Intracellular Cyclic AMP (intracellular + cyclic_amp)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Involvement of ,1 integrin in microglial chemotaxis and proliferation on fibronectin: Different regulations by ADP through PKA

GLIA, Issue 2 2005
Kaoru Nasu-Tada
Abstract Microglia are immune cells in the brain; their activation, migration, and proliferation have pivotal roles in brain injuries and diseases. Microglia are known to attach firmly to fibronectin, the upregulation of which is associated with several pathological conditions in the CNS, through ,1 integrin and become activated. Extracellular nucleotides can serve as potent signaling molecules. Recently, ATP and ADP were revealed to possess chemoattractive properties to microglia via Gi-coupled P2Y receptors. In the present study, we report that the ADP-induced chemotaxis of microglia is mediated by P2Y12/13 receptors and is ,1 integrin-dependent in the presence of fibronectin. Signals from P2Y12/13 receptors also cause ,1 integrin translocation to the membrane ruffle regions, but this redistribution was lost when the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) was increased by forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP. This inhibitory effect of cAMP-elevating agents did not appear when microglia were co-incubated with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT-5720, suggesting that PKA is a negative regulator of the ,1 integrin translocation. We also show that the engagement of ,1 integrin enhanced microglial proliferation. Signals from P2Y12/13 receptors attenuated the proliferation, whereas ADP itself had no effect on microglial growth. Furthermore, ,1 integrin-induced proliferation is positively regulated by the cAMP-dependent PKA. Together, these results indicate the involvement of ,1 integrin in microglial proliferation and chemotaxis, both of which have clinical importance. The data also suggest that PKA is inversely involved in these two cellular functions. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cimetidine inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced cell signaling

Tatsuya Fujikawa
Abstract Background:, Cimetidine, a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, has been demonstrated to have anticancer effects on colorectal cancer, melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. In the current study, we clarified that cimetidine inhibits both epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cell proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Method:, HCC cell lines (Hep3B, HLF, SK-Hep-1, JHH-2, PLC/PRF/5 and HLE) were used and cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay. Cell migration was measured by in vitro cell migration assay. Biological effects of cimetidine were assessed with human EGF receptor (EGFR)-expressing mouse fibroblast cells (NR6-WT). The autophosphorylation of EGFR and the activation of other downstream effectors were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. The concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured by competitive enzyme immunoassay. Results:, Cimetidine inhibited both EGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in Hep3B, HLF, SK-Hep-1 and JHH-2, while cimetidine did not affect EGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in PLC/PRF/5 and HLE. Cimetidine was revealed to disrupt the EGF-induced autophosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effectors, mitogen activated protein kinases and phospholipase C-,. To define the molecular basis of this negative regulation, we identified that cimetidine significantly decreased intracellular cAMP levels and that decrement of cAMP inhibited autophosphorylation of EGFR. The cell permeable cAMP analog, CPT-cAMPS reversed the cimetidine-induced inhibition of EGF-induced cell proliferation and cell migration by restoring autophosphorylation of EGFR. Conclusion:, Cimetidine inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation and migration in HCC cell lines by decreasing the concentration of intracellular cAMP levels. Cimetidine may be a candidate chemopreventive agent for HCC. [source]

Transcriptional Regulation of 2,,3,-Cyclic Nucleotide 3,-Phosphodiesterase Gene Expression by Cyclic AMP in C6 Cells

M. Gravel
Abstract: It was recently shown that the two transcripts encoding the isoforms of 2,,3,-cyclic nucleotide 3,-phosphodiesterase (CNP1 and CNP2) are differentially regulated during the process of oligodendrocyte maturation. In oligodendrocyte precursors, only CNP2 mRNA is present, whereas in differentiating oligodendrocytes, both CNP1 and CNP2 mRNAs are expressed. This pattern of CNP expression is likely due to stage-specific transcriptional regulation of the two CNP promoters during the process of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here, we report the influence of increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels on the transcription of both CNP1 and CNP2 mRNAs in rat C6 glioma cells. We found that the transcription of CNP1 mRNA was significantly increased in comparison with that of CNP2 mRNA in cells treated with cAMP analogues to elevate intracellular cAMP levels. This up-regulation of CNP1 expression (a) is due to an increase of transcription, (b) requires de novo protein synthesis, and (c) requires the activity of protein kinase A. These results are physiologically significant and support the idea that a cAMP-mediated pathway is part of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of CNP1 in oligodendrocytes. The regulation of CNP1 promoter activity by cAMP was then investigated in stably transfected C6 cell lines containing various deletions of the CNP promoter directing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. We showed that the sequence between nucleotides -126 and -102 was essential for the cAMP-dependent induction of CNP1 expression. Gel retardation analysis showed that two protein-DNA complexes are formed between this sequence and nuclear factors from C6 cells treated or not treated with cAMP. This suggests that the induction of CNP1 mRNA transcription is not mediated by changes in binding of nuclear factors that interact directly with the -126/-102 sequence. Sequence analysis of this region revealed the presence of a putative activator protein-2 (AP-2) binding site. It is interesting that mutagenesis of this region resulted in a significant reduction in transcriptional responses to cAMP, implying a possible role for the AP-2 factor in the expression of CNP1. In addition, we have shown that putative binding sites for activator protein-4 and nuclear factor-1 adjacent to the AP-2 site are required for efficient induction of CNP1 expression by cAMP. Taken together, our results show that the cAMP-dependent accumulation of CNP1 mRNA appears to depend on the synergistic interaction of several regulatory elements. [source]

Schwann cells express IP prostanoid receptors coupled to an elevation in intracellular cyclic AMP,

Naser Muja
Abstract We have shown previously that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) are each produced in an explant model of peripheral nerve injury. We report that IP prostanoid receptor mRNA and protein are present in primary rat Schwann cells. IP prostanoid receptor stimulation using prostacyclin produced an elevation in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration ([cAMP]i) in primary Schwann cells. Peak [cAMP]i was observed between 5,15 min of stimulation followed by a gradual recovery toward basal level. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB) on Ser133 was also detected after IP prostanoid receptor stimulation and CREB phosphorylation was inhibited completely by the protein kinase A inhibitor, H-89. Intracellular calcium levels were not affected by IP prostanoid receptor stimulation. Unlike forskolin, IP prostanoid receptor stimulation did not significantly augment Schwann cell proliferation in response to growth factor treatment. However, IP prostanoid receptor stimulation increased the number of Schwann cells that were able to generate a calcium transient in response to P2 purinergic receptor activation. These findings suggest that signaling via the IP prostanoid receptor may by relevant to Schwann cell biology in vivo. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]