort study that was conducted at 25 academic medical centers in China. Eleven thousand one hundred and eighty-five patients were interviewed by research staff for evaluation of awareness at the first and fourth day after general anesthesia with muscle relaxation. An independent blinded committee evaluated the responses and determined whether awareness occurred. Necessary data were collected for a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Data from 11,101 patients were presented. Forty-six cases (0.41%) were reported as definite awareness and 47 additional cases (0.41%) as possible awareness. Three hundred and fifty-five patients (3.19%) had dreams during general anesthesia. Awareness was associated with increased American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, a previous anesthesia, and anesthesia methods of total intravenous anesthesia. Conclusion: The incidence of intra-operative awareness in China is approximately 0.41%, two to three times higher than that widely cited in Western countries. Inappropriately light anesthesia, and the population proportion of surgery and general anesthesia in China may account for the difference. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT00693875.) [source]


    Additives in intravenous anesthesia modulates pulmonary inflammation in a model of LPS-induced respiratory distress

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2009
    J. J. HAITSMA
    Background: It has been suggested that propofol with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can modulate the systemic inflammatory response. Prolonged higher levels of pulmonary inflammation are associated with poor outcome of patients with acute lung injury. In the present study, we hypothesized that pulmonary inflammation could be modulated by propofol with EDTA compared with propofol with sulfite. Methods: Respiratory distress was induced in rats (n=25) by intratracheal nebulization of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 24 h, animals were randomized to either propofol with EDTA (PropofolEDTA), propofol with sulfite (Propofolsulfite) or ketamine/midazolam (Ket/Mid); control animals received saline (n=30). Animals were ventilated for 4 h and blood gases were measured hourly. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for cytokine analysis of: tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2. Results: LPS led to increased pulmonary inflammation in all groups compared with the control groups. Gas exchange deteriorated over time only in the LPS Propofolsulfite group and was significantly lower than the Ket/Mid group. Only IL-6 was significantly higher in the LPS Propofolsulfite group compared with both the Ket/Mid group and the PropofolEDTA group. Conclusion: Pulmonary IL-6 can be modulated by additives in systemic anesthesia. Implication Statement: This study demonstrates that pulmonary inflammation caused by direct lung injury can be modulated by intravenous anesthesia used in critically ill patients. [source]


    Beneficial effects of high positive end-expiratory pressure in lung respiratory mechanics during laparoscopic surgery

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2009
    L. F. MARACAJÁ-NETO
    Background: The effect of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the elastic properties of the respiratory system during pneumoperitoneum (PnP) remains a controversial subject. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NMB and PEEP on respiratory mechanics. Methods: We performed a dynamic analysis of respiratory mechanics in patients subjected to PnP. Twenty-one patients underwent cholecystectomy videolaparoscopy and total intravenous anesthesia. The respiratory system resistance (RRS), pulmonary elastance (EP), chest wall elastance (ECW), and respiratory system elastance (ERS) were computed via the least squares fit technique using an equation describing the motion of the respiratory system, which uses primary signs such as airway pressure, tidal volume, air flow, and esophageal pressures. Measurements were taken after tracheal intubation, PnP, NMB, establishment of PEEP (10 cmH2O), and PEEP withdrawal [zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP)]. Results: PnP significantly increased ERS by 27%; both EP and ECW increased 21.3 and 64.1%, respectively (P<0.001). NMB did not alter the respiratory mechanic properties. Setting PEEP reduced ERS by 8.6% (P<0.05), with a reduction of 10.9% in EP (P<0.01) and a significant decline of 15.7% in RRS (P<0.05). These transitory changes in elastance disappeared after ZEEP. Conclusions: We concluded that the 10 cmH2O of PEEP attenuates the effects of PnP in respiratory mechanics, lowering RRS, EP, and ERS. These effects may be useful in the ventilatory approach for patients experiencing a non-physiological increase in IAP owing to PnP in laparoscopic procedures. [source]


    Effects of remifentanil/propofol in comparison with isoflurane on dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation in humans

    ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 8 2001
    K. Engelhard
    Background: This study investigates the effects of remifentanil and propofol in comparison to isoflurane on dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation in humans. Methods: In 16 awake patients dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation was measured using transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD). Thereafter patients were intubated, ventilated with O2/air (FiO2=0.33) and randomly assigned to one of the following anesthetic protocols: group 1 (n=8): 0.5 ,g · kg,1 · min,1 remifentanil combined with a propofol-target plasma concentration of 1.5 ,g · ml,1; group 2 (n=8): 1.8 % isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Following 20 min of equilibration the autoregulatory challenge was repeated. Arterial blood gases and body temperature were maintained constant over time. Statistics: Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Dynamic autoregulation was intact in all patients prior to induction of anesthesia expressed by an autoregulatory index (ARI) of 5.4±1.21 (mean±SD, group 1) and 5.9±0.98 (mean±SD, group 2). With remifentanil/propofol anesthesia dynamic autoregulation was similar to the awake state (group 1: ARI=4.9±0.88). In contrast, autoregulatory response was delayed with 1.5 MAC isoflurane (group 2, ARI=2.1±0.92) (P<0.05). Conclusion: These data show that dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation is maintained with remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia. This is consistent with the view that narcotics (and hypnotics) do not alter the physiologic cerebrovascular responses to changes in MAP. In contrast, 1.5 MAC isoflurane delays cerebrovascular autoregulation compared to the awake state. [source]


    Supplementing desflurane with intravenous anesthesia reduces fetal cardiac dysfunction during open fetal surgery

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 8 2010
    ANNE BOAT MD
    Summary Objective:, To lower the incidence and severity of fetal cardiovascular depression during maternal fetal surgery under general anesthesia. Aim:, We hypothesized that supplemental intravenous anesthesia (SIVA) with propofol and remifentanil would lower the need for high-dose inhalational anesthesia and provide adequate maternal depth of anesthesia and uterine relaxation. SIVA technique would minimize prolonged fetal exposure to deep inhalational anesthetics and significant intraoperative fetal cardiovascular depression. Background:, Fetal hypoxia and significant fetal hemodynamic changes occur during open fetal surgery because of the challenges such as surgical manipulation, hysterotomy, uterine contractions, and effects of anesthetic drugs. Tocolysis, a vital component of fetal surgery, is usually achieved using volatile anesthetic agents. High concentrations of volatile agents required to provide an appropriate degree of uterine relaxation may cause maternal hypotension and placental hypoperfusion, as well as direct fetal cardiovascular depression. Methods:, We reviewed medical records of 39 patients who presented for ex utero intrapartum treatment and mid-gestation open fetal surgery between April 2004 and March 2009. Out of 39 patients, three were excluded because of the lack of echocardiographic data; 18 patients received high-concentration desflurane anesthesia and 18 patients had SIVA with desflurane for uterine relaxation. We analyzed the following data: demographics, fetal medical condition, anesthetic drugs, concentration and duration of desflurane, maternal arterial blood pressure, intraoperative fetal echocardiogram, presence of fetal bradycardia, and need for intraoperative fetal resuscitation. Results:, Adequate uterine relaxation was achieved with about 1.5 MAC of desflurane in the SIVA group compared to about 2.5 MAC in the desflurane only anesthesia group (P = 0.0001). More fetuses in the high-dose desflurane group compared to the SIVA group developed moderate-severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction over time intraoperatively (P = 0.02). 61% of fetuses in the high-dose desflurane group received fetal resuscitative interventions compared to 26% of fetuses in the SIVA group (P = 0.0489). Conclusion:, SIVA as described provides adequate maternal anesthesia and uterine relaxation, and it allows for decreased use of desflurane during open fetal surgery. Decreased use of desflurane may better preserve fetal cardiac function. [source]


    World SIVA: the pediatric initiative

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 3 2010
    KEIRA P. MASON MD
    Summary Total intravenous anesthesia and targeted controlled infusions are emerging and developing techniques that can have a broad range of important clinical applications in future pediatric care. [source]


    Overview of total intravenous anesthesia in children

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 3 2010
    VAITHIANADAN MANI MBChB FRCA
    Summary Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) can be defined as a technique, in which general anesthesia is induced and maintained using purely i.v. agents. TIVA has become more popular and possible in recent times because of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic properties of propofol and the availability of short-acting synthetic opioids. Also, new concepts in PK modeling and advances in computer technology have allowed the development of sophisticated delivery systems, which make control of anesthesia given by the i.v. route as straightforward and user friendly as conventional, inhalational techniques. Monitoring of depth of anesthesia is being validated for these techniques, and in the future, measurements of expired propofol may be possible to guide administration. TIVA is being used increasingly in children. [source]


    Effects of dexmedetomidine on intraoperative motor and somatosensory evoked potential monitoring during spinal surgery in adolescents

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 11 2008
    JOSEPH D. TOBIAS MD
    Summary Background:, Dexmedetomidine may be a useful agent as an adjunct to an opioid,propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique during posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery. There are limited data regarding its effects on somatosensory (SSEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Methods:, The data presented represent a retrospective review of prospectively collected quality assurance data. When the decision was made to incorporate dexmedetomidine into the anesthetic regimen for intraoperative care of patients undergoing PSF, a prospective evaluation of its effects on SSEPs and MEPs was undertaken. SSEPs and MEPs were measured before and after the administration of dexmedetomidine in a cohort of pediatric patients undergoing PSF. Dexmedetomidine (1 ,g·kg,1 over 20 min followed by an infusion of 0.5 ,g·kg,1·h,1) was administered at the completion of the surgical procedure, but prior to wound closure as an adjunct to TIVA which included propofol and remifentanil, adjusted to maintain a constant depth of anesthesia as measured by a BIS of 45,60. Results:, The cohort for the study included nine patients, ranging in age from 12 to 17 years, anesthetized with remifentanil and propofol. In the first patient, dexmedetomidine was administered in conjunction with propofol at 110 ,g·kg,1·min,1 which resulted in a decrease in the bispectral index from 58 to 31. Although no significant effect was noted on the SSEPs (amplitude or latency) or the MEP duration, there was a decrease in the MEP amplitude. The protocol was modified so that the propofol infusion was incrementally decreased during the dexmedetomidine infusion to achieve the same depth of anesthesia. In the remaining eight patients, the bispectral index was 52 ± 6 at the start of the dexmedetomidine loading dose and 49 ± 4 at its completion (P = NS). There was no statistically significant difference in the MEPs and SSEPs obtained before and at completion of the dexmedetomidine loading dose. Conclusion:, Using the above-mentioned protocol, dexmedetomidine can be used as a component of TIVA during PSF without affecting neurophysiological monitoring. [source]


    Multidrug intravenous anesthesia for children undergoing MRI: a comparison with general anesthesia

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 12 2007
    AHMED A. SHORRAB MD
    Summary Background:, We used a multidrug intravenous anesthesia regimen with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol to provide anesthesia for children during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This regimen was compared with general anesthesia in a randomized comparative study. Outcome measures were safety, side effects and recovery variables in addition to adverse events in relation to age strata. Methods:, The children received either general anesthesia with propofol, vecuronium and isoflurane [general endotracheal anesthesia (GET) group; n = 313] or intravenous anesthesia with midazolam, ketamine, and propofol [intravenous anesthesia (MKP) group; n = 342]. Treatment assignment was randomized based on the date of the MRI. Physiological parameters were monitored during anesthesia and recovery. Desaturation (SpO2 < 93%), airway problems, and the need to repeat the scan were recorded. The discharge criteria were stable vital signs, return to baseline consciousness, absence of any side effects, and ability to ambulate. Results:, With the exception of two children (0.6%) in the MKP group, all enrolled children completed the scan. A significantly greater number (2.3%) required a repeat scan in the MKP group (P < 0.05) and were sedated with a bolus dose of propofol. The total incidence of side effects was comparable between the MKP (7.7%) and GET groups (7.0%). Infants below the age of 1 year showed a significantly higher incidence of adverse events compared with the other age strata within each group. Within the MKP group, risk ratio was 0.40 and 0.26 when comparing infants aged below 1 year with the two older age strata, respectively. Recovery characteristics were comparable between both groups. Conclusions:, Intravenous midazolam, ketamine and propofol provides safe and adequate anesthesia, comparable with that obtained from general endotracheal anesthesia, for most children during MRI. [source]


    A combination of total intravenous anesthesia and thoracic epidural for thymectomy in juvenile myasthenia gravis

    PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA, Issue 4 2007
    OLIVER BAGSHAW MBChB FRCAArticle first published online: 12 DEC 200
    Summary Juvenile myasthenia gravis is the acquired form of the disease in children and presents with ocular signs, fatigability, weakness and bulbar problems. The majority of patients demonstrate thymic hyperplasia and have been shown to benefit from thymectomy. The main considerations for the anesthesiologist are the degree of muscle weakness, the muscle groups involved and sensitivity to neuromuscular blocking drugs and volatile agents. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with epidural analgesia is probably the anesthetic technique of choice, although the latter is often avoided, because of the risk of a very high block. Two cases of thymectomy are presented where anesthesia was provided using a combination of TIVA and thoracic epidural analgesia. Both patients tolerated the technique well and had an uncomplicated perioperative course. [source]


    EMLA® Cream coated on the rigid bronchoscope for tracheobronchial foreign body removal in children

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2009
    Hai Yu MD
    Abstract Objectives: Removal of a tracheal or bronchial foreign body is a common emergent surgical procedure in children. The anesthetic management can be challenging. EMLA® Cream (EC) has been widely used to provide topical anesthesia. In the present study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of EC coated on the rigid bronchoscope for tracheobronchial foreign body removal in children undergoing intravenous anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation. Study Design: The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to receive either EC or placebo (lubricant ointment) coated on the rigid bronchoscope. Intravenous anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation were performed in all patients. Heart rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and frequency and degree of breath holding were recorded. After surgery, the bronchoscopist rated overall surgical manipulation as excellent, fair, and poor. The durations of postoperative care were also recorded. Results: Episodes of oxygen desaturation (SpO2 < 90%) occurred in 3/15 (20%) patients in the EC group and in 9/15 (60%) patients in the control group (P < .05). Occurrences and degrees of breath holding were less in the EC group than that in the control group (P < .05). Ranks of surgical manipulation were excellent in 80% of patients in the EC group versus 13% of patients in the control group (P < .05). The durations of postoperative care were shorter in the EC group than that in the control group (P < .05). Conclusions: EC coated on the rigid bronchoscope combined with intravenous anesthesia could provide more efficacious and safer anesthesia for tracheobronchial foreign body removal in children under spontaneous ventilation. Laryngoscope, 119:158,161, 2009 [source]


    Xenon enhances hypothermic neuroprotection in asphyxiated newborn pigs

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Elavazhagan Chakkarapani MBBS
    Objective To investigate whether inhaling 50% xenon during hypothermia (HT) offers better neuroprotection than xenon or HT alone. Methods Ninety-eight newborn pigs underwent a 45-minute global hypoxic-ischemic insult severe enough to cause permanent brain injury, and 12 pigs underwent sham protocol. Pigs then received intravenous anesthesia and were randomized to 6 treatment groups: (1) normothermia (NT; rectal temperature 38.5°C, n = 18); (2) 18 hours 50% xenon with NT (n = 12); (3) 12 hours HT (rectal temperature 33.5°C, n = 18); (4) 24 hours HT (rectal temperature 33.5°C, n = 17); (5) 18 hours 50% xenon with 12 hours HT (n = 18); and (6) 18 hours 50% xenon with 24 hours HT (n = 17). Fifty percent xenon was administered via a closed circle with 30% oxygen and 20% nitrogen. After 10 hours rewarming, cooled pigs remained normothermic until terminal perfusion fixation at 72 hours. Global and regional brain neuropathology and clinical neurological scores were performed. Results Xenon (p = 0.011) and 12 or 24 hours HT (p = 0.003) treatments offered significant histological global, and regional neuroprotection. Combining xenon with HT yielded an additive neuroprotective effect, as there was no interaction effect (p = 0.54). Combining Xenon with 24 hours HT offered 75% global histological neuroprotection with similarly improved regional neuroprotection: thalamus (100%), brainstem (100%), white matter (86%), basal ganglia (76%), cortical gray matter (74%), cerebellum (73%), and hippocampus (72%). Neurology scores improved in the 24-hour HT and combined xenon HT groups at 72 hours. Interpretation Combining xenon with HT is a promising therapy for severely encephalopathic infants, doubling the neuroprotection offered by HT alone. ANN NEUROL 2010 [source]