Intracellular Concentration (intracellular + concentration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Enhancement of the NAD(P)(H) Pool in Escherichia coli for Biotransformation

F. Heuser
Abstract In pyridine nucleotide-dependent, reductive whole cell biotransformation with resting cells of Escherichia coli, the availability of intracellular NAD(P)(H) is a pivotal point for an efficient and highly productive substrate conversion. The question whether an increase of the intracellular NAD(P)(H) concentration could increase the productivity was discussed controversially in the past. This is the first report on an E. coli strain with an increased NAD(P)(H) pool which was tested in a reductive biotransformation system for an increased productivity. Biotransformation was performed with a strain overexpressing a gene encoding an (R)-specific alcohol dehydrogenase for the stereospecific, NADPH-dependent reduction of methyl acetoacetate (MAA) to (R)-methyl-3-hydroxybutanoate (MHB). Cofactor regeneration was implemented via glucose oxidation by coexpression of a gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase. The specific MHB productivity (mmol mg,1 cell dry weight,1h,1) enabled a comparison between the E. coli,BL21(DE3) wild-type and a genetically modified strain. The enhancement of the NAD(P)(H) pool was achieved by genetic manipulation of the NAD(H) biosynthetic pathways. After simultaneous overexpression of the pncB and nadE genes, encoding nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase and NAD synthetase, measurements of the total NAD(P)(H) pool, sizes showed a 7-fold and 2-fold increased intracellular concentration of NAD(H) and NADP(H), respectively. However, the implementation of an E.,coli strain carrying a genomically integrated pncB gene with an upstream T7,promoter for biotransformation did not result in reproducible increased specific cell productivity. [source]

Environmental tuning of mutation rates

Claude Saint-Ruf
Summary Through their life cycles, bacteria experience many different environments in which the relationship between available energy resources and the frequency and the nature of various stresses is highly variable. In order to survive in such changeable environments, bacteria must balance the need for nutritional competence with stress resistance. In Escherichia coli natural populations, this is most frequently achieved by changing the regulation of the RpoS sigma factor-dependent general stress response. One important secondary consequence of altered regulation of the RpoS regulon is the modification of mutation rates. For example, under nutrient limitation during stationary phase, the high intracellular concentration of RpoS diminishes nutritional competence, increases stress resistance, and, by downregulating the mismatch repair system and downregulating the expression of the dinB gene (coding for PolIV translesion synthesis polymerase) increases mutation rates. The reduction of the intracellular concentration of RpoS has exactly opposite effects on nutritional competence, stress resistance and mutation rates. Therefore, the natural selection that favours variants having the highest fitness under different environmental conditions results in high variability of stress-associated mutation rates in those variants. [source]

Identification of a 250 kDa putative microtubule-associated protein as bovine ferritin

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005
Evidence for a ferritin, microtubule interaction
We reported previously on the purification and partial characterization of a putative microtubule-associated protein (MAP) from bovine adrenal cortex with an approximate molecular mass of 250 kDa. The protein was expressed ubiquitously in mammalian tissues, and bound to microtubules in vitro and in vivo, but failed to promote tubulin polymerization into microtubules. In the present study, partial amino acid sequencing revealed that the protein shares an identical primary structure with the widely distributed iron storage protein, ferritin. We also found that the putative MAP and ferritin are indistinguishable from each other by electrophoretic mobility, immunological properties and morphological appearance. Moreover, the putative MAP conserves the iron storage and incorporation properties of ferritin, confirming that the two are structurally and functionally the same protein. This fact led us to investigate the interaction of ferritin with microtubules by direct electron microscopic observations. Ferritin was bound to microtubules either singly or in the form of large intermolecular aggregates. We suggest that the formation of intermolecular aggregates contributes to the intracellular stability of ferritin. The interactions between ferritin and microtubules observed in this study, in conjunction with the previous report that the administration of microtubule depolymerizing drugs increases the serum release of ferritin in rats [Ramm GA, Powell LW & Halliday JW (1996) J Gastroenterol Hepatol11, 1072,1078], support the probable role of microtubules in regulating the intracellular concentration and release of ferritin under different physiological circumstances. [source]

Phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity is induced by phytanic acid

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2000
Anna W. M. Zomer
Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a branched-chain fatty acid present in various dietary products such as milk, cheese and fish. In patients with Refsum disease, accumulation of phytanic acid occurs due to a deficiency of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, a peroxisomal enzyme containing a peroxisomal targeting signal 2. Recently, phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase cDNA has been isolated and functional mutations have been identified. As it has been shown that phytanic acid activates the nuclear hormone receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and all three retinoid X receptors (RXRs), the intracellular concentration of this fatty acid should be tightly regulated. When various cell lines were grown in the presence of phytanic acid, the activity of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase increased up to four times, depending on the particular cell type. In one cell line, HepG2, no induction of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity was observed. After addition of phytanic acid to COS-1 cells, an increase in phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase activity was observed within 2 h, indicating a quick cell response. No stimulation of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase was observed when COS-1 cells were grown in the presence of clofibric acid, 9- cis -retinoic acid or both ligands together. This indicates that the activation of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase is not regulated via PPAR, or RXR. However, stimulation of PPAR, and all RXRs by clofibric acid and 9- cis -retinoic acid was observed in transient transfection assays. These results suggest that the induction of phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase by phytanic acid does not proceed via one of the nuclear hormone receptors, RXR or PPAR,. [source]

Alteration of RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis in Primary Cultured Osteoclasts From SERCA2+/, Mice,,

Yu-Mi Yang
Abstract RANKL is essential for the terminal differentiation of monocytes/marcrophages into osteoclasts. RANKL induces long-lasting oscillations in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) only after 24 h of stimulation. These Ca2+ oscillations play a switch-on role in NFATc1 expression and osteoclast differentiation. Which Ca2+ transporting pathway is induced by RANKL to evoke the Ca2+ oscillations and its specific role in RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation is not known. This study examined the effect of a partial loss of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase type2 (SERCA2) on osteoclast differentiation in SERCA2 heterozygote mice (SERCA2+/,). The BMD in the tibias of SERCA2+/, mice increased >1.5-fold compared with wildtype mice (WT). RANKL-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations were generated 48 h after RANKL treatment in the WT mice but not in the SERCA2+/, bone marrow,derived macrophages (BMMs). Forty-eight hours after RANKL treatment, there was a lower level of NFATc1 protein expression and markedly reduced translocation of NFATc1 into the nucleus during osteoclastogenesis of the SERCA2+/, BMMs. In addition, RANKL treatment of SERCA2+/, BMMs incompletely induced formation of multinucleated cells, leading to reduced bone resorption activity. These results suggest that RANKL-mediated induction of SERCA2 plays a critical role in the RANKL-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations that are essential for osteoclastogenesis. [source]

Direct Measurement of Hormone-Induced Acidification in Intact Bone

Glenn S. Belinsky
Abstract Previous findings have shown that osteoblasts respond to parathyroid hormone (PTH) with an increase in extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in addition to the known effect of PTH to increase local acidification by osteoclasts. We, therefore, investigated use of the Cytosensor to measure the ECAR response of whole intact bone to PTH employing microphysiometry. The Cytosensor measures a generic metabolic increase of cells to various agents. Using neonatal mouse calvaria, we found that the area surrounding the sagittal suture was particularly responsive to PTH. In this bone, the increase in ECAR was slower to develop (6 minutes) and more persistent than in cultured human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells and was preceded by a brief decrease in ECAR Salmon calcitonin also produced an increase in ECAR in this tissue but with a different pattern than that elicited by PTH. Because PTH stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption in mouse calvaria via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated mechanism, we showed that the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin also stimulated ECAR in this tissue. When the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway was activated by maintaining a high intracellular concentration of cAMP using N6 -2,-0-dibutyryladenosine-cAMP (db-cAMP), there was a reduction of PTH-induced acidification, while isobutylmethylxanthine pretreatment potentiated the PTH-induced acidification, consistent with a PKA-mediated pathway. Thapsigargin and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on the PTH-induced increase in ECAR in calvaria, indicating that PKC does not play a major role in the ECAR response in intact bone. These results indicate the utility of using microphysiometry to study ECAR responses in intact tissue and should enable elucidation of the relative importance of extracellular acidification by osteoblasts and osteoclasts to the anabolic and catabolic activities of PTH, respectively. [source]

Lysophosphatidic acid in malignant ascites stimulates migration of human mesenchymal stem cells

Mi Jeong Lee
Abstract Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is elevated in ascites of ovarian cancer patients and is involved in growth and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or stromal cells in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that ascites from ovarian cancer patients and LPA increased migration of human MSCs. The migration of MSCs induced by LPA and malignant ascites was completely abrogated by pretreatment with Ki16425, an antagonist of LPA receptors, and by silencing of endogenous LPA1, but not LPA2, with small interference RNA, suggesting a key role of LPA played in the malignant ascites-induced migration. LPA induced activation of ERK through pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, and pretreatment of MSCs with U0126, a MEK inhibitor, or pertussis toxin attenuated the LPA-induced migration. Moreover, LPA induced activation of RhoA in MSCs, and pretreatment of the cells with Y27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, markedly inhibited the LPA-induced migration. In addition, LPA and malignant ascites increased intracellular concentration of calcium in MSCs, and Ki16425 completely inhibited the elevation of intracellular calcium. These results suggest that LPA is a crucial component of the malignant ascites which induce the migration of MSCs and elevation of intracellular calcium. J. Cell. Biochem. 104: 499,510, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Lactate transport and transporters: General principles and functional roles in brain cells

Leif Hertz
Abstract Lactate is transported across cell membranes by diffusional, saturable cotransport with protons, mediated by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This transport is bidirectional and in the absence of a transcellular H+ gradient, it can increase the intracellular concentration of lactate up to but not beyond the extracellular level (or vice versa). If extra- and intracellular pH differ, however, the equilibrium level is determined by the gradients of both lactate anions and protons. Rates of lactate uptake are determined most often by measuring uptake of labeled lactate, e.g., [U- 14C]lactate. In the case of lactate and other compounds that are metabolized, errors are introduced easily because continuing inwardly directed diffusional net transport of label can be achieved by intracellular metabolism, reducing the intracellular level of the nonmetabolized lactate and thus maintaining a concentration gradient between extra- and intracellular concentrations of the nonmetabolized compound (metabolism-driven uptake). For measurement of facilitated diffusion kinetics, it is essential that the period during which the uptake is measured is short enough that little or no metabolism-driven uptake contributes to the measured uptake (or that first-order regression analysis is carried out to obtain initial uptake rates from nonlinear traces). To achieve initial uptake rates, incubation periods well below 1 min are generally required. Lactate uptake is fast in astrocytes, which express powerful, low-affinity MCTs, i.e., MCT1 and MCT4. Due to the low affinity of these transporters, they respond to increased lactate gradients with enhanced transporter activity. The predominant MCT in neurons is the high-affinity MCT2, which can only increase its activity to a limited extent in the face of an increased lactate gradient. This is reflected by a high-affinity lactate uptake, although most investigators also have demonstrated a component of lactate uptake with lower affinity. In both neurons and astrocytes, however, facilitated diffusion is fast enough that under most conditions lactate fluxes will be determined mainly by the rate of metabolism-driven uptake, and MCT-mediated transport only will be rate-limiting after establishment of large transmembrane gradients. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Mechanisms of cytoprotective effect of amino acids on local toxicity caused by sodium laurate, a drug absorption enhancer, in intestinal epithelium

Yoko Endo
Abstract Several amino acids, including L -glutamine (L -Gln), were found to protect the intestinal epithelial cells from the local toxicity caused by a drug absorption enhancer, sodium laurate (C12), in our previous study. To develop more efficient and safer formulations for enhancing drug absorption, the mechanisms of cytoprotection by amino acids were studied using rats and Caco-2 cells. Four amino acids, including L -Gln, could generally maintain the absorption-promoting action of C12, although taurine tended to attenuate it. Three amino acids, except for L -Gln, significantly suppressed the decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance caused by C12. Quercetin, an inhibitor for biosynthesis of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), masked only the protective effect of L -Gln in both rat large intestine and Caco-2 cells. Western blot analysis indicated clearly that HSP70 is induced extensively only by the addition of L -Gln in both rat large-intestinal cells and Caco-2 cells. C12 was found to increase the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) remarkably, and amino acids, especially L -arginine, L -methionine, and taurine, significantly attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by C12. Furthermore, although C12 stimulated the release of histamine, an inflammatory mediator, from rat large-intestinal tissue, amino acids were also found to suppress the release of histamine enhanced by C12. The results in the present study showed that an induction of HSP70, a decrease in [Ca2+]i elevated by C12, and a suppression of histamine release stimulated by C12 should be involved in the mechanisms behind the cytoprotective action of amino acids against the local toxicity caused by C12. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:730,743, 2002 [source]


Francesco Pomati
The metabolic effect of three different concentrations of lidocaine hydrochloride (0.01, 0.1, and 1 ,M) on growth and saxitoxin (STX) production of the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Wolosznska) T3 was analyzed. Lidocaine hydrochloride increased both the growth rate and the final growth yield in the toxic cyanobacterium, with a maximum of 25% and 18% for a 1-,M dose, respectively. Moreover, C. raciborskii T3 samples harvested at the end of the growth phase and analyzed for STX content by HPLC showed an increase in STX intracellular concentration of 14.3% and 49.3% after exposure to 0.01 and 0.1 ,M lidocaine hydrochloride, respectively, whereas 1 ,M lidocaine hydrochloride resulted in a 114% incremental change in STX content. The time course of the 1-,M lidocaine hydrochloride effect showed the highest rate of increase in mean STX intracellular concentration (298%) within the first 2 h after induction. The increase in STX content induced by lidocaine hydrochloride in C. raciborskii T3 was dependent on the concentration of Na+ ions in the culture medium and alkaline pH. The results suggest a possible action of lidocaine hydrochloride on membrane ion fluxes and the hypothesis of a potential linkage between cyanobacterial homeostasis and STX regulation. [source]

Activation of the small GTPase Rap2B in agonist-stimulated human platelets

F. Greco
Summary., The activation of the small GTPase Rap2B in resting and agonist-stimulated human platelets was investigated. Both thrombin, that stimulates heterotrimeric G-protein-coupled receptors, and the GPVI ligand convulxin, that activates a tyrosine-kinase based signaling pathway, were able to induced the rapid and sustained binding of GTP to Rap2B. Similarly, a number of other agonists tested, previously known to activate the highly related protein Rap1B, were also able to stimulate Rap2B. In contrast, platelet antagonists that increase the intracellular concentration of cAMP did not signal to Rap2B. Thrombin- and convulxin-induced activation of Rap2B was not dependent on thromboxane A2, did not require the interaction of the protein with the cytoskeleton, and was not regulated by integrin ,IIb,3 -dependent outside-in signaling. When secreted ADP was neutralized, activation of Rap2B induced by thrombin, but not by convulxin, was significantly reduced. ADP itself was found to induce the rapid and sustained binding of GTP to Rap2B, and this effect was predominantly mediated by stimulation of the Gi-coupled P2Y12 receptor. Activation of Rap2B promoted by both thrombin and convulxin was regulated by intracellular Ca2+, while protein kinase C was found to be involved in convulxin- but not in thrombin-induced activation of Rap2B. Moreover, Rap2B activation induced by thrombin, but not by convulxin, was totally dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. These results demonstrate that the small GTPase Rap2B is involved in platelet activation, and outline some important differences between the regulation of highly related GTPases Rap2B and Rap1B in human platelets. [source]

A combination of assays reveals biomass differences in biofilms formed by Escherichia coli mutants

P. Sule
Abstract Aims:, The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that can quantify the amount of biomass in biofilms formed by different isogenic mutants of an Escherichia coli K-12 strain. Methods and Results:, The reported assay, which is based on the BacTiter-GloÔ assay from Promega, uses bioluminescence to detect the intracellular concentration of ATP, which correlates with viable bacterial cell numbers. The quantitative data obtained with this ATP assay were compared to those obtained with the conventional crystal violet assay. As a qualitative control, scanning electron microscopy was performed. Conclusions:, The ATP assay, the crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy yielded similar results for six of the eight strains tested. For the remaining two strains, the images from the scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results from the ATP assay. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The ATP assay, in combination with other quantitative and qualitative assays, will allow us to perform genetic studies on the regulatory network that underlies the early steps in E. coli biofilm formation. [source]

Preservation of mouse liver tissue during cold storage in experimental solutions assessed by x-ray microanalysis

Inna Kozlova
The increasing use of organs for transplantation necessitates the development of optimal preservation techniques. The goal of this study was to investigate changes in elemental content in mouse liver cells during cold storage by x-ray microanalysis in parallel with morphologic studies. Tissue was stored at 4°C for 4 to 12 hours in normal Krebs-Ringer solution (high sodium/potassium ratio), modified Krebs-Ringer solution (low Na+/K+ ratio), Euro-Collins solution, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, or seven modified versions of the UW solution. Incubation of liver in normal Krebs-Ringer solution caused a significant increase in sodium and decrease in potassium concentrations in contrast to incubation in other solutions. The concentration of sodium, potassium, and chlorine in the cells closely followed the concentration in the storage solution, indicating that the intracellular concentration of these ions during storage is entirely dependent on diffusion processes. The calcium concentration was independent of the storage solution used. Studies by light and transmission electron microscopy showed good preservation of hepatocytes after storage for 8 and 12 hours in UW solution and its variants, modified Krebs-Ringer solution and Euro-Collins solution, but showed moderate damage to mitochondria and swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum in normal Krebs-Ringer solution. In addition, damage to the sinusoidal endothelial cells was observed after 4 hours in normal Krebs-Ringer solution and after 8 to 12 hours in the other solutions. In conclusion, the only factor determining the intracellular concentration of diffusible ions after cold tissue storage is the ionic composition of the extracellular medium. X-ray microanalysis provides an objective method for assessing whether the intracellular ionic composition of tissue is maintained during storage. [source]

Creating a mutant luciferase resistant to HPV chemical inhibition by random mutagenesis and colony-level screening

Eileen Kim-Choi
Abstract Firefly luciferase covers a wide range of applications. One common usage of the bioluminescence assay is the measurement of intracellular concentration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for cell viability. However, inhibition of the enzyme reaction by chemicals in the assay has so far limited the application of luciferase for high production volume (HPV) chemical testing. The objective of this research was to obtain a mutant luciferase with increased stability to inhibition by HPV chemicals, yet retaining specific activity comparable to, or better than, wild-type luciferase. The enzymatic properties of the wild-type luciferase were improved by random mutagenesis and colony-level screening. In this paper, the detailed process of creating mutant luciferases for testing the toxicity of HPV chemicals is described. As a result, two mutant luciferases were created, with different degrees of improved tolerance to inhibition by chloroform and other HPV chemicals. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Peripheral blood lymphocytes P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gp-170) expression in allogeneic kidney transplant patients

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2006
SUMMARY: Aim and Methods: P-glycoprotein (gp-170, P-gp) is a transmembrane transporter involved in drug, for example cyclosporine A, efflux from the cells thus limiting their intracellular concentration. Expression of the transporter on the surface of immune competent cells may be associated with poor prognosis in kidney transplant patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate P-gp expression on the surface of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD56+ cells in kidney transplant patients treated with cyclosporine A as a main immunosuppressant, using flow cytometry. Results: It was found that P-gp expression in kidney transplant patients with acute rejection did not differ significantly from transplanted patients without rejection studied in the same period after transplantation, as well as from the healthy controls. Administration of 3-day course of 1000 mg/24 h methylprednisolone did not affect the expression of P-gp in the studied cells, except for significant elevation in CD56+ cells, which disappeared at 2 weeks after cessation of steroid administration. Conclusion: Based on the results from the present study it can be concluded that P-gp expression is not a prognostic factor of acute kidney graft rejection. [source]

From congenital hyperinsulinism to diabetes mellitus: the role of pancreatic ,-cell KATP channels

Khalid Hussain
Abstract:, Pancreatic ,-cell adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play a pivotal role in linking glucose metabolism to regulated insulin secretion. KATP channels are hetero- octameric complexes comprising two subunits Kir6.2 and sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1). Changes in the intracellular concentration of nucleotides (ATP) cause alterations in the resting and opening state of the KATP channels. Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the two subunits of KATP channels lead to the most common form of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). This causes persistent and severe hypoglycemia in the neonatal and infancy period. CHI can cause mental retardation and epilepsy if not treated properly. On the other hand, now there is evidence of an association between polymorphisms in the Kir6.2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus, mutations in the Kir6.2 gene and neonatal diabetes mellitus, and mutations in the SUR1 gene and diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, for reasons that are unclear at present, mice knockout models of KATP channels are different from the human phenotype of CHI. This article is a review focusing on how abnormalities in the pancreatic ,-cell KATP channels can lead to severe hypoglycemia on the one hand and diabetes mellitus on the other. [source]

Photodynamic Action of Benzo[a]pyrene in K562 Cells

Daza De Moraes Vaz Batista Filgueira
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, being considered the most phototoxic element among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). In presence of oxygen, PAHs can act as a photosensitizer by means of promoting photo-oxidation of biological molecules (photodynamic action, PDA). Thus, the present study analyzed the photodynamic action of BaP under UVA irradiation (BaP + UVA) and its oxidative effects on K562 cells. The evaluation of BaP kinetics showed that the highest intracellular concentration occurred after 18 h of incubation. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage (breaks and DNA,protein cross-link [DNAPC]) were assessed after exposure to BaP, UVA and BaP plus UVA irradiation (BaP + UVA). Cell viability was decreased just after exposure to BaP + UVA. Lipid peroxidation and DNA breaks increased after BaP + UVA exposure, while the DNAPC increased after BaP, UVA and BaP + UVA exposure, suggesting that BaP + UVA effects were a consequence of both type II (producing mainly singlet oxygen) and type I (producing others ROS) mechanisms of PDA. [source]

High salt-treatment-induced Na+ extrusion and low salt-treatment-induced Na+ accumulation in suspension-cultured cells of the mangrove plant, Bruguiera sexangula

M. Kura-Hotta
Abstract A suspension-cultured cell strain of the mangrove plant (Bruguiera sexangula) was established from a callus culture and maintained in an amino acid medium in the absence of NaCl. NaCl non-adapted cells were transferred to media containing 0,200 mm NaCl. The initial growth rate decreased gradually with increasing salt concentrations. However, at up to 150 mm NaCl, cell number growth at the highest point was almost the same as that at lower salt concentrations. Cells even continued to grow in the presence of 200 mm NaCl. Cells incubated in a medium containing 50 mm NaCl for 3 weeks accumulated Na+, while those incubated in 150 mm NaCl for 2 d showed only a transient increase in Na+ and Cl, concentrations. In the latter treatment, the intracellular concentration of Na+ returned to the original low level within 2 weeks. It took a longer time for Cl, to return to its original level. As a result, the Na+ and Cl, concentrations in cells cultured with 50 mm NaCl were much larger than those in cells cultured with 150 mm NaCl. The intracellular distribution of ions after transfer to the medium containing 150 mm NaCl was analysed by isolating the vacuoles. Treatment with amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na+/H+ antiporter, suppressed the recovery of Na+ to the original level in the cells. Treatment with 150 mm NaCl for 3 d stimulated the activities of both the vanadate-dependent H+ -ATPase and the Na+/H+ antiporter in the plasma membrane fraction. [source]

Staphylococcus aureus ClpC ATPase is a late growth phase effector of metabolism and persistence

Indranil Chatterjee Dr.
Abstract Staphylococcus aureus Clp ATPases (molecular chaperones) alter normal physiological functions including an aconitase-mediated effect on post-stationary growth, acetate catabolism, and entry into death phase (Chatterjee et al., J. Bacteriol. 2005, 187, 4488,4496). In the present study, the global function of ClpC in physiology, metabolism, and late-stationary phase survival was examined using DNA microarrays and 2-D PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF MS. The results suggest that ClpC is involved in regulating the expression of genes and/or proteins of gluconeogenesis, the pentose-phosphate pathway, pyruvate metabolism, the electron transport chain, nucleotide metabolism, oxidative stress, metal ion homeostasis, stringent response, and programmed cell death. Thus, one major function of ClpC is balancing late growth phase carbon metabolism. Furthermore, these changes in carbon metabolism result in alterations of the intracellular concentration of free NADH, the amount of cell-associated iron, and fatty acid metabolism. This study provides strong evidence for ClpC as a critical factor in staphylococcal energy metabolism, stress regulation, and late-stationary phase survival; therefore, these data provide important insight into the adaptation of S. aureus toward a persister state in chronic infections. [source]

Action Mechanisms of the Secondary Metabolite Euplotin C: Signaling and Functional Role in Euplotes

ABSTRACT. Among secondary metabolites, the acetylated hemiacetal sesquiterpene euplotin C has been isolated from the marine, ciliated protist Euplotes crassus, and provides an effective mechanism for reducing populations of potential competitors through its cytotoxic properties. However, intracellular signaling mechanisms and their functional correlates mediating the ecological role of euplotin C are largely unknown. We report here that, in E. vannus (an Euplotes morphospecies that does not produce euplotin C and shares with E. crasssus the same interstitial habitat), euplotin C rapidly increases the intracellular concentration of both Ca2+ and Na+, suggesting a generalized effect of this metabolite on cation transport systems. In addition, euplotin C does not induce oxidative stress, but modulates the electrical properties of E. vannus through an increase of the amplitude of graded action potentials. These events parallel the disassembling of the ciliary structures, the inhibition of cell motility, the occurrence of aberrant cytoplasmic vacuoles, and the rapid inhibition of phagocytic activity. Euplotin C also increases lysosomal pH and decreases lysosomal membrane stability of E. vannus. These results suggest that euplotin C exerts a marked disruption of those homeostatic mechanisms whose efficiency represents the essential prerequisite to face the challenges of the interstitial environment. [source]

Expression of Arabidopsis SR-like splicing proteins confers salt tolerance to yeast and transgenic plants

Javier Forment
Summary Searching for novel targets of salt toxicity in eukaryotic cells, we have screened an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library to isolate genes conferring increased tolerance to salt stress when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we show that expression of the ,alternating arginine-rich' (or RS) domains of two different SR-like, putative splicing proteins from Arabidopsis allows yeast cells to tolerate higher lithium and sodium concentrations. Protection against salt stress appears to require the in vivo phosphorylation of these plant polypeptides, since the yeast SR protein kinase Sky1p, which was able to phosphorylate in vitro at least one of them, also proved to be essential for the observed salt tolerance phenotype. In addition, a clone encoding the U1A protein, a previously characterised Arabidopsis splicing factor, was also isolated in the screening. No significant decrease in the intracellular concentration of lithium was observed in yeast cells incubated in the presence of LiCl upon expression of any of the Arabidopsis proteins, suggesting that their effects are not mediated by the stimulation of ion transport. In support of the general significance of these data, we also show that the expression of the RS domain of one of the SR-like proteins in transgenic Arabidopsis plants increases their tolerance to LiCl and NaCl. These results point to an important role of pre-mRNA splicing and SR-like proteins in the salt tolerance of eukaryotic cells, offering a novel route to improve this important trait in crop plants. [source]

Novel types of boronated chlorin e6 conjugates via ,click chemistry'

Vladimir I. Bregadze
Abstract Conjugates of chlorin e6 with closo -dodecaborate and cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions were synthesized for the first time in high yields using the advanced ,click' methodology. In vitro study on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells revealed that the synthesized boronated conjugates are able to penetrate and accumulate in cancer cells, but their intracellular concentration is not sufficient for effective photodynamic and boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An improved high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of methotrexate polyglutamates in red blood cells of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Abstract Methotrexate is used widely in the pharmacotherapy of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Polyglutamates of methotrexate are active metabolites which accumulate in cells including erythrocytes. Their intracellular concentration may reflect methotrexate bioavailability and, at the same time, may serve as a bioindicator for optimization of methotrexate therapy and drug monitoring. Therefore, a simple and selective isocratic reversed phase chromatographic method with fluorescence detection (excitation/emission wavelengths of 370/463,nm) was developed which quantifies the sum of all methotrexate polyglutamates in erythrocytes as methotrexate after their enzymatic conversion with ,-glutamylhydrolase. Separation was carried out on a Phenomenex GEMINI C18 column using a mobile phase flowing at a rate of 0.6,ml/min and consisting of a mixture (110:890:0.25 v/v) of acetonitrile, ammonium acetate buffer (0.05,m, pH=5.5) and hydrogen peroxide 30% (w/w). The method was found linear over the concentration range of 25,400,nmol/l. Its intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were characterized by coefficients of variation and relative errors less than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification achieved 10.9 and 32.9,nmol/l, respectively. The method was proved suitable for monitoring the concentration of methotrexate polyglutamates in erythrocytes of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A model predicting delivery of saquinavir in nanoparticles to human monocyte/macrophage (Mo/Mac) cells

D. Ece Gamsiz
Abstract Modeling the influence of a technology such as nanoparticle systems on drug delivery is beneficial in rational formulation design. While there are many studies showing drug delivery enhancement by nanoparticles, the literature provides little guidance regarding when nanoparticles are useful for delivery of a given drug. A model was developed predicting intracellular drug concentration in cultured cells dosed with nanoparticles. The model considered drug release from nanoparticles as well as drug and nanoparticle uptake by the cells as the key system processes. Mathematical expressions for these key processes were determined using experiments in which each process occurred in isolation. In these experiments, intracellular delivery of saquinavir, a low solubility drug dosed as a formulation of poly(ethylene oxide)-modified poly(epsilon- caprolactone) (PEO,PCL) nanoparticles, was studied in THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage (Mo/Mac) cells. The model accurately predicted the enhancement in intracellular concentration when drug was administered in nanoparticles compared to aqueous solution. This simple model highlights the importance of relative kinetics of nanoparticle uptake and drug release in determining overall enhancement of intracellular drug concentration when dosing with nanoparticles. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Uptake of LipiodolÔ,cytotoxic conjugates by hepatoblastoma cells

E. Towu
Background: Improvements in the management of children with hepatoblastoma have followed advances made in cytotoxic agents and treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of LipiodolÔ, an iodinated poppy-seed oil, on the uptake of anthracyclic cytotoxic conjugates by hepatoblastoma cells in culture. Methods: Monolayer cultures of (1) a hepatoblastoma cell line generated from freshly explanted tumour tissue, (2) an immortal hepatoblastoma cell line (C3a) and (3) a human hepatocyte cell line were exposed to doxorubicin 10 µg/ml with or without 2 per cent LipiodolÔ for 1,72 h. The fluorescence intensity in the treated cells, which correlates with intracellular doxorubicin concentration, was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cytotoxicity was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and electron microscopy. Results: Doxorubicin accumulated in the nucleus and cytoplasm of all the cell lines. With LipiodolÔ, the mean fluorescence intensity of intracellular doxorubicin was increased for up to 48 h in both hepatoblastoma lines, but not in the hepatocyte cell line. LipiodolÔ increased the uptake and intracellular concentration of doxorubicin in the hepatoblastoma cells in culture. LipiodolÔ also enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin on the cultured hepatoblastoma cells. Conclusion: LipiodolÔ significantly enhanced the uptake of doxorubicin by hepatoblastoma cells in culture. LipiodolÔ,doxorubicin targeted treatment of hepatoblastoma may improve the intracellular uptake and hence cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo, enabling a reduction in the total dose administered and side-effects. © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]

Effects of dietary fatty acids on insulin sensitivity and secretion

Melania Manco
Globalization and global market have contributed to increased consumption of high-fat, energy-dense diets, particularly rich in saturated fatty acids( SFAs). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) regulate fuel partitioning within the cells by inducing their own oxidation through the reduction of lipogenic gene expression and the enhancement of the expression of those genes controlling lipid oxidation and thermogenesis. Moreover, PUFAs prevent insulin resistance by increasing membrane fluidity and GLUT4 transport. In contrast, SFAs are stored in non-adipocyte cells as triglycerides (TG) leading to cellular damage as a sequence of their lipotoxicity. Triglyceride accumulation in skeletal muscle cells (IMTG) derives from increased FA uptake coupled with deficient FA oxidation. High levels of circulating FAs enhance the expression of FA translocase the FA transport proteins within the myocites. The biochemical mechanisms responsible for lower fatty acid oxidation involve reduced carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity, as a likely consequence of increased intracellular concentrations of malonyl-CoA; reduced glycogen synthase activity; and impairment of insulin signalling and glucose transport. The depletion of IMTG depots is strictly associated with an improvement of insulin sensitivity, via a reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) mRNA expression and an increased GLUT4 expression and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. In pancreatic islets, TG accumulation causes impairment of insulin secretion. In rat models, ,-cell dysfunction is related to increased triacylglycerol content in islets, increased production of nitric oxide, ceramide synthesis and ,-cell apoptosis. The decreased insulin gene promoter activity and binding of the pancreas-duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1) transcription factor to the insulin gene seem to mediate TG effect in islets. In humans, acute and prolonged effects of FAs on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion have been widely investigated as well as the effect of high-fat diets on insulin sensitivity and secretion and on the development of type 2 diabetes. [source]

Phenotypical variation in a toxic strain of the phytoplankter, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (nostocales, cyanophyceae) during batch culture

Peter R. Hawkins
Abstract A nonaxenic strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Woloszynska (AWT 205) was grown in batch culture, with and without nitrate as the primary N source. Rapid log-phase growth with nitrate was 1.0 doubling/day versus 0.3 doubling/day without nitrate. Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) production was measured by HPLC. The rate of intracellular CYN production matched cell division rate for both the diazotrophies at cell densities less than 107 cell/ml. At cell density >107 cell/ml, additional resource limitation in batch culture slowed log-phase growth to 0.04 division/day and cell division and CYN production decoupled. Intracellular CYN concentration increased at a rate of 0.08 doubling/day, twice the cell division rate. Extracellular CYN as a proportion of the total CYN increased from 20% during the rapid growth phase, to 50% during the slow growth phase. The total CYN yield from cultures grown out to stationary phase (55 days) exceeded 2 mg CYN/l. C. raciborskii cells in log-phase growth, exposed to 1 ppm copper (as copper sulphate), lysed within 24 hours. After copper treatment, all CYN was in the filterable fraction. These findings imply that in naturally occurring blooms of C. raciborskii, the movement of intracellular CYN into solution will be the greatest during stationary phase, when intracellular concentrations are highest and cell lysis is more frequent. The application of algicides that promote cell lysis will exacerbate this effect. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Environ Toxicol 16: 460,467, 2001 [source]

Azidothymidine causes functional and structural destruction of mitochondria, glutathione deficiency and HIV-1 promoter sensitization

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 11 2002
Tokio Yamaguchi
Mitochondrial functional and structural impairment and generation of oxidative stress have been implicated in aging, various diseases and chemotherapies. This study analyzed azidothymidine (AZT)-caused failures in mitochondrial functions, in redox regulation and activation of the HIV-1 gene expression. We monitored intracellular concentrations of ATP and glutathione (GSH) as the indicators of energy production and redox conditions, respectively, during the time-course experiments with U937 and MOLT4 human lymphoid cells in the presence of AZT (0.05 mg·mL,1) or H2O2 (0.01 mm) for 15,25 days. Mitochondrial DNA integrity and NF-,B-driven HIV-1 promoter activity were also assessed. ATP concentration began to decrease within several days after exposure to AZT or H2O2, and the decrease continued to reach 30,40% of the normal level. However, decline of GSH was detectable after a retention period for at least 5,6 days, and progressed likewise. PCR analyses found that mitochondrial DNA destruction occurred when the ATP and GSH depletion had progressed, detecting a difference in the deletion pattern between AZT and H2O2 -treated cells. The GSH decrease coincided with HIV-1 promoter sensitization detected by enhanced DNA binding ability of NF-,B and induction of the gene expression upon H2O2 -rechallenge. Our results suggest that, in the process of AIDS myopathy development, AZT or oxidative agents directly impair the energy-producing system of mitochondria, causing dysfunction of cellular redox control, which eventually leads to loss of the mitochondrial DNA integrity. The mechanism of cellular redox condition-mediated NF-,B activation is discussed. [source]

Effects of a hexokinase II deletion on the dynamics of glycolysis in continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Jasper A. Diderich
Abstract In glucose-limited aerobic chemostat cultures of a wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a derived hxk2 null strain, metabolic fluxes were identical. However, the concentrations of intracellular metabolites, especially fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and hexose-phosphorylating activities differed. Interestingly, the hxk2 null strain showed a higher maximal growth rate and higher Crabtree threshold dilution rate, revealing a higher oxidative capacity for this strain. After a pulse of glucose, aerobic glucose-limited cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae displayed an overshoot in the intracellular concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate before a new steady state was established, in contrast to the hxk2 null strain which reached a new steady state without overshoot of these metabolites. At low dilution rates the overshoot of intracellular metabolites in the wild-type strain coincided with the immediate production of ethanol after the glucose pulse. In contrast, in the hxk2 null strain the production of ethanol started gradually. However, in spite of the initial differences in ethanol production and dynamic behaviour of the intracellular metabolites, the steady-state fluxes after transition from glucose limitation to glucose excess were not significantly different in the wild-type strain and the hxk2 null strain at any dilution rate. [source]

Methotrexate induced differentiation in colon cancer cells is primarily due to purine deprivation

R. Singh
Abstract The folate antagonist methotrexate (MTX) inhibits synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF), pyrimidines and purines, and induces differentiation in several cell types. At 1 µM, MTX reduced proliferation and induced differentiation in HT29 colon cancer cells; the latter effect was augmented (P,<,0.001) by thymidine (100 µM) but was reversed (P,<,0.001) by the purines, hypoxanthine (Hx; 100 µM) and adenosine (100 µM). In contrast 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU), a specific thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor, had no effect on differentiation, suggesting that MTX-induced differentiation is not due to a reduction in thymidine but to the inhibition of purine biosynthesis. Inhibition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) by RpcAMP (25 µM) further enhanced (P,<,0.001) MTX induced differentiation, whereas the cAMP activator forskolin (10 µM) reversed (P,<,0.001) MTX induced differentiation. These observations implicate a central role of adenosine and cAMP in MTX induced differentiation. By combining Western blot analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)and HPLC analyses we also reveal both the expression and activity of key enzymes (i.e. methionine synthase (MS), s-adenosylhomocysteinase, cystathionine ,-synthase and ornithine decarboxylase) regulating methyl cycle, transsulfuration and polyamine pathways in HT29 colon cancer cells. At 1 µM, MTX induced differentiation was associated with a marked reduction in the intracellular concentrations of adenosine and, consequently, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine, polyamines and glutathione (GSH). Importantly, the marked reduction in methionine that accompanied MS inhibition following MTX treatment was non-limiting with respect to SAM synthesis. Collectively, these findings indicate that the effects of MTX on cellular differentiation and single carbon metabolism are primarily due to the intracellular depletion of purines. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]